Prof John O'keefe

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Personal Profile

Name: John O'keefe Email: j.okeefe@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel:
Department: The Sainsbury Wellcome Centre Fax: 020 7679 1306
Position: Director Sainsbury Wellcome Centre Address: Gower St., London, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

Our group is interested in the function of the hippocampal formation and , in particular, its role in spatial behaviour and spatial memory. In 1971, Dostrovsky and I discovered that the major correlate of hippocampal pyramidal cells was the animal's location (place cells) and suggested that these might form the basis for a spatial mapping system. In 1978, Lynn Nadel and I (www.cognitivemap.net) expanded this notion and suggested that in addition to the place cells, the hippocampal formation might contain information about direction and distance. Together with the place cells this would allow the construction of a cognitive map of the environment. A cognitive map is a device for representing the current environment, the animal's location within it, and the location of desirable objects and threats to be avoided. Its outputs direct the animal's behaviour on the basis of distances and directions towards desired goals or away from undesirable objects and the locations. In addition the cognitive mapping system detects the absence of representations of novel environments and changes in maps of familiar environments and uses these mismatches to trigger and control exploration. We further elaborated on how the cognitive map theory could be expanded by the inclusion of a linear sense of time and the storage of language narratives in the left hippocampus to explain the episodic memory deficit in patients with hippocampal damage. Subsequent work has revealed cells in the hippocampal formation signaling the two types of information necessary to construct maps: in the 1980s, Ranck, Taube, Muller and colleagues discovered head direction cells in the presubiculum, and recently Haftig, Fyhn and the Mosers have found grid cells in the entorhinal cortex which could provide the spatial distance metric. Over the past 15 years, Neil Burgess and I have constructed computational models of the cognitive map and its components, and have used these to generate theoretically-driven predictions which inform our empirical investigations of hippocampal function. Our experimental attack on these questions /predictions uses various combinations of behavioural, electrophysiological, pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our primary approach is to record from groups of individual hippocampal neurones during spatial navigation, exploration of novel environments, and foraging for food in familiar environments. Questions we are actively exploring/addressing include: How is an environment and the animal's location within it represented by the firing pattern at the level of single hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells and at the level of networks of such cells? Colin Lever and Tom Wills have found that hippocampal place cells can learn to discriminate between geometrically similar environments in 2 ways. Depending on the degree of similarity between the environments and animal's experience in them, place cells can either learn to differentiate between them as a set of individuals where each cell represents the environment independently of its neighbors (Lever) or alternatively a group of cells can act collectively as an network, taking each others behaviour into account, perhaps operating in ways similar to an attractor network (Wills). Is learning about the properties of a novel environment dependent on the NMDA receptor and associated intracellular signaling pathways? By studying the place cells of mutant mice with modifications of their glutamatergic NMDA channels ( with R. Schoepfer) or the intracellular signaling molecule alphaCaMKI (with K-P. Giese of Kings College, London), we are trying to understand the synaptic and molecular mechanisms through which place fields develop and are maintained in novel environments. In the latter animal, Cacucci found that spatial tuning fails to show experience-dependent increase over days...

Research Activities

Auditory cortical processing and plasticity

Molecular mechanisms of central synapses

Neural basis of spatial and episodic memory

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Kate Jeffery; Dr Jennifer Linden; Dr Francesca Cacucci; Prof Ralf Schoepfer; Prof Maneesh Sahani

External Collaborators

Publications

    2013

    • Wells CE, Amos DP, Jeewajee A, Douchamps V, Rodgers J, O'Keefe J, Burgess N, Lever C (2013). Novelty and anxiolytic drugs dissociate two components of hippocampal theta in behaving rats.. J Neurosci, 33(20), 8650 - 8667. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5040-12.2013

    2012

    • Barry C, Bush D, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2012). Models of grid cells and theta oscillations.. Nature, 488(7409), E1 - E2. doi:10.1038/nature11276
    • Krupic J, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2012). Neural representations of location composed of spatially periodic bands.. Science, 337(6096), 853 - 857. doi:10.1126/science.1222403

    2011

    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2011). Models of place and grid cell firing and theta rhythmicity.. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 21(5), 734 - 744. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2011.07.002

    2010

    • Lever C, Burton S, Jeewajee A, Wills TJ, Cacucci F, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2010). Environmental novelty elicits a later theta phase of firing in CA1 but not subiculum.. Hippocampus, 20(2), 229 - 234. doi:10.1002/hipo.20671
    • Wills TJ, Cacucci F, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2010). Development of the hippocampal cognitive map in preweanling rats.. Science, 328(5985), 1573 - 1576. doi:10.1126/science.1188224

    2009

    • Lever C, Burton S, Jeewajee A, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2009). Boundary vector cells in the subiculum of the hippocampal formation.. J Neurosci, 29(31), 9771 - 9777. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1319-09.2009
    • Lever C, Jeewajee A, Burton S, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2009). Hippocampal Theta Frequency, Novelty, and Behavior.. Hippocampus, 19(4), 409 - 410. doi:10.1002/hipo.20541
    • Lever C, Jeewajee A, Burton S, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2009). Hippocampal Theta Frequency, Novelty, and Behavior. HIPPOCAMPUS, 19(4), 409 - 410. doi:10.1002/hipo.20557

    2008

    • Jeewajee A, Lever C, Burton S, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2008). Environmental novelty is signaled by reduction of the hippocampal theta frequency. Hippocampus, 18(4), 340 - 348. doi:10.1002/hipo.20394
    • Jeewajee A, Barry C, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2008). Grid cells and theta as oscillatory interference: Electrophysiological data from freely moving rats.. Hippocampus, 18(12), 1175 - 1185. doi:10.1002/hipo.20510
    • Cacucci F, Yi M, Wills TJ, Chapman P, O'Keefe J (2008). Place cell firing correlates with memory deficits and amyloid plaque burden in Tg2576 Alzheimer mouse model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(22), 7863 - 7868. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802908105

    2007

    • Burgess N, Barry C, O'Keefe J (2007). An oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing. Hippocampus, 17(9), 801 - 812. doi:10.1002/hipo.20327
    • Cacucci F, Wills TJ, Lever C, Giese KP, O'Keefe J (2007). Experience-dependent increase in CA1 place cell spatial information, but not spatial reproducibility, is dependent on the autophosphorylation of the α-isoform of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(29), 7854 - 7859. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1704-07.2007

    2006

    • Barry C, Lever C, Hayman R, Hartley T, Burton S, O'Keefe J, Jeffery KJ, Burgess N (2006). The boundary vector cell model of place cell firing and spatial memory. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17(1-2), 71 - 79.
    • Lever C, Burton S, O'Keefe J (2006). Rearing on hind legs, environmental novelty, and the hippocampal formation.. Rev Neurosci, 17(1-2), 111 - 133.

    2005

    • Wills TJ, Cacucci F, Lever C, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2005). Abrupt shift in hippocampal place cell representation from square-like to circle-like in a morph box.
    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N (2005). Dual phase and rate coding in hippocampal place cells: theoretical significance and relationship to entorhinal grid cells. Hippocampus, 15(7), 853 - 866. doi:10.1002/hipo.20115
    • Wills TJ, Lever C, Cacucci F, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2005). Attractor dynamics in the hippocampal representation of the local environment. Science, 308(5723), 873 - 876. doi:10.1126/science.1108905
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2005). The theta rhythm.. Hippocampus, 15(7), 825 - 826. doi:10.1002/hipo.20111
    • (2005). The Theta Rhythm (special issue on Theta).. Hippocampus, 15, 825 - 826.
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2005). The theta rhythm. HIPPOCAMPUS, 15(7), 825 - 826. doi:10.1002/hipo.201111
    • Lever C, Burton S, Wills TJ, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2005). Subicular and dorsal CA1 hippocampal neurons react differently to environmental novelty.
    • Burgess N, Cacucci F, Lever C, O'Keefe J (2005). Characterising multiple independent behavioural correlates of cell firing in freely moving animals. Hippocampus, 15(2), 149 - 153.

    2004

    • Wills TJ, Cacucci F, Lever C, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2004). Abrupt shift in hippocampal place cell representation from square-like to circle-like in a morph box.
    • Cacucci F, Lever C, Wills TJ, Burgess N, O Keefe J (2004). Theta-modulated place-by-direction cells in hippocampal formation in the rat.. Journal of Neuroscience, 24(38), 8265 - 8277. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2635-04.2004

    2003

    • O'Keefe J (2003). Hippocampus. In (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science Volume 2 (pp. 336 - 347). : Macmillan Press.
    • O'Keefe J (2003). Place cells. In (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science Volume 3 (pp. 688 - 697). : Macmillan Press.
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2003). Neural representations in human spatial memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 517 - 519.
    • Huxter J, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2003). Independent rate and temporal coding in hippocampal pyramidal cells. Nature, 425(6960), 828 - 832. doi:10.1038/nature02058
    • Lever C, Cacucci F, Wills T, Burton S, McClelland A, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2003). Spatial coding in the hippocampal formation: input, information type, plasticity and behaviour.. In Jeffery KJ (Ed.), The Neurobiology of Spatial Behaviour (pp. - ). : Oxford University Press.
    • O'Keefe J (2003). Vector grammar, places, and the functional role of the spatial prepositions in English. In van der Zee E, Slack J (Ed.), Representing Direction in Language and Space (pp. 69 - 85). : Oxford University Press.

    2002

    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2002). Spatial models of the hippocampus. In Arbib MA (Ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks (pp. - ). : MIT Press.
    • Burgess N, Maguire E, O'Keefe J (2002). The human hippocampus and spatial and episodic memory. Neuron, 35(4), 625 - 641. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00830-9
    • King JA, Burgess N, Hartley T, Vargha-Khadem F, O'Keefe J (2002). Human hippocampus and viewpoint dependence in spatial memory. Hippocampus, 12(6), 811 - 820. doi:10.1002/hipo.10070
    • Lever C, Burgess N, Cacucci F, Hartley T, O'Keefe J (2002). What can the hippocampal representation of environmental geometry tell us about Hebbian learning?. Biological Cybernetics, 87(5-6), 356 - 372.
    • Lever C, Wills T, Cacucci F, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2002). Long-term plasticity in the hippocampal place cell representation of environmental geometry. Nature, 416(6876), 90 - 94. doi:10.1038/416090a

    2001

    • King JA, Burgess N, Hartley T, Vargha-Khadem F, O'Keefe J (2001). Bilateral damage to the human hippocampus selectively impairs allocentric as opposed to egocentric spatial memory.
    • Spiers H, Burgess N, Hartley T, Vargha-Khadem F, O'Keefe J (2001). Bilateral hippocampal pathology impairs topographical and episodic memory but not visual pattern matching. Hippocampus, 11(6), 715 - 725.
    • O'Keefe J (2001). Vector grammar, places, and the functional role of the spatial prepositions in English. In Van der Zee E, Slack J (Ed.), Axes and Vectors in Language and Space (pp. - ). : Oxford University Press.
    • Burgess N, Maguire E, Spiers H, O'Keefe J (2001). A temporoparietal and prefrontal network for retrieving the spatial context of lifelike events. NeuroImage, 14(2), 439 - 453.
    • Burgess N, Becker S, King J, O'Keefe J (2001). Memory for events and their spatial context: models and experiments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 356(1413), 1493 - 1503.
    • Spiers HJ, Burgess N, Maguire EA, Baxendale SA, Hartley T, Thompson PJ, O'Keefe J (2001). Unilateral temporal lobectomy patients show lateralized topographical and episodic memory deficits in a virtual town. Brain, 124(12), 2476 - 2489. doi:10.1093/brain/124.12.2476

    2000

    • Burton S, Murphy D, Qureshi U, O'Keefe J (2000). Combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum do not produce deficits in a non-spatial social-olfactory memory task.. EUR J NEUROSCI, 12, 82 - 82.
    • Spiers HJ, Burgess N, Maguire EA, Baxendale SA, Hartley T, O'Keefe J (2000). Effect of unilateral temporal lobectomy on topographical and episodic memory in a large-scale virtual reality town. European Journal of Neuroscience, 12, 79 - .
    • Hartley T, Burgess N, Lever C, Cacucci F, O'Keefe J (2000). Modeling place fields in terms of the cortical inputs to the hippocampus. Hippocampus, 10(4), 369 - 379. doi:10.1002/1098-1063(2000)10:4<369::AID-HIPO3>3.0.CO;2-0
    • Cacucci F, Lever C, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (2000). Topodirectional cells in the hippocampal formation of the rat.
    • Burton S, Murphy D, Qureshi U, Sutton P, O'Keefe J (2000). Combined lesions of hippocampus and subiculum do not produce deficits in a nonspatial social olfactory memory task. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(14), 5468 - 5475.
    • Burgess N, Jackson A, Hartley T, O'Keefe J (2000). Predictions derived from modelling the hippocampal role in navigation. Biological Cybernetics, 83(3), 301 - 312. doi:10.1007/s004220000172

    1999

    • O'Keefe J (1999). Do hippocampal pyramidal cells signal non-spatial as well as spatial information?. Hippocampus, 9(4), 352 - 364. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1063(1999)9:4<352::AID-HIPO3>3.0.CO;2-1
    • Lever C, Cacucci F, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1999). Squaring the circle: place fields do not "remap" between environments which differ only in shape.
    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N (1999). Theta activity, virtual navigation and the human hippocampus. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(11), 403 - 406.
    • Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (1999). Learned interaction of visual and idiothetic cues in the control of place field orientation. Experimental Brain Research, 127(2), pp.151 - 161.
    • Maguire E, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1999). Human spatial navigation: cognitive maps, sexual dimorphism, and neural substrates. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9(2), 171 - 177.
    • Jackson A, Hartley T, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (1999). A predictive geometric model of place field shape and location.
    • O'Keefe J (1999). Do hippocampal pyramidal cells signal non-spatial as well as spatial information?. Hippocampus, 9(4), pp.352 - 364.

    1998

    • Martin PD, O'Keefe J (1998). Place field dynamics and directionality in a spatial memory task. Brain Research, 783(2), 249 - 261. doi:10.1016/S0006-8993(97)01369-3
    • King C, Recce M, O'Keefe J (1998). The rhythmicity of cells of the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca in the awake freely moving rat: relationships with behaviour and hippocampal theta. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10(2), 464 - 477. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9568.1998.00026.x
    • Maguire E, Frith C, Burgess N, Donnett J, O'Keefe J (1998). Knowing where things are: Parahippocampal involvement in encoding object locations in virtual large-scale space. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(1), 61 - 76.
    • Burgess N, Donnett J, O'Keefe J (1998). The representation of space and the hippocampus in rats, robots and humans. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, 53(7-8), 504 - 509.
    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N, Donnett J, Jeffery K, Maguire E (1998). Place cells, navigational accuracy, and the human hippocampus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 353(1373), 1333 - 1340. doi:10.1098/rstb.1998.0287
    • Burgess N, Donnett J, O'Keefe J (1998). Using a mobile robot to test a model of the rat hippocampus. Connection Science, 10(3-4), 291 - 300.
    • Jeffery KJ, O'Keefe J (1998). Worm holes and avian space-time. Nature, 395(6699), 215 - 216. doi:10.1038/26094
    • Burgess N, Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (1998). Integrating hippocampal and parietal functions: a spatial point of view. In Burgess N, Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (Ed.), The Hippocampal and Parietal Foundations of Spatial Cognition (pp. pp.3 - 29). : Oxford University Press.
    • Burgess N, Donnett J, Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (1998). Robotic and neuronal simulation of the hippocampus and navigation. In Burgess N, Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (Ed.), The Hippocampal and Parietal Foundations of Spatial Cognition (pp. pp.149 - 166). : Oxford University Press.
    • (1998). The Hippocampal and Parietal Foundations of Spatial Cognition.
    • Maguire E, Burgess N, Donnett J, Frith C, Frackowiak R, O'Keefe J (1998). Knowing where and getting there, a human navigation network. Science, 280(5365), 921 - 924. doi:10.1126/science.280.5365.921

    1997

    • Burgess N, Donnett J, Jeffery K, O'Keefe J (1997). Robotic and neuronal simulation of the hippocampus and rat navigation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 352(1360), 1535 - 1543.
    • Jeffery K, Donnett J, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1997). Directional control of hippocampal place fields. Experimental Brain Research, 117(1), 131 - 142.
    • Jeffery KJ, Donnett JG, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1997). Poster: Orientation of hippocampal place fields in a symmetrical environment.
    • Maguire EA, Burgess N, Donnett JG, Frith CD, O'Keefe JM (1997). Differential involvement of right hippocampus, left hippocampus and inferior parietal cortex in human spatial navigation. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 23, 2107 - 2107.
    • Burgess N, Jeffery KJ, O'Keefe J (1997). What are the parietal and hippocampal contributions to spatial cognition? - Introduction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 352(1360), 1397 - 1399. doi:10.1098/rstb.1997.0125
    • O'Keefe JM (1997). Cartography of the mind. MRC News, 77, 32 - 34.

    1996

    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N (1996). Spatial and temporal determinants of the hippocampal place cell activity. In Ono T (Ed.), Perception, Memory and Emotion: Frontiers in Neuroscience (pp. 358 - 373). : Elsevier.
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1996). Neuronal computations underlying the firing of place cells and their role in navigation. Hippocampus, 6, 749 - 762.
    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N (1996). Geometric determinants of the place fields of hippocampal neurons. Nature, 381, 425 - 428.
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J (1996). Cognitive graphs, resistive grids, and the hippocampal representation of space.. J Gen Physiol, 107(6), 659 - 662.

    1995

    • Burgess N, Recce M, O'Keefe J (1995). Spatial models of the hippocampus. In Arbib MA (Ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks (pp. 468 - 472). : MIT press.
    • O'Keefe J, Burgess N (1995). Geometric determinants of hippocampal place fields.
    • Jeffery KJ, Donnett JG, O'Keefe J (1995). Medial septal control of theta-correlated unit firing in the entorhinal cortex of awake rats.. NeuroReport, 6, 2166 - 2170.

    1994

    • O'Keefe J (1994). Developmental psychology. Cognitive maps in infants?. Nature, 370(6484), 19 - 20. doi:10.1038/370019a0
    • Burgess N, O'Keefe J, Recce M (1994). Toward a mechanism for navigation by the rat hippocampus. In Eeckman FH (Ed.), Computation in Neurons and Neural Systems (pp. 257 - 262). : Kluwer Accademic Publishers.

    1993

    • O'Keefe J (1993). Hippocampus, theta, and spatial memory.. Curr Opin Neurobiol, 3(6), 917 - 924.
    • O'Keefe J, Recce ML (1993). Phase relationship between hippocampal place units and the EEG theta rhythm.. Hippocampus, 3(3), 317 - 330. doi:10.1002/hipo.450030307

    1991

    • O'Keefe J (1991). An allocentric spatial model for the hippocampal cognitive map.. Hippocampus, 1(3), 230 - 235. doi:10.1002/hipo.450010303

    1990

    • Speakman A, O'Keefe J (1990). Hippocampal Complex Spike Cells do not Change Their Place Fields if the Goal is Moved Within a Cue Controlled Environment.. Eur J Neurosci, 2(6), 544 - 555.
    • O'Keefe J (1990). A computational theory of the hippocampal cognitive map.. Prog Brain Res, 83, 301 - 312.

    1987

    • O'Keefe J, Speakman A (1987). Single unit activity in the rat hippocampus during a spatial memory task.. Exp Brain Res, 68(1), 1 - 27.

    1983

    • O'Keefe J (1983). Two spatial systems in the rat brain--implications for the neural basis of learning and memory.. Prog Brain Res, 58, 453 - 464. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)60048-5
    • McNaughton BL, Barnes CA, O'Keefe J (1983). The contributions of position, direction, and velocity to single unit activity in the hippocampus of freely-moving rats.. Exp Brain Res, 52(1), 41 - 49.
    • Barnes CA, McNaughton BL, O'Keefe J (1983). Loss of place specificity in hippocampal complex spike cells of senescent rat.. Neurobiol Aging, 4(2), 113 - 119.
    • McNaughton BL, O'Keefe J, Barnes CA (1983). The stereotrode: a new technique for simultaneous isolation of several single units in the central nervous system from multiple unit records.. J Neurosci Methods, 8(4), 391 - 397.

    1982

    • Morris RG, Garrud P, Rawlins JN, O'Keefe J (1982). Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions.. Nature, 297(5868), 681 - 683.

    1979

    • O'Keefe J, Nadel L, Willner J (1979). Tuning out irrelevancy? Comments on Solomon's temporal mapping view of the hippocampus.. Psychol Bull, 86(6), 1280 - 1289.
    • O'Keefe J (1979). A review of the hippocampal place cells.. Prog Neurobiol, 13(4), 419 - 439.

    1978

    • O'Keefe J, Conway DH (1978). Hippocampal place units in the freely moving rat: why they fire where they fire.. Exp Brain Res, 31(4), 573 - 590.

    1977

    • Black AH, Nadel L, O'Keefe J (1977). Hippocampal function in avoidance learning and punishment.. Psychol Bull, 84(6), 1107 - 1129.
    • Ainsworth A, O'Keefe J (1977). A lightweight microdrive for the simultaneous recording of several units in the awake, freely moving rat.. J Physiol, 269(1), 8P - 10P.
    • Basbaum AI, Marley NJ, O'Keefe J, Clanton CH (1977). Reversal of morphine and stimulus-produced analgesia by subtotal spinal cord lesions.. Pain, 3(1), 43 - 56.
    • O'Keefe J, Black AH (1977). Single unit and lesion experiments on the sensory inputs to the hippocampal cognitive map.. Ciba Found Symp, (58), 179 - 198.

    1976

    • O'Keefe J (1976). Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat.. Exp Neurol, 51(1), 78 - 109.

    1975

    • Nadel L, O'Keefe J, Black A (1975). Slam on the brakes: a critique of Altman, Brunner, and Bayer's response-inhibition model of hippocampal function.. Behav Biol, 14(2), 151 - 162.
    • O'Keefe J, Nadel L, Keightley S, Kill D (1975). Fornix lesions selectively abolish place learning in the rat.. Exp Neurol, 48(1), 152 - 166.

    1971

    • O'Keefe J, Gaffan D (1971). Response properties of units in the dorsal column nuclei of the freely moving rat: changes as a function of behaviour.. Brain Res, 31(2), 374 - 375.
    • O'Keefe J, Dostrovsky J (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat.. Brain Res, 34(1), 171 - 175.

    1969

    • Ainsworth A, Gaffan GD, O'Keefe J, Sampson R (1969). A technique for recording units in the medulla of the awake, freely moving rat.. J Physiol, 202(2), 80P - 82P.
    • O'Keefe J, Bouma H (1969). Complex swnsory properties of certain amygadala units in the freely moving cat.. Exp Neurol, 23(3), 384 - 398.

    • Barry C, Ginzberg LL, O'Keefe J, Burgess N (). Grid cell firing patterns signal environmental novelty by expansion. , , - .
    • Chen G, King JA, Burgess N, O'Keefe J (). How vision and movement combine in the hippocampal place code. PNAS, In Press, - .