Professor Francesca Cordeiro


Personal Profile

Name: Francesca Cordeiro Email:
Title: Professor Tel: 020 7608 6938
Department: Inst Ophthalmology - Visual Neuroscience Fax:
Position: Professor of Retinal Neurodegeneration and Glaucoma Studies Address: Institute of Ophthalmology, UCL, 11-43 Bath Street, London, EC1V 9EL
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Neuroscience Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

The aims of my groups work are to: To provide innovative imaging tools (such as DARC) for the early diagnosis and identification of blinding conditions such as: Glaucoma Diabetic eye disease Retinal detachment and Macular degeneration To offer meaningful endpoints and investigate novel therapeutic approaches in neuroprotection and sight-saving strategies in the eye To promote the eye as a window for the rest of the brain with particular reference to Alzheimers disease These are to be achieved using novel non-invasive techniques to assess structural and functional changes in different models of disease and their treatment, with a view to offering quick and effective translation to the clinical arena, enabled through my post as an Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist. DARC offers the opportunity to image changes occurring in retinal nerve cells apoptosing over hours, days and months, will potentially provide a powerful new clinical tool with which to diagnose and identify patients with early glaucoma before they lose vision, and opens the door to directly observing effects of therapeutic strategies in glaucoma using meaningful endpoints that are based on the direct assessment of RGC death. It may also serve as a surrogate biomarker of outcome in glaucoma clinical studies, dramatically reducing the duration of such trials that currently rely on the use of visual field status as a key endpoint. Nerve cell loss is implicated in chronic and devastating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease. There is increasing evidence that similar mechanisms in the eye and the brain cause the development of this nerve cell loss. This suggests that the processes of cell death occurring in the eye may be an indicator of, or window on, cell death occurring in other parts of the brain. We have already shown that it is possible to assess therapeutic and sight-saving strategies using our methods and this has great implications in the testing and validation of neuroprotective regimens in all aspects of neurodegeneration including Alzheimers Disease. We have also recently begun investigating the importance of retinal neurodegeneration in diabetic retinopathy. Current thinking suggests that an early event in retinopathy that precedes ischaemia and neovascularisation is nerve cell loss. Retinal neuronal apoptosis may therefore be an valuable screening and diagnostic marker. We shortly commence a proof-of-principle clinical trial not only in glaucoma patients. Our final aim is to establish an apoptotic index of cell degeneration with which individuals can be diagnosed and also monitored to assess treatment response or progression rates. This may help negate or avoid visual loss ever occurring in the first place, as the use of DARC in these patients will be as a screening investigation to help identify patients with early disease.

Research Activities

Glaucoma & Retinal Neurodegeneration research

Neurotransmitters in Sensory systems

Synaptic mechanisms in vision and the integration of top down mechanisms into early visual processing

The Cell Biology of Eye Disease

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Zhaoping Li; Prof Clare Futter; Dr Brian King; Prof Tom Salt; Dr Tim Levine; Prof Adam Sillito; Dr Beau Lotto; Prof Stephen Moss; Prof Steven Dakin

External Collaborators



    • Normando EM, Dehabadi MH, Guo L, Turner LA, Pollorsi G, Cordeiro MF (2015). Real-time imaging of retinal cell apoptosis by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.. Methods Mol Biol, 1254, 227 - 237. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-2152-2_17


    • Guo L, Davis B, Nizari S, Normando EM, Shi H, Galvao J, Turner L, Shi J, Clements M, Parrinello S, Cordeiro MF (2014). Direct optic nerve sheath (DONS) application of Schwann cells prolongs retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo.. Cell Death Dis, 5, e1460 - . doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.399
    • Galvao J, Davis B, Tilley M, Normando E, Duchen MR, Cordeiro MF (2014). Unexpected low-dose toxicity of the universal solvent DMSO.. FASEB J, 28(3), 1317 - 1330. doi:10.1096/fj.13-235440
    • Davis BM, Normando EM, Guo L, Turner LA, Nizari S, O'Shea P, Moss SE, Somavarapu S, Cordeiro MF (2014). Topical delivery of Avastin to the posterior segment of the eye in vivo using annexin A5-associated liposomes.. Small, 10(8), 1575 - 1584. doi:10.1002/smll.201303433
    • Liu M, Guo L, Salt TE, Cordeiro MF (2014). Dendritic changes in rat visual pathway associated with experimental ocular hypertension.. Curr Eye Res, 39(9), 953 - 963. doi:10.3109/02713683.2014.884594
    • Georgiou AL, Guo L, Francesca Cordeiro M, Salt TE (2014). Electroretinogram and visual-evoked potential assessment of retinal and central visual function in a rat ocular hypertension model of glaucoma.. Curr Eye Res, 39(5), 472 - 486. doi:10.3109/02713683.2013.848902
    • Bizrah M, Dakin SC, Guo L, Rahman F, Parnell M, Normando E, Nizari S, Davis B, Younis A, Cordeiro MF (2014). A semi-automated technique for labeling and counting of apoptosing retinal cells.. BMC Bioinformatics, 15, 169 - . doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-169
    • Dehabadi MH, Davis BM, Wong TK, Cordeiro MF (2014). Retinal manifestations of Alzheimer's disease.. Neurodegener Dis Manag, 4(3), 241 - 252. doi:10.2217/nmt.14.19
    • Salt TE, Nizari S, Cordeiro MF, Russ H, Danysz W (2014). Effect of the Aβ aggregation modulator MRZ-99030 on retinal damage in an animal model of glaucoma.. Neurotox Res, 26(4), 440 - 446. doi:10.1007/s12640-014-9488-6


    • Normando EM, Turner LA, Cordeiro MF (2013). The potential of annexin-labelling for the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma.. Cell Tissue Res, 353(2), 279 - 285. doi:10.1007/s00441-013-1554-5
    • Kersey T, Clement CI, Bloom P, Cordeiro MF (2013). New trends in glaucoma risk, diagnosis & management.. Indian J Med Res, 137(4), 659 - 668.
    • Galvao J, Davis BM, Cordeiro MF (2013). In vivo imaging of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis.. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 13(1), 123 - 127. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2012.08.007
    • Clement CI, Kampougeris G, Ahmed F, Cordeiro MF, Bloom PA (2013). Combining phacoemulsification with endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation to manage cataract and glaucoma. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPHTHALMOLOGY, 41(6), 546 - 551. doi:10.1111/ceo.12051


    • Cordeiro MF, Moss SE, fitzke FW (2012). FLUORESCENT MARKER FOR CELL DEATH IN THE EYE.
    • Parnell M, Guo L, Abdi M, Cordeiro MF (2012). Ocular manifestations of Alzheimer's disease in animal models.. Int J Alzheimers Dis, 2012, 786494 - . doi:10.1155/2012/786494
    • Georgiou AL, Guo L, Cordeiro MF, Salt TE (2012). Changes in the modulation of retinocollicular transmission through group III mGluRs long after an increase in intraocular pressure in a rat model of glaucoma.. Vis Neurosci, 29(4-5), 237 - 246. doi:10.1017/S0952523812000193


    • Coxon KM, Duggan J, Cordeiro MF, Moss SE (2011). Purification of annexin V and its use in the detection of apoptotic cells.. Methods Mol Biol, 731, 293 - 308. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-080-5_24
    • Cordeiro MF, Migdal C, Bloom P, Fitzke FW, Moss SE (2011). Imaging apoptosis in the eye. EYE, 25(5), 545 - 553. doi:10.1038/eye.2011.64
    • Cordeiro MF, Levin LA (2011). Clinical evidence for neuroprotection in glaucoma.. Am J Ophthalmol, 152(5), 715 - 716. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2011.06.015
    • Liu M, Duggan J, Salt TE, Cordeiro MF (2011). Dendritic changes in visual pathways in glaucoma and other neurodegenerative conditions.. Exp Eye Res, 92(4), 244 - 250. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2011.01.014
    • Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Lara D, Nizari S, Normando EM, Guo L, Wegener AR, Tufail A, Fitzke FW, Holz FG, Cordeiro MF (2011). Localisation and significance of in vivo near-infrared autofluorescent signal in retinal imaging.. Br J Ophthalmol, 95(8), 1134 - 1139. doi:10.1136/bjo.2010.189498


    • Cordeiro MF, Guo L, Coxon KM, Duggan J, Nizari S, Normando EM, Sensi SL, Sillito AM, Fitzke FW, Salt TE, Moss SE (2010). Imaging multiple phases of neurodegeneration: a novel approach to assessing cell death in vivo. CELL DEATH DIS, 1, - . doi:10.1038/cddis.2009.3
    • Georgiou AL, Guo L, Cordeiro MF, Salt TE (2010). Changes in NMDA receptor contribution to synaptic transmission in the brain in a rat model of glaucoma.. Neurobiol Dis, 39(3), 344 - 351. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2010.04.019
    • Guo L, Duggan J, Cordeiro MF (2010). Alzheimer's disease and retinal neurodegeneration.. Curr Alzheimer Res, 7(1), 3 - 14.
    • Guo L, Normando EM, Nizari S, Lara D, Cordeiro MF (2010). Tracking longitudinal retinal changes in experimental ocular hypertension using the cSLO and spectral domain-OCT.. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 51(12), 6504 - 6513. doi:10.1167/iovs.10-5551
    • Baltmr A, Duggan J, Nizari S, Salt TE, Cordeiro MF (2010). Neuroprotection in glaucoma - Is there a future role?. Exp Eye Res, 91(5), 554 - 566. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2010.08.009


    • Guo L, Duggan J, Cordeiro MF (2009). Alzheimer's Disease and Retinal Neurodegeneration.. Curr Alzheimer Res, , - .
    • Cordeiro MF, Nickells R, Drexler W, Borrás T, Ritch R (2009). High-resolution ocular imaging: combining advanced optics and microtechnology.. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging, 40(5), 480 - 488. doi:10.3928/15428877-20090901-07
    • Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Guo L, Cheung W, Moss SE, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2009). [In vivo imaging of retinal cell apoptosis following acute light exposure.]. Ophthalmologe, , - .
    • Normando EM, Coxon KM, Guo L, Cordeiro MF (2009). Focus on: Amyloid beta. Exp.Eye Res., , - .


    • Cheung W, Guo L, Cordeiro MF (2008). Neuroprotection in glaucoma: drug-based approaches.. Optometry and Vision Science, 85(6), 406 - 416.
    • Cordeiro MF, Migdal C, Maass A, Guo L (2008). TGF-ß-related antifibrotic strategies. In (Ed.), Cancer Drug Discovery and Development (pp. 663 - 675). : Humana Press.
    • Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Guo L, Maass A, Cheung W, Vugler A, Moss SE, Munro PM, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2008). Real-time in vivo imaging of retinal cell apoptosis after laser exposure.. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(6), 2773 - 2280.
    • Salt TE, Guo L, Georgiou AL, Cordeiro MF (2008). Imaging retinal apoptosis in degenerative disease and its treatment: Involvement of mGlu receptors.
    • Guo L, Cordeiro MF (2008). Assessment of neuroprotection in the retina with DARC. Prog.Brain Res., 173, 437 - 450.


    • Cordeiro MF (2007). DARC: a new method for detecting progressive neuronal death. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6702881
    • Cordeiro MF, Erskine L (2007). Back to basics - ephrins, axonal guidance, neuroprotection and glaucoma. BRIT J OPHTHALMOL, 91(9), 1106 - 1106. doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.116368
    • Cordeiro MFK-L, M (2007). Optical Coherence Tomography in anterior segment imaging.. Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 85, 427 - 430.
    • Cordeiro MFE, L (2007). Back to basics: Ephrins and glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 91, 1106 - 1106.
    • Guo L, Salt TE, Luong V, Wood N, Cheung W, Maass A, Ferrari G, Russo-Marie F, Sillito AM, Cheetham ME, Moss SE, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro M (2007). Targeting amyloid-β in glaucoma treatment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(33), 13444 - 13449. doi:10.1073/pnas.0703707104
    • Maass A, Leithner PLV, Luong V, Guo L, Salt TE, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2007). Assessment of Rat and Mouse RGC Apoptosis Imaging in Vivo with Different Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes. , 32, 851 - 861.


    • Salt TE, Cordeiro MF (2006). Sir, Glutamate excitotoxicity in glaucoma: throwing the baby out with the bathwater?. EYE, 20(6), 730 - 731. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6701976
    • Salt TE, Cordeiro MF (2006). Glutamate excitotoxicity in glaucoma: throwing the baby out with the bathwater?. Eye, 20(6), 730 - 731.
    • Cordeiro MFS, D (2006). Modulation of wound healing. In (Ed.), Atlas of Glaucoma Surgery (pp. 178 - 186). : Anshan.
    • Guo L, Salt TE, Maass A, Luong V, Moss SE, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2006). Assessment of neuroprotective effects of glutamate modulation on glaucoma-related retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in vivo. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 47(2), 626 - 633.


    • Guo L, Moss SE, Alexander RA, Ali R, Fitzke F, Cordeiro MF (2005). Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is related to intraocular pressure and IOP-induced effects on extracellular matrix. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 46(1), 175 - 182. doi:10.1167/iovs.04-0832
    • Lim KS, Wickremasinghe SS, Cordeiro MF, Bunce C, Khaw PT (2005). Accuracy of intraocular pressure measurements in new zealand white rabbits. INVEST OPHTHALMOL VIS SCI, 46(7), 2419 - 2423.
    • Guo L, Salt TE, Maass A, Luong V, Moss SE, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2005). Activation of group II mGlu receptors is neuroprotective in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in in vivo models of glaucoma.
    • Guo L, Tsatourian V, Luong V, Podoleanu AG, Jackson DA, Fitzke FW, Cordeiro MF (2005). En face optical coherence tomography: a new method to analyse structural changes of the optic nerve head in rat glaucoma. BR J OPHTHALMOL, 89(9), 1210 - 1216.


    • Cordeiro MF, Guo L, Luong V, Harding G, Wang W, Jones HE, Moss SE, Sillito AM, Fitzke FW (2004). Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration. P NATL ACAD SCI USA, 101(36), 13352 - 13356. doi:10.1079/pnas.0405479101
    • Cordeiro MF, Guo L, Luong V, Harding G, Wang W, Jones HE, Moss SE, Sillito AM, Fitzke FW (2004). Real-time imaging of single nerve cell apoptosis in retinal neurodegeneration.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(36), 13352 - 13356. doi:10.1073/pnas.0405479101


    • Mead AL, Wong TT, Cordeiro MF, Anderson IK, Khaw PT (2003). Evaluation of anti-TGF-beta2 antibody as a new postoperative anti-scarring agent in glaucoma surgery. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 44(8), 3394 - 3401. doi:10.1167/iovs.02-0978
    • Cordeiro MF (2003). Transforming growth factor-beta function blocking already effective as therapeutic strategy. Circulation, 107(5), E37 - E37.
    • Cordeiro MF, Mead A, Ali RR, Alexander RA, Murray S, Chen C, York-Defalco C, Dean NM, Schultz GS, Khaw PT (2003). Novel antisense oligonucleotides targeting TGF-beta inhibit in vivo scarring and improve surgical outcome. Gene Therapy, 10(1), 59 - 71. doi:10.1038/
    • Wells AP, Cordeiro MF, Bunce C, Khaw PT (2003). Cystic bleb formation and related complications in limbus- versus fornix-based conjunctival flaps in pediatric and young adult trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Ophthalmology, 110(11), 2192 - 2197.
    • Cordeiro MF, Alexander RA, Reichel MB, Gay JA, Khaw PT (2003). Role of transforming growth factor beta in conjunctival scarring. Clinical Science, 104(2), 181 - 187.
    • Cordeiro MF (2003). Technology evaluation: lerdelimumab, Cambridge Antibody Technology. Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics, 5(2), 199 - 203.


    • Cordeiro MF (2002). Beyond Mitomycin: TGF-beta and wound healing. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 21(1), 75 - 89. doi:10.1016/S1350-9462(01)00021-0
    • Siriwardena D, Khaw PT, King AJ, Donaldson ML, Overton BM, Migdal C, Cordeiro MF (2002). Human antitransforming growth factor beta(2) monoclonal antibody--a new modulator of wound healing in trabeculectomy: a randomized placebo controlled clinical study. Ophthalmology, 109(3), 427 - 431.


    • Khaw PT, Chang L, Wong TT, Mead A, Daniels JT, Cordeiro MF (2001). Modulation of wound healing after glaucoma surgery. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 12(2), 143 - 148.


    • Chang L, Crowston JG, Cordeiro MF, Akbar AN, Khaw PT (2000). The role of the immune system in conjunctival wound healing after glaucoma surgery. Survey of Ophthalmology, 45(1), 49 - 68.
    • Cordeiro MFC, L Khaw PT (2000). The healing of ocular tissues: the basis of successful treatment of ocular disease.. In (Ed.), Ophthalmology Clinics of North America (pp. 101 - 110). : W.B. Saunders.
    • Cordeiro MF, Bhattacharya SS, Schultz GS, Khaw PT (2000). TGF-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3 in vitro: biphasic effects on Tenon's fibroblast contraction, proliferation, and migration.. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 41(3), 756 - 763.
    • (2000). Wound healing modulation after glaucoma surgery. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 11(2), 121 - 126.
    • Cordeiro MF, Chang L, Lim KS, Daniels JT, Pleass RD, Sirawardena D, Khaw PT (2000). Modulating conjunctival wound healing.. Eye, 14(3), 536 - 547.
    • Khaw PT, Cordeiro MF (2000). Towards better treatment of glaucoma. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 320(7250), 1619 - 1620. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7250.1619


    • Cordeiro MF, Reichel MB, Gay JA, D'Esposita F, Alexander RA, Khaw PT (1999). Transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3 in vivo: effects on normal and mitomycin C-modulated conjunctival scarring. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 40(9), 1975 - 1982.
    • Cordeiro MF, Gay J, Khaw PT (1999). Human anti-transforming growth factor-beta2 antibody: a new glaucoma anti-scarring agent.. , , - .
    • Cordeiro MF, Khaw PT (1999). The healing optic nerve in glaucoma: transforming growth factor beta and optic nerve head remodelling.. The British journal of ophthalmology, , 132 - 133.
    • Cordeiro MF, Schultz GS, Ali RR, Bhattacharya SS, Khaw PT (1999). Molecular therapy in ocular wound healing. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 83(11), 1219 - 1224.
    • Cordeiro MF, Plant GT, Child A, Jones B, Khaw PT (1999). Visual loss after primary trabeculotomy with mitomycin C in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 83(10), 1202 - 1204.


    • Cordeiro MF (1998). The Role of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in Conjunctival Scarring Process Following Glaucoma Filtration Surgery.
    • Constable PH, Crowston JG, Occleston NL, Cordeiro MF, Khaw PT (1998). Long term growth arrest of human Tenon's fibroblasts following single applications of beta radiation.. , , - .
    • Daniels JT, Occleston NL, Crowston JG, Cordeiro MF, Alexander RA, Wilkins M, Porter R, Brown R, Khaw PT (1998). Understanding and controlling the scarring response: The contribution of histology and microscopy. Microscopy Research and Technique, 42, 317 - 333.
    • Reichel MB, Cordeiro MF, Alexander RA, Cree IA, Bhattacharya SS, Khaw PT (1998). New model of conjunctival scarring in the mouse eye.. , , - .


    • Cordeiro MF, Reichel MB, DEsposito F, Alexander RA, Crowston JG, Ali R, Bhattacharya SS, Schultz GS, Khaw PT (1997). Modulating effects of TGF-B 1,2&3 and mitomycin-C (MMC) on conjunctival scarring in the mouse. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 38(4), 1232 - 1232.
    • Mulholland B, Cordeiro MF, Constable PH, Alexander RA, Khaw PT (1997). A new modified model of glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 38(4), 1227 - 1227.
    • Cordeiro MF, Occleston NL, Khaw PT (1997). New developments: the manipulation of the wound healing response.. In Bernauer W, Dart JKG, Elder MJ (Ed.), Developments in Ophthalmology: Cicatrising Conjunctivitis. (pp. 242 - 262). : S. Karger AG,.
    • Wilkins MR, Cordeiro MFK, P T (1997). Antimetabolites. In Weinreb RN, Krupin T (Ed.), Seminars in Ophthalmology: Glaucoma. (pp. 143 - 151). : .
    • Cordeiro MF, Constable PH, Alexander RA, Bhattacharya SS, Khaw PT (1997). Effect of varying the mitomycin-C treatment area in glaucoma filtration surgery in the rabbit.. , , - .
    • Cordeiro MF, Stanford MRP, P M S, J S (1997). Relationship of diabetic microvascular complications to outcome in panretinal photocoagulation treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. , , - .


    • Constable PH, Occleston NL, Cordeiro MF, Kon CH, Khaw PT (1996). Early growth arrest of human Tenons fibroblasts following single doses of beta irradiation.. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 37(3), 99 - 99.
    • Cordeiro MF, Occleston NL, Constable PH, Bhattacharya SS, Schultz GS, Khaw PT (1996). Effect of TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 on human ocular fibroblast-mediated collagen lattice contraction and matrix metalloprotease production in lattices and monolayers. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 37(3), 5141 - 5141.
    • Occleston NL, Tarnuzzer RW, Waters L, Cordeiro MF, Constable PH, Kon CH, Schultz GS, Bhattacharya SS, Khaw PT (1996). Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases inhibits anterior segment fibroblast mediated collagen contraction. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 37(3), 4660 - 4660.
    • Reichel ML, Cordeiro MF, Alexander RA, Bhattacharya SS, Schultz GS, Khaw PT (1996). A new model of conjunctival scarring in the mouse eye. INVEST OPHTH VIS SCI, 37(3), 91 - 91.


    • Cordeiro M (1994). Ischaemic optic neuropathy, transverse myelitis, and epilepsy in an anti-phospholipid positive patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.. , , - .
    • Cordeiro MFG, E M (1994). Retinal infections. , , - .


    • Cordeiro MFJ, B C D, J E (1993). The effect of formal instruction in ophthalmoscopy on medical student performance.. , , - .


    • Cordeiro MFA, K G (1991). Digoxin toxicity presenting as dysphagia and dysphonia.. , , 1025 - 1025.

    • Wood N, Guo L, Cordeiro MF (). Imaging human retinal ganglion cells. In Grehn F, Stamper R (Ed.), Glaucoma (pp. - ). : Springer Editions.