Prof Kenneth Smith

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Personal Profile

Name: Kenneth Smith Email: k.smith@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 4013
Department: IoN - Neuroinflammation Fax: 020 7278 6572
Position: Professor of Experimental Neuroinflammation Address: 1 Wakefield Street, , London, WC1N 1PJ
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Biomedical Imaging (Frontier Disciplines), Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine, Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine (Frontier Disciplines) Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

The focus of our team is research into the mechanisms underlying the neurological deficits in disorders characterised by inflammation, demyelination and/or degeneration. Our main focus is the inflammatory demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but our research also includes projects on motor neuron disease and glaucoma. Particular current interests are the several roles of nitric oxide in neuropathology, hypoxia, and developing a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal protection in neuroinflammatory disease such as MS.


We are particularly interested in how inflammation disturbs the normal function of the nervous system, with particular reference to the suspected role of hypoxia and nitric oxide. We believe that understanding the mechanisms operating in neuroinflammatory lesions will indicate new potential therapeutic avenues. One such therapy arising directly from our research is currently under clinical trial in patients with secondary progressive MS (see below). New approaches to therapy are being explored under a programme grant from the European Union (NeuroproMiSe). Indeed, inflammation plays an important role in disorders as diverse as MS, the neurological complications of AIDS, spinal cord injury, glaucoma, Parkinson's disease and motor neuron disease, and it is not unreasonable to believe that research into neuroinflammation may benefit all of these disorders. Demyelination (i.e. loss of the insulating layer of myelin from nerve fibres) causes symptoms such as blindness, paralysis and numbness by blocking axonal conduction, and we are searching for ways to improve conduction so that symptoms are alleviated. Acting in different ways, demyelination can also contribute to the tingling sensations experienced by many MS patients because it can make nerve fibres hyperexcitable. We are exploring the changes in sodium channel expression believed to cause these changes, with the intention of developing therapies to treat the symptoms.


Axonal degeneration causes permanent loss of function, and we have identified a mechanism that we believe is responsible for at least some of the degeneration in MS. We have also developed a therapeutic strategy based on the partial blockade of sodium channels (and/or the sodium-calcium exchanger). The therapy is inexpensive, and safe for long term administration, and it is currently being assessed in a clinical trial in secondary progressive MS, under funding from the MS Society.


Another project, funded by the MRC and MS Society, explores the physiological properties of tissue affected by inflammation, with particular focus on mitochondrial physiology, and the ion concentrations of the affected cells (especially axons). Other research projects within the lab use histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to explore the role of hypoxia and disordered energy metabolism in neurological disease, and electrophysiological techniques to examine the effects of inflammation on the electrical properties of neurons.


Research Activities

Neuroinflammation

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators

Publications

    2013

    • Davies AL, Desai RA, Bloomfield PS, McIntosh PR, Chapple KJ, Linington C, Fairless R, Diem R, Kasti M, Murphy MP, Smith KJ (2013). Neurological deficits caused by tissue hypoxia in neuroinflammatory disease.. Ann Neurol, , - . doi:10.1002/ana.24006
    • Sajic M, Mastrolia V, Trigo D, Sadeghian M, Mosley AJ, Gregson NA, Duchen MR, Smith KJ (2013). Impulse conduction increases mitochondrial transport in adult mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo. PLoS Biology, 11(12), - . doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001754
    • Sajic M, Ida KK, Gregson NA, Smith KJ (2013). INCREASE IN MITOCHONDRIAL TRAFFICKING INDUCED BY INFLAMMATORY OR PHOTO-TOXIC DAMAGE OF MITOCHONDRIA RESULTS IN SELECTIVE BLOCK OF TRANSPORT IN SMALL DIAMETER SENSORY FIBRES.
    • Trigo D, Smith KJ (2013). ILLUSTRATING A PATH FOR IONIC HOMEOSTASIS IN THE AXON: THE ROLE OF THE PERIAXONAL SPACE.
    • Desai RA, Smith KJ (2013). Tissue and cellular vulnerabilities to hypoxia: insight to the formation of demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis?.
    • Nedjati-Gilani GL, Schneider T, Siow B, Tachrount M, Davies AL, Smith KJ, Li Y, Ciccarelli O, Thomas DL, Alexander DC, Wheeler-Kingshott CAM (2013). Pinning down specificity of biomarkers to axon and myelin damage: preliminary results.
    • Morsali D, Bechtold D, Lee W, Chauhdry S, Palchaudhuri U, Hassoon P, Snell DM, Malpass K, Piers T, Pocock J, Roach A, Smith KJ (2013). Safinamide and flecainide protect axons and reduce microglial activation in models of multiple sclerosis.. Brain, 136(Pt 4), 1067 - 1082. doi:10.1093/brain/awt041

    2012

    • Hayton T, Furby J, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hunter K, Tozer DJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2012). Longitudinal changes in magnetisation transfer ratio in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: data from a randomised placebo controlled trial of lamotrigine.. J Neurol, 259(3), 505 - 514. doi:10.1007/s00415-011-6212-9
    • Sajic M, Gregson N, Linington C, Hughes RA, Smith KJ (2012). The role of CD8(+) T cells in a model of multiple sclerosis induced with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.. Mult Scler, 18(3), 286 - 298. doi:10.1177/1352458511424309
    • Bei F, Smith KJ (2012). Axonal protection achieved by blockade of sodium/calcium exchange in a new model of ischemia in vivo.. Neuropharmacology, 63(3), 405 - 414. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.04.019
    • Sajic M, Hunt DP, Lee W, Compston DA, Schweimer JV, Gregson NA, Chandran S, Smith KJ (2012). Mesenchymal stem cells lack efficacy in the treatment of experimental autoimmune neuritis despite in vitro inhibition of T-cell proliferation.. PLoS One, 7(2), e30708 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030708
    • Hayton T, Furby J, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hunter K, Tozer DJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2012). Clinical and imaging correlates of the multiple sclerosis impact scale in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.. J Neurol, 259(2), 237 - 245. doi:10.1007/s00415-011-6151-5

    2011

    • Smith KJ (2011). Newly lesioned tissue in multiple sclerosis--a role for oxidative damage?. Brain, 134(Pt 7), 1877 - 1881. doi:10.1093/brain/awr144
    • Lee W, Morsali D, Smith KJ (2011). How does neuroinflammation impair function?.
    • McIntosh PR, Fairless R, Williams SK, Diem R, Smith KJ (2011). An immunohistochemical investigation of oxygenation in normal and inflamed rat optic nerves.
    • Desai RA, Davies AL, Smith KJ (2011). Evidence that hypoxia and energy insufficiency play a role in central inflammation.

    2010

    • Sharma R, Fischer MT, Bauer J, Felts PA, Smith KJ, Misu T, Fujihara K, Bradl M, Lassmann H (2010). Inflammation induced by innate immunity in the central nervous system leads to primary astrocyte dysfunction followed by demyelination. ACTA NEUROPATHOL, 120(2), 223 - 236. doi:10.1007/s00401-010-0704-z
    • Furby J, Hayton T, Altmann D, Brenner R, Chataway J, Smith KJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2010). A longitudinal study of MRI-detected atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.. J Neurol, 257(9), 1508 - 1516. doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5563-y
    • Kapoor R, Furby J, Hayton T, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hughes RA, Miller DH (2010). Lamotrigine for neuroprotection in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.. Lancet Neurol, 9(7), 681 - 688. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70131-9
    • Hunt DP, Sajic M, Phillips H, Henderson D, Compston A, Smith K, Chandran S (2010). Origins of gliogenic stem cell populations within adult skin and bone marrow. Stem Cells Dev., 19(7), 1055 - 1065. doi:10.1089/scd.2009.0371

    2009

    • Mahad DJ, Ziabreva I, Campbell G, Laulund F, Murphy JL, Reeve AK, Greaves L, Smith KJ, Turnbull DM (2009). Detection of cytochrome c oxidase activity and mitochondrial proteins in single cells. J.Neurosci.Methods, 184(2), 310 - 319. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2009.08.020
    • Hayton T, Furby J, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hughes RAC, Hunter K, Tozer DJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2009). Grey matter magnetization transfer ratio independently correlates with neurological deficit in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 256(3), 427 - 435. doi:10.1007/s00415-009-0110-4
    • Furby J, Hayton T, Altmann D, Brenner R, Chataway J, Smith KJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2009). Different white matter lesion characteristics correlate with distinct grey matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 15(6), 687 - 694. doi:10.1177/1352458509103176
    • Kapoor R, Furby J, Hayton T, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hughes RAC, Hunter K, Miller DH (2009). Outcomes of a phase II randomised controlled trial of neuroprotection with lamotrigine in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    • Sajic M, Hunt D, Gregson NA, Chandran S, Smith KJ (2009). LACK OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF BONE MARROW-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS IN A MODEL OF GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME.

    2008

    • Furby J, Hayton T, Smith KJ, Altmann D, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hughes RA, Miller D, Kapoor R (2008). White matter lesion characteristics predict types of gray matter abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    • Furby J, Hayton T, Anderson V, Altmann D, Brenner R, Chataway J, Hughes RA, Smith KJ, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging measures of brain and spinal cord atrophy correlate with clinical impairment in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 14(8), 1068 - 1075. doi:10.1177/1352458508093617
    • Kasti M, Sajic M, Smith KJ (2008). Evidence for hypoxia-like conditions in vivo within the lesions of two experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS).
    • Farmer C, Smith K, Docherty R (2008). Low concentrations of tetrodotoxin interact with tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels.. British Journal of Pharmacology, 155(1), 34 - 43.

    2007

    • Furby J, Hayton T, Smith KJ, Altmann DR, Brenner R, Chataway J, Fox NC, Hughes RAC, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2007). The correlation between MR measures of atrophy and disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    • Smith KJ (2007). Sodium channels and multiple sclerosis: roles in symptom production, damage and therapy.. Brain Pathology, 17(2), 230 - 242.
    • Sahai A, Khan MS, Gregson N, Smith K, Dasgupta P, GKT BSG (2007). Botulinum toxin for detrusor overactivity and symptoms of overactive bladder: where we are now and where we are going.. Nature Clinical Practice Urology, 4(7), 379 - 386.
    • Marik C, Felts PA, Bauer J, Lassmann H, Smith KJ (2007). Lesion genesis in a subset of patients with multiple sclerosis: a role for innate immunity?. Brain, 130(11), 2800 - 2815.

    2006

    • Smith KJ (2006). Axonal protection in multiple sclerosis--a particular need during remyelination?. Brain, 129(12), 3147 - 3149.
    • Bechtold DA, Miller SJ, Dawson AC, Sun Y, Kapoor R, Berry D, Smith KJ (2006). Axonal protection achieved in a model of multiple sclerosis using lamotrigine.. Journal of Neurology, 253(12), 1542 - 1551. doi:10.1007/s00415-006-0204-1
    • Furby J, Hayton T, Smith KJ, Altmann D, Brenner R, Chataway J, Fox NC, Hughes RAC, Miller DH, Kapoor R (2006). A randomised controlled trial of neuroprotection with lamotrigine in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.
    • Smith KJ (2006). [Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis]. La Revue du Praticien, 56(12), 1299 - 1303.
    • Kapoor R, Smith KJ (2006). Pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis: demyelination and axonal injury. In Schapira AHV (Ed.), Neurology and clinical neuroscience (pp. 1002 - 1013). : Mosby/Elsevier.
    • Black JA, Waxman SG, Smith KJ (2006). Remyelination of dorsal column axons by endogenous Schwann cells restores the normal pattern of Nav1.6 and Kv1.2 at nodes of Ranvier.. Brain, 129(5), 1319 - 1329. doi:10.1093/brain/awl057

    2005

    • Bechtold DA, Yue X, Evans RM, Davies M, Gregson NA, Smith KJ (2005). Axonal protection in experimental autoimmune neuritis by the sodium channel blocking agent flecainide.. Brain, 128(1), 18 - 28. doi:10.1093/brain/awh328
    • Smith K, McDonald I, Miller D, Lassmann H (2005). The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis. In Compston A, Confavreux C, Lassmann H, McDonald I, Miller D, Noseworthy J, Smith K, Wekerle H (Ed.), McAlpine's multiple sclerosis (pp. 601 - 659). : Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
    • Compston DAS, Lassmann H, Smith KJ (2005). The neurobiology of multiple sclerosis. In Compston A, Confavreux C, Lassmann H, McDonald I, Miller D, Noseworthy J, Smith K, Wekerle H (Ed.), McAlpine's multiple sclerosis (pp. 449 - 490). : Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
    • Smith KJ (2005). Nitric oxide and axonal pathophysiology. In Waxman SG (Ed.), Multiple sclerosis as a neuronal disease (pp. - ). : .
    • Compston A, Confavreux C, Lassmann H, McDonald I, Miller D, Noseworthy J, Smith K, Wekerle H (2005). McAlpine's multiple sclerosis.
    • Bechtold DA, Smith KJ (2005). Sodium-mediated axonal degeneration in inflammatory demyelinating disease. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2005.03.003
    • Miller D, McDonald I, Smith K (2005). The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In Compston A, Confavreux C, Lassmann H, McDonald I, Miller D, Noseworthy J, Smith K, Wekerle H (Ed.), McAlpine's multiple sclerosis (pp. 347 - 388). : Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.
    • Smith KJ, Waxman SG (2005). The conduction properties of demyelinated and remyelinated axons.. In Waxman SG (Ed.), Multiple sclerosis as a neuronal disease (pp. - ). : .
    • Bechtold DA, Smith KJ (2005). Sodium-mediated axonal degeneration in inflammatory demyelinating disease.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 233(1), 27 - 35.
    • Felts PA, Woolston AM, Fernando HB, Asquith S, Gregson NA, Mizzi OJ, Smith KJ (2005). Inflammation and primary demyelination induced by the intraspinal injection of lipopolysaccharide.. Brain, 128(7), 1649 - 1666. doi:10.1093/brain/awh516
    • Evans RM, Smith KJ (2005). Effects of immune mediators on neurophysiological function.. In Antel J, Hartung H-P, Birnbaum G (Ed.), Clinical neuroimmunology (pp. - ). : Oxford University Press.

    2004

    • Bechtold DA, Kapoor R, Smith KJ (2004). Axonal protection using flecainide in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Annals of Neurology, 55(5), 607 - 616. doi:10.1002/ana.20045
    • Demestre M, Wells GM, Miller KM, Smith KJ, Hughes RA, Gearing AJ, Gregson NA (2004). Characterisation of matrix metalloproteinases and the effects of a broad-spectrum inhibitor (BB-1101) in peripheral nerve regeneration.. Neuroscience, 124(4), 767 - 779.

    2003

    • Dilley A, Gregson NA, Hadden RD, Smith KJ (2003). Effects on axonal conduction of anti-ganglioside sera and sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome.. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 139(1), 133 - 140. doi:10.1016/S0165-5728(03)00156-5
    • Kapoor R, Davies M, Blaker PA, Hall SM, Smith KJ (2003). Blockers of sodium and calcium entry protect axons from nitric oxide-mediated degeneration. Annals of Neurology, 53(2), 174 - 180. doi:10.1002/ana.10443

    2002

    • Smith KJ, Sharief M (2002). Multiple sclerosis.. In (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of cognitive science (pp. - ). : Nature Publishing Group. doi:10.1002/0470018860.s00414
    • Smith KJ (2002). Nitric oxide and loss of function in multiple sclerosis. In Freddi A (Ed.), Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (pp. - ). : .
    • Smith KJ, Lassmann H (2002). The role of nitric oxide in multiple sclerosis.. The Lancet Neurology, 1(4), 232 - 241.
    • Smith KJ, McDonald WI (2002). Mechanisms of symptom production. In McDonald WI, Noseworthy J (Ed.), Multiple sclerosis (pp. - ). : Butterworth Heinemann.
    • Smith KJ (2002). Neurophysiology of inflammatory demyelinating disease.. In Abramsky O, Compston DAS, Miller A, Said G (Ed.), Brain disease: therapeutic strategies and repair (pp. 447 - 462). : Martin Dunitz.
    • Felts PA, Smith KJ, Gregson NA, Hughes RA (2002). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in experimental autoimmune neuritis.. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 124(1), 62 - 69.
    • Hadden RD, Gregson NA, Gold R, Smith KJ, Hughes RA (2002). Accumulation of immunoglobulin across the 'blood-nerve barrier' in spinal roots in adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune neuritis.. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 28(6), 489 - 497.

    2001

    • Smith KJ, Kapoor R, Hall SM, Davies M (2001). Electrically active axons degenerate when exposed to nitric oxide. Annals of Neurology, 49(4), 470 - 476. doi:10.1002/ana.96
    • Smith KJ, Hall SM (2001). Factors directly affecting impulse transmission in inflammatory demyelinating disease: recent advances in our understanding.. Current Opinion in Neurology, 14(3), 289 - 298.
    • Rieckmann P, Smith KJ (2001). Multiple sclerosis: more than inflammation and demyelination.. Trends in Neurosciences, 24(8), 435 - 437.

    2000

    • Smith KJ, Felts PA, John GR (2000). Effects of 4-aminopyridine on demyelinated axons, synapses and muscle tension.. Brain, 123(1), 171 - 184.
    • Hall SM, Redford EJ, Smith KJ (2000). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha has few morphological effects within the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, in contrast to its effects in the peripheral nervous system.. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 106(1), 130 - 136.

    1999

    • Smith KJ, McDonald WI (1999). The pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis: the mechanisms underlying the production of symptoms and the natural history of the disease.. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 354(1390), 1649 - 1673.
    • Smith KJ, Kapoor R, Felts PA (1999). Demyelination: the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Brain Neuropathology, 9, 69 - 92.
    • Demestre M, Gregson NA, Smith KJ, Miller KM, Gearing AJ, Hughes RA (1999). Effect of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (BB-1101) on nerve regeneration.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 878, 658 - 661.
    • Hughes RA, Hadden RD, Gregson NA, Smith KJ (1999). Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barre syndrome.. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 100(1), 74 - 97.
    • Kapoor R, Davies M, Smith KJ (1999). Temporary axonal conduction block and axonal loss in inflammatory neurological disease. A potential role for nitric oxide?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 893, 304 - 308.

    1998

    • Hughes PM, Wells GM, Clements JM, Gearing AJ, Redford EJ, Davies M, Smith KJ, Hughes RA, Brown MC, Miller KM (1998). Matrix metalloproteinase expression during experimental autoimmune neuritis.. Brain, 121(3), 481 - 494.
    • Gabriel CM, Hughes RA, Moore SE, Smith KJ, Walsh FS (1998). Induction of experimental autoimmune neuritis with peripheral myelin protein-22.. Brain, 121(10), 1895 - 1902.

    1997

    • Redford EJ, Kapoor R, Smith KJ (1997). Nitric oxide donors reversibly block axonal conduction: demyelinated axons are especially susceptible.. Brain, 120(12), 2149 - 2157.
    • Redford EJ, Kapoor R, Smith KJ (1997). Nitric oxide donors cause a reversible block of conduction in rat central and peripheral demyelinated axons. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 499P, P13 - P14.
    • Redford EJ, Smith KJ, Gregson NA, Davies M, Hughes P, Gearing AJ, Miller K, Hughes RA (1997). A combined inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase activity and tumour necrosis factor-alpha processing attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis.. Brain, 120(10), 1895 - 1905.
    • Redford EJ, Hughes P, Davies M, Smith KJ, Gregson N, Gearing AJH, Hughes RAC, Miller KM (1997). A combined inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase activity and TNF processing is effective in a rat model of Guillain-Barre syndrome. BRAIN PATHOLOGY, 7(4), 1365 - 1365.
    • Gabriel CM, Gregson NA, Redford EJ, Davies M, Smith KJ, Hughes RA (1997). Human immunoglobulin ameliorates rat experimental autoimmune neuritis.. Brain, 120(9), 1533 - 1540.
    • Felts PA, Baker TA, Smith KJ (1997). Conduction in segmentally demyelinated mammalian central axons.. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(19), 7267 - 7277.
    • Smith KJ, Felts PA, Kapoor R (1997). Axonal hyperexcitability: mechanisms and role in symptom production in demyelinating diseases. The Neuroscientist, 3, 237 - 246.
    • Hughes RA, Gabriel CM, Gregson NA, Smith KJ (1997). Treatment of inflammatory neuropathy.. Mult Scler, 3(2), 88 - 92.
    • Hughes P, Wells GMA, Clements JM, Redford EJ, Smith KJ, Davies M, Hughes RAC, Brown M, Gearing AJH, Miller KM (1997). Matrix metalloproteinase expression in a rat model of experimental autoimmune neuritis. BRAIN PATHOLOGY, 7(4), 1365 - 1365.
    • Kapoor R, Li YG, Smith KJ (1997). Slow sodium-dependent potential oscillations contribute to ectopic firing in mammalian demyelinated axons.. Brain, 120(4), 647 - 652.
    • Melendez-Vasquez C, Redford J, Choudhary PP, Gray IA, Maitland P, Gregson NA, Smith KJ, Hughes RA (1997). Immunological investigation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 73(1), 124 - 134.

    1996

    • Felts PA, Smith KJ (1996). Blood-brain barrier permeability in astrocyte-free regions of the central nervous system remyelinated by Schwann cells.. Neuroscience, 75(2), 643 - 655.
    • Felts PA, Smith KJ (1996). Changes in the distribution of a calcium-dependent ATPase during demyelination and remyelination in the central nervous system.. Journal of Neurocytology, 25(3), 171 - 180.

    1995

    • Felts PA, Kapoor R, Smith KJ (1995). A mechanism for ectopic firing in central demyelinated axons.. Brain, 118(5), 1225 - 1231.
    • Redford EJ, Hall SM, Smith KJ (1995). Vascular changes and demyelination induced by the intraneural injection of tumour necrosis factor.. Brain, 118(4), 869 - 878.

    1994

    • Felts PA, Smith KJ (1994). The use of potassium channel blocking agents in the therapy of demyelinating diseases.. Annals of Neurology, 36(3), 454 - .
    • Smith KJ, Hall SM (1994). Central demyelination induced in vivo by the calcium ionophore ionomycin.. Brain, 117(6), 1351 - 1356.
    • Smith KJ (1994). Conduction properties of central demyelinated and remyelinated axons, and their relation to symptom production in demyelinating disorders.. Eye, 8(2), 224 - 237.

    1993

    • Kapoor R, Smith KJ, Felts PA, Davies M (1993). Internodal potassium currents can generate ectopic impulses in mammalian myelinated axons.. Brain Research, 611(1), 165 - 169.
    • Kapoor R, Smtih KJ, Felts PA, Davies M (1993). Potential oscillations recorded from rat central and peripheral axons under anaesthesia: a mechanism for ectopic impulse generation. J Physiol, 459, 163P - .

    1992

    • Smith KJ, Kodama RT, Liuzzi FJ (1992). Is CNS trauma a prerequisite for the elongation of CNS axons into denervated peripheral nerve?. Brain Research, 575(1), 79 - 85.
    • Felts PA, Smith KJ (1992). Conduction properties of central nerve fibers remyelinated by Schwann cells.. Brain Research, 574(1), 178 - 192.

    1991

    • Felts PA, Smith KJ, Tilt E (1991). Blood-brain barrier function in central demyelinating lesions repaired by Schwann cell remyelination.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 633, 615 - 616.
    • Black JA, Felts P, Smith KJ, Kocsis JD, Waxman SG (1991). Distribution of sodium channels in chronically demyelinated spinal cord axons: immuno-ultrastructural localization and electrophysiological observations.. Brain Research, 544(1), 59 - 70.
    • Smith KJ, Kodama RT (1991). Reinnervation of denervated skeletal muscle by central neurons regenerating via ventral roots implanted into the spinal cord.. Brain Research, 551(1), 221 - 229.

    1989

    • Smith KJ, Felts PA (1989). End-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) monitoring in small animals.. Brain Research Bulletin, 22(3), 579 - 582.

    1988

    • Smith KJ, Larramendi PC (1988). A simple device to aid tissue processing of large numbers of blocks for light or electron microscopy.. Journal of Electron Microscopy Technique, 8(2), 223 - 224.
    • Smith KJ, Terzis JK, Erasmus M, Carson KA (1988). Reinnervation of denervated skeletal muscle by central nerve fibers regenerating along replanted ventral roots.. Progress in Brain Research, 78, 193 - 198.
    • Smith KJ, Hall SM (1988). Peripheral demyelination and remyelination initiated by the calcium-selective ionophore ionomycin: in vivo observations.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 83(1), 37 - 53.

    1987

    • Terzis JK, Smith KJ (1987). Repair of severed peripheral nerves: comparison of the "de Medinaceli" and standard microsuture methods.. Experimental Neurology, 96(3), 672 - 680.
    • Smith KJ, Bennett BJ (1987). Topographic and quantitative description of rat dorsal column fibres arising from the lumbar dorsal roots.. Journal of Anatomy, 153, 203 - 215.

    1985

    • Smith KJ, Hall SM, Schauf CL (1985). Vesicular demyelination induced by raised intracellular calcium.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 71(1), 19 - 37.

    1984

    • SMITH K, HALL S, SCHAUF C, REYNOLDS L (1984). VESICULAR DEMYELINATION INITIATED BY RAISED INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM. NEUROPATHOLOGY AND APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, 10(4), 308 - 308.

    1983

    • Blakemore WF, Smith KJ (1983). Node-like axonal specializations along demyelinated central nerve fibres: ultrastructural observations.. Acta Neuropathologica, 60(3), 291 - 296.

    1982

    • SMITH K, BLAKEMORE W, MURRAY J, PATTERSON R (1982). THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNODAL MYELIN VOLUME AND AXON SURFACE-AREA IN NORMAL, RE-MYELINATED AND REGENERATED NERVE-FIBERS. NEUROPATHOLOGY AND APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, 8(3), 239 - 239.
    • Schauf CL, Smith KJ (1982). Gallamine triethiodide-induced modifications of sodium conductance in Myxicola giant axons.. The Journal of Physiology, 323, 157 - 171.
    • Smith KJ, Bostock H, Hall SM (1982). ‘Node’ formation precedes remyelination.. Trends in Neurosciences, 5, 196 - 199. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(82)90113-8
    • Smith KJ, McDonald WI (1982). Spontaneous and evoked electrical discharges from a central demyelinating lesion.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 55(1), 39 - 47.
    • Smith KJ, Bostock H, Hall SM (1982). Saltatory conduction precedes remyelination in axons demyelinated with lysophosphatidyl choline.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 54(1), 13 - 31.
    • Smith KJ, Blakemore WF, Murray JA, Patterson RC (1982). Internodal myelin volume and axon surface area. A relationship determining myelin thickness?. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 55(2), 231 - 246.

    1981

    • SMITH K, BLAKEMORE W, MCDONALD W (1981). THE RESTORATION OF CONDUCTION BY CENTRAL REMYELINATION. BRAIN, 104(JUN), 383 - 404. doi:10.1093/brain/104.2.383
    • SMITH K, BOSTOCK H, HALL S (1981). DISCONTINUOUS CONDUCTION IN FIBERS DEMYELINATED WITH LYSOLECITHIN. NEUROPATHOLOGY AND APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, 7(1), 80 - 81.
    • SMITH K, SCHAUF C (1981). GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE - TEA+-LIKE AND PANCURONIUM-LIKE EFFECTS ON NERVE-FIBERS. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 33(2), A126 - A126.
    • SCHAUF C, BULLOCK J, SMITH K (1981). EFFECTS OF SOLVENT SUBSTITUTION ON THE OCCLUSION OF NA+ AND K+ CHANNELS BY DRUGS AND IONS. BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL, 33(2), A124 - A124.
    • Smith KJ, Schauf CL (1981). Size-dependent variation of nodal properties in myelinated nerve.. Nature, 293(5830), 297 - 299.
    • Schauf CL, Smith KJ (1981). Segregation of ionic channels at amphibian nodes of Ranvier.
    • Smith KJ, Schauf CL (1981). Gallamine triethiodide (flaxedil): tetraethylammonium- and pancuronium-like effects in myelinated nerve fibers.. Science, 212(4499), 1170 - 1172.
    • Schauf CL, Smith KJ (1981). Electrophysiological effects of gallamine triethiodide on mammalian and amphibian myelinated nerve fibres..
    • Smith KJ, Schauf CL (1981). Effects of gallamine triethiodide on membrane currents in amphibian and mammalian peripheral nerve.. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 217(3), 719 - 726.

    1980

    • Smith KJ (1980). A sensitive method for the detection and quantification of conduction deficits in nerve.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 48(2), 191 - 199.
    • Smith KJ, McDonald WI (1980). Spontaneous and mechanically evoked activity due to central demyelinating lesion.. Nature, 286(5769), 154 - 155.
    • Bostock H, Hall SM, Smith KJ (1980). Demyelinated axons can form 'nodes' prior to remyelination..
    • Smith KJ, Hall SM (1980). Nerve conduction during peripheral demyelination and remyelination.. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 48(2), 201 - 219.
    • MacDonald WI, Smith KJ (1980). Spontaneous and evoked activity arising from a central demyelinated lesion.

    1979

    • Smith KJ, Blakemore WF, McDonald WI (1979). Central remyelination restores secure conduction.. Nature, 280(5721), 395 - 396.
    • SMITH K, BLAKEMORE W, MCDONALD W (1979). RELIEF OF CENTRAL CONDUCTION BLOCK BY REMYELINATION. NEUROPATHOLOGY AND APPLIED NEUROBIOLOGY, 5(4), 322 - 322.
    • Smith KJ (1979). Impulse conduction during demyelination and remyelination in central and peripheral nerve fibres..

    1978

    • SMITH K (1978). A method to represent the spectrum of refractory periods of transmission of the constituent fibres of a nerve [proceedings].
    • Smith KJ, McDonald WI, Blakemore WF (1978). Restoration of secure conduction by central demyelination.. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 104, 25 - 29.

    1977

    • BLAKEMORE W, EAMES R, SMITH K, MCDONALD W (1977). REMYELINATION IN SPINAL-CORD OF CAT FOLLOWING INTRASPINAL INJECTIONS OF LYSOLECITHIN. JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES, 33(1-2), 31 - 43. doi:10.1016/0022-510X(77)90179-4