Prof Judith Breuer


Personal Profile

Name: Judith Breuer Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 3108 2130
Department: Div of Infection & Immunity Fax: 020 3108 2119
Position: Professor of Virology (Honorary Consultant) Address: Divison of Infection & Immunity, Cruciform Building, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Global Health Web Page:  


Research Description

Professor Breuer's research at the MCR-UCL Centre for Molecular Virology has resulted in the successful development of methodoligies to recover low copy viral DNA from clinical samples and subsequent generation of template suitable for whole genome sequencing, including the detection of rare variants. She is currently applying these methods to investigate the genetic association of Varicella zoster (VZV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) with different disease states. Other research interests include genetic variation of alpha HSV and pathogenesis in skin tissue, and broader molecular diagnostic tools in viral disease. Professor Breuer also holds positions as Consultant Virologist at Great Ormond Street Hospital, and Head of the VZV Reference Laboratory (

Research Activities

Viral Sequencing and Molecular Diagnosis

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators



    • Jones M, Dry IR, Frampton D, Singh M, Kanda RK, Yee MB, Kellam P, Hollinshead M, Kinchington PR, O'Toole EA, Breuer J (2014). RNA-seq Analysis of Host and Viral Gene Expression Highlights Interaction between Varicella Zoster Virus and Keratinocyte Differentiation. PLoS Pathogens, 10(1), - . doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003896


    • Kennedy PGE, Montague P, Scott F, Grinfeld E, Ashrafi GH, Breuer J, Rowan EG (2013). Varicella-Zoster Viruses Associated with Post-Herpetic Neuralgia Induce Sodium Current Density Increases in the ND7-23 Nav-1.8 Neuroblastoma Cell Line. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e51570 - e51570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051570
    • Depledge D, Kundu S, Jensen N, Gray E, Jones M, Steinberg S, Gershon A, Kinchington P, Schmid D, Balloux F, Nichols R, Breuer J (2013). Deep sequencing of viral genomes provides insight into the evolution and pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus and its vaccine in humans.. Mol Biol Evol, , - . doi:10.1093/molbev/mst210
    • Antonsson A, Waterboer T, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Abeni D, de Koning M, Euvrard S, Feltkamp MC, Green AC, Harwood CA, Naldi L, Nindl I, Pfister HJ, Proby CM, Quint WG, Stockfleth E, Weissenborn SJ, Pawlita M, Neale RE, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2013). Longitudinal study of seroprevalence and serostability of 34 human papillomavirus types in European organ transplant recipients.. Virology, 436(1), 91 - 99. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.10.037
    • Quinlivan M, Sengupta N, Papaevangelou V, Sauerbrei A, Grillner L, Rousseva R, Hague R, Lutsar I, Jogi P, Leca A, Grytchol R, Alain S, Breuer J (2013). Use of Oral Fluid to Examine the Molecular Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 207(4), 588 - 593. doi:10.1093/infdis/jis649
    • Ebert K, Depledge DP, Breuer J, Harman L, Elliott G (2013). Mode of Virus Rescue Determines the Acquisition of VHS Mutations in VP22 Negative Viruses of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.. J Virol, , - . doi:10.1128/JVI.01654-13
    • Kundu S, Lockwood J, Depledge DP, Chaudhry Y, Aston A, Rao K, Hartley JC, Goodfellow I, Breuer J (2013). Next-generation whole genome sequencing identifies the direction of norovirus transmission in linked patients.. Clin Infect Dis, 57(3), 407 - 414. doi:10.1093/cid/cit287
    • Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Sandhu D, Sobande TO, Agius E, Lacy KE, Riddell N, Montez S, Dintwe OB, Scriba TJ, Breuer J, Nikolich-Zugich J, Ogg G, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2013). Varicella zoster-specific CD4+Foxp3+ T cells accumulate after cutaneous antigen challenge in humans.. J Immunol, 190(3), 977 - 986. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1201331


    • Weissenborn S, Neale RE, Waterboer T, Abeni D, Bavinck JN, Green AC, Harwood CA, Euvrard S, Feltkamp MC, de Koning MN, Naldi L, Quint WG, Tessari G, Proby CM, Wieland U, Pfister H, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2012). Beta-papillomavirus DNA loads in hair follicles of immunocompetent people and organ transplant recipients.. Med Microbiol Immunol, 201(2), 117 - 125. doi:10.1007/s00430-011-0212-3
    • Sampogna F, Bavinck JN, Pawlita M, Abeni D, Harwood CA, Proby CM, Feltkamp MC, Euvrard S, Naldi L, Neale RE, Nindl I, Pfister H, Quint WG, Waterboer T, EPI-HPV-UV-CA Group (2012). Factors associated with the seroprevalence of 26 cutaneous and two genital human papillomavirus types in organ transplant patients.. J Gen Virol, 93(Pt 1), 165 - 174. doi:10.1099/vir.0.035493-0


    • Kanda RK, Quinlivan ML, Gershon AA, Nichols RA, Breuer J (2011). Population diversity in batches of the varicella Oka vaccine.. Vaccine, 29(17), 3293 - 3298. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.02.021
    • Nichols RA, Averbeck KT, Poulsen AG, Breuer J, al Bassam MM, Cabral F, Aaby P (2011). Household size is critical to varicella-zoster virus transmission in the tropics despite lower viral infectivity. Epidemics, 3(1), 12 - 18. doi:10.1016/j.epidem.2010.11.003
    • Khanom AB, Velvin C, Hawrami K, Schutten M, Patel M, Holmes MV, Atkinson C, Breuer J, Fitzsimons J, Geretti AM (2011). Performance of a nurse-led paediatric point of care service for respiratory syncytial virus testing in secondary care.. J Infect, 62(1), 52 - 58. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2010.11.002
    • McDonald SL, Maple PA, Andrews N, Brown KE, Ayres KL, Scott FT, Al Bassam M, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2011). Evaluation of the time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) for the detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibodies following vaccination of healthcare workers.. J Virol Methods, 172(1-2), 60 - 65. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.12.021
    • Proby CM, Harwood CA, Neale RE, Green AC, Euvrard S, Naldi L, Tessari G, Feltkamp MC, de Koning MN, Quint WG, Waterboer T, Pawlita M, Weissenborn S, Wieland U, Pfister H, Stockfleth E, Nindl I, Abeni D, Schegget JT, Bouwes Bavinck JN, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2011). A case-control study of betapapillomavirus infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in organ transplant recipients.. Am J Transplant, 11(7), 1498 - 1508. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03589.x
    • Quinlivan ML, Ayres KL, Kelly PJ, Parker SP, Scott FT, Johnson RW, Maple C, Breuer J (2011). Persistence of varicella-zoster virus viraemia in patients with herpes zoster.. J Clin Virol, 50(2), 130 - 135. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.10.014


    • Ashrafi GH, Grinfeld E, Montague P, Forster T, Ross A, Ghazal P, Scott F, Breuer J, Goodwin R, Kennedy PG (2010). Assessment of transcriptomal analysis of Varicella-Zoster-virus gene expression in patients with and without post-herpetic neuralgia.. Virus Genes, 41(2), 192 - 201. doi:10.1007/s11262-010-0515-2
    • Gilleece Y, Chadwick DR, Breuer J, Hawkins D, Smit E, McCrae LX, Pillay D, Smith N, Anderson J, BHIVA Guidelines Subcomm (2010). British HIV Association guidelines for antiretroviral treatment of HIV-2-positive individuals 2010. HIV MED, 11(10), 611 - 619. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00889.x
    • Gilleece Y, Chadwick DR, Breuer J, Hawkins D, Smit E, McCrae LX, Pillay D, Smith N, Anderson J, BHIVA Guidelines Subcommittee (2010). British HIV Association guidelines for antiretroviral treatment of HIV-2-positive individuals 2010.. HIV Med, 11(10), 611 - 619. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2010.00889.x
    • Bouwes Bavinck JN, Neale RE, Abeni D, Euvrard S, Green AC, Harwood CA, de Koning MN, Naldi L, Nindl I, Pawlita M, Pfister H, Proby CM, Quint WG, ter Schegget J, Waterboer T, Weissenborn S, Feltkamp MC, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2010). Multicenter study of the association between betapapillomavirus infection and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.. Cancer Res, 70(23), 9777 - 9786. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0352
    • Goulleret N, Mauvisseau E, Essevaz-Roulet M, Quinlivan M, Breuer J (2010). Safety profile of live varicella virus vaccine (Oka/Merck): five-year results of the European Varicella Zoster Virus Identification Program (EU VZVIP).. Vaccine, 28(36), 5878 - 5882. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.056
    • Mallitt KA, O'Rourke P, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Abeni D, de Koning MN, Feltkamp MC, Green AC, Quint WG, Michael KM, Pawlita M, Pfister H, Weissenborn S, Waterboer T, Neale RE, EPI-HPV-UV-CA Group (2010). An analysis of clustering of betapapillomavirus antibodies.. J Gen Virol, 91(Pt 8), 2062 - 2067. doi:10.1099/vir.0.017970-0
    • Breuer J (2010). VZV molecular epidemiology.. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol, 342, 15 - 42. doi:10.1007/82_2010_9
    • Singh M, Breuer J, Heseltine R, Cerio R, Millar J, Philpott MP, O'Toole EA (2010). Varicella-zoster replication and its association with keratin 15 expression and Wnt signalling.
    • Chouliaras G, Spoulou V, Quinlivan M, Breuer J, Theodoridou M (2010). Vaccine-Associated Herpes Zoster Opthalmicus and Encephalitis in an Immunocompetent Child. PEDIATRICS, 125(4), E969 - E972. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2633
    • Gershon AA, Gershon MD, Breuer J, Levin MJ, Oaklander AL, Griffiths PD (2010). Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of herpes zoster.. J Clin Virol, 48 Suppl 1, S2 - S7. doi:10.1016/S1386-6532(10)70002-0
    • Breuer J, Grose C, Norberg P, Tipples G, Schmid DS (2010). A proposal for a common nomenclature for viral clades that form the species varicella-zoster virus: summary of VZV Nomenclature Meeting 2008, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 24-25 July 2008.. J Gen Virol, 91(Pt 4), 821 - 828. doi:10.1099/vir.0.017814-0
    • Groom HCT, Boucherit VC, Makinson K, Randal E, Baptista S, Hagan S, Gow JW, Mattes FM, Breuer J, Kerr JR, Stoye JP, Bishop KN (2010). Absence of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus in UK patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. RETROVIROLOGY, 7, - . doi:10.1186/1742-4690-7-10
    • Agius E, Vukmanovic-Stejic M, Lacy KE, Sobande T, Breuer J, Ogg GS, Rustin MH, Akbar AN (2010). A defect of varicella-zoster-specific CD4+T-cell Infiltration after cutaneous antigen challenge in ageing.
    • Ayres KL, Talukder Y, Breuer J (2010). Humoral immunity following chickenpox is influenced by geography and ethnicity. J INFECTION, 61(3), 244 - 251. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2010.06.012
    • Groves KC, Averbeck K, Quinlivan ML, Scott FT, Breuer J (2010). A case of nosocominal VZV transmission.. J Clin Virol, 48(3), 226 - 227. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2010.03.003


    • Quinlivan M, Sengupta N, Breuer J (2009). A case of varicella caused by co-infection with two different genotypes of varicella-zoster virus.. J Clin Virol, 44(1), 66 - 69. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2008.09.004
    • Bonanni P, Breuer J, Gershon A, Gershon M, Hryniewicz W, Papaevangelou V, Rentier B, Rümke H, Sadzot-Delvaux C, Senterre J, Weil-Olivier C, Wutzler P (2009). Varicella vaccination in Europe - taking the practical approach.. BMC Med, 7, 26 - . doi:10.1186/1741-7015-7-26
    • Ashrafi H, Grinfeld E, Forster T, Ross A, Ghazal P, Breuer J, Goodwin R, Kennedy PGE (2009). Transcriptomal analysis of Varicella-Zoster-Virus gene expression in patients with and without Post-Herpetic Neuralgia.
    • Singh M, Heseltine R, Millar J, Cerio R, Breuer J, O'Toole EA (2009). Localization of varicella-zoster virus reactivation in neuronal and adnexal structures in skin.
    • Singh M, Breuer J, Heseltine R, Millar J, Philpott MP, O'Toole EA (2009). Varicella-zoster virus infection in skin shows prominent involvement of adnexal stem cell compartments.
    • Jones L, Malavige G, Jeffery K, Kempe E, Breuer J, Klenerman P, Ogg GS (2009). Tracking epitope-specific antiviral CD4(+) T cell responses to a live attenuated vaccine reveals ongoing functional responses. VACCINE, 27(52), 7398 - 7401. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.081
    • Weissenborn SJ, Neale R, de Koning MN, Waterboer T, Abeni D, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Wieland U, Pfister HJ, EPI-HPV-UV-CA Group (2009). Prevalence and multiplicity of cutaneous beta papilloma viruses in plucked hairs depend on cellular DNA input.. J Virol Methods, 161(2), 280 - 283. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.06.024
    • Waterboer T, Neale R, Michael KM, Sehr P, de Koning MN, Weissenborn SJ, Sampogna F, Abeni D, Green AC, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Pawlita M, EPI-HPV-UV-CA Group (2009). Antibody responses to 26 skin human papillomavirus types in the Netherlands, Italy and Australia.. J Gen Virol, 90(Pt 8), 1986 - 1998. doi:10.1099/vir.0.010637-0
    • de Koning MN, Weissenborn SJ, Abeni D, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Euvrard S, Green AC, Harwood CA, Naldi L, Neale R, Nindl I, Proby CM, Quint WG, Sampogna F, ter Schegget J, Struijk L, Wieland U, Pfister HJ, Feltkamp MC, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2009). Prevalence and associated factors of betapapillomavirus infections in individuals without cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.. J Gen Virol, 90(Pt 7), 1611 - 1621. doi:10.1099/vir.0.010017-0
    • Pinquier D, Gagneur A, Balu L, Brissaud O, Gras Le Guen C, Hau-Rainsard I, Mory O, Picherot G, De Pontual L, Stephan JL, Maple P, Breuer J, Aubert M, Caulin E, Sana C, Pradat P, Soubeyrand B, Reinert P (2009). Prevalence of anti-varicella-zoster virus antibodies in French infants under 15 months of age.. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 16(4), 484 - 487. doi:10.1128/CVI.00397-08


    • Sengupta N, Booy R, Schmitt HJ, Peltola H, Van-Damme P, Schumacher RF, Campins M, Rodrigo C, Heikkinen T, Seward J, Jumaan A, Finn A, Olcén P, Thiry N, Weil-Olivier C, Breuer J (2008). Varicella vaccination in Europe: are we ready for a universal childhood programme?. Eur J Pediatr, 167(1), 47 - 55. doi:10.1007/s00431-007-0424-0
    • Cunningham AL, Breuer J, Dwyer DE, Gronow DW, Helme RD, Litt JC, Levin MJ, Macintyre CR (2008). The prevention and management of herpes zoster.. Med J Aust, 188(3), 171 - 176.
    • Breuer J, Schmid DS (2008). Vaccine Oka variants and sequence variability in vaccine-related skin lesions.. J Infect Dis, 197 Suppl 2, S54 - S57. doi:10.1086/522140
    • Breuer J, Schmid DS, Gershon AA (2008). Use and limitations of varicella-zoster virus-specific serological testing to evaluate breakthrough disease in vaccinees and to screen for susceptibility to varicella.. J Infect Dis, 197 Suppl 2, S147 - S151. doi:10.1086/529448
    • Singh M, Breuer J, Cerio R, Millar J, Philpott MP, O'Toole EA (2008). Immunohistochemical study of varicella-zoster virus infection in skin confirms prominent involvement of the follicular epithelium.
    • Tunbridge AJ, Breuer J, Jeffery KJ, British Infection Society (2008). Chickenpox in adults - clinical management.. J Infect, 57(2), 95 - 102. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2008.03.004
    • Singh M, Breuer J, Cerio R, Millar J, Philpott MP, O'Toole EA (2008). Varicella zoster virus colocalizes within adnexal stem cell compartments of skin.
    • Cronin JG, Mesher D, Purdie K, Evans H, Breuer J, Harwood CA, McGregor JM, Proby CM (2008). Beta-papillomaviruses and psoriasis: an intra-patient comparison of human papillomavirus carriage in skin and hair.. Br J Dermatol, 159(1), 113 - 119. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08627.x
    • Breuer J (2008). Herpes zoster: new insights provide an important wake-up call for management of nosocomial transmission.. J Infect Dis, 197(5), 635 - 637. doi:10.1086/527421


    • Quinlivan ML, Gershon AA, Al Bassam MM, Steinberg SP, LaRussa P, Nichols RA, Breuer J (2007). Natural selection for rash-forming genotypes of the varicella-zoster vaccine virus detected within immunized human hosts.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 104(1), 208 - 212. doi:10.1073/pnas.0605688104
    • Dworkin RH, Johnson RW, Breuer J, Gnann JW, Levin MJ, Backonja M, Betts RF, Gershon AA, Haanpaa ML, McKendrick MW, Nurmikko TJ, Oaklander AL, Oxman MN, Pavan-Langston D, Petersen KL, Rowbotham MC, Schmader KE, Stacey BR, Tyring SK, van Wijck AJ, Wallace MS, Wassilew SW, Whitley RJ (2007). Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster.. Clin Infect Dis, 44 Suppl 1, S1 - 26. doi:10.1086/510206
    • Breuer J, Whitley R (2007). Varicella zoster virus: natural history and current therapies of varicella and herpes zoster.. Herpes, 14 Suppl 2, 25 - 29.
    • Breuer J, Quinlivan M, Al Bassam M, Macdonald S, Nichols RA, Steinberg SP, Russa PL, Gershon AA (2007). DNA sequence variability in Oka vaccine isolates.. J Infect Dis, 196(5), 801 - 802. doi:10.1086/520520
    • Sengupta N, Taha Y, Scott FT, Leedham-Green ME, Quinlivan M, Breuer J (2007). Varicella-zoster-virus genotypes in East London: a prospective study in patients with herpes zoster.. J Infect Dis, 196(7), 1014 - 1020. doi:10.1086/521365
    • Talukder YS, Kafatos G, Pinot de Moira A, Aquilina J, Parker SP, Crowcroft NS, Brown DW, Breuer J (2007). The seroepidemiology of varicella zoster virus among pregnant Bangladeshi and white British women in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, UK.. Epidemiol Infect, 135(8), 1344 - 1353. doi:10.1017/S0950268807008497
    • Quinlivan ML, Ayres K, Ran H, McElwaine S, Leedham-Green M, Scott FT, Johnson RW, Breuer J (2007). Effect of viral load on the outcome of herpes zoster.. J Clin Microbiol, 45(12), 3909 - 3914. doi:10.1128/JCM.00874-07
    • Hasnie FS, Breuer J, Parker S, Wallace V, Blackbeard J, Lever I, Kinchington PR, Dickenson AH, Pheby T, Rice AS (2007). Further characterization of a rat model of varicella zoster virus-associated pain: Relationship between mechanical hypersensitivity and anxiety-related behavior, and the influence of analgesic drugs.. Neuroscience, 144(4), 1495 - 1508.
    • Bouwes Bavinck JN, Euvrard S, Naldi L, Nindl I, Proby CM, Neale R, Abeni D, Tessari GP, Feltkamp MC, Claudy A, Stockfleth E, Harwood CA, EPI-HPV-UV-CA group (2007). Keratotic skin lesions and other risk factors are associated with skin cancer in organ-transplant recipients: a case-control study in The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and Italy.. J Invest Dermatol, 127(7), 1647 - 1656. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700776


    • Scott FT, Johnson RW, Leedham-Green M, Davies E, Edmunds WJ, Breuer J (2006). The burden of Herpes Zoster: a prospective population based study.. Vaccine, 24(9), 1308 - 1314. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.026
    • Quinlivan ML, Gershon AA, Albassam MM, Steinberg SP, IaRussa P, Sharrar RA, Nichols RA, Breuer J (2006). Natural selection of rash-forming genotypes of the varicella vaccine virus within humans.
    • Parker SP, Quinlivan M, Taha Y, Breuer J (2006). Genotyping of varicella-zoster virus and the discrimination of Oka vaccine strains by TaqMan real-time PCR.. J Clin Microbiol, 44(11), 3911 - 3914. doi:10.1128/JCM.00346-06
    • Pinot de Moira A, Edmunds WJ, Breuer J (2006). The cost-effectiveness of antenatal varicella screening with post-partum vaccination of susceptibles.. Vaccine, 24(9), 1298 - 1307. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.09.028
    • Molyneaux PJ, Parker S, Khan IH, Millar CG, Breuer J (2006). Use of genomic analysis of varicella-zoster virus to investigate suspected varicella-zoster transmission within a renal unit.. J Clin Virol, 36(1), 76 - 78. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2005.12.012
    • Quinlivan MA, Gershon AA, Nichols RA, La Russa P, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2006). Vaccine Oka varicella-zoster virus genotypes are monomorphic in single vesicles and polymorphic in respiratory tract secretions.. J Infect Dis, 193(7), 927 - 930. doi:10.1086/500835
    • Quinlivan M, Breuer J (2006). Molecular studies of Varicella zoster virus.. Rev Med Virol, 16(4), 225 - 250. doi:10.1002/rmv.502
    • Essevaz-Roulet M, Guenaneche F, Delattre D, Watson M, Breuer J (2006). European varicella zoster virus identification program: Presentation of 2,5 year results from September 2003 until June 2006..
    • Maple PA, Gray J, Breuer J, Kafatos G, Parker S, Brown D (2006). Performance of a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for measuring varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin G levels in adults and comparison with commercial enzyme immunoassays and Merck glycoprotein enzyme immunoassay.. Clin Vaccine Immunol, 13(2), 214 - 218. doi:10.1128/CVI.13.2.214-218.2006


    • Breuer J (2005). Varicella vaccination for healthcare workers.. BMJ, 330(7489), 433 - 434. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7489.433
    • Breuer J (2005). Varicella vaccination for healthcare workers - Is beneficial to patients and staff. BRIT MED J, 330(7489), 433 - 434.
    • Shahid M, Leedham-Green M, Breuer J (2005). Does adherence to universal precautions correlate with the prevalence of blood-borne infections?. J Hosp Infect, 60(3), 289 - 290. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2004.12.006
    • Purdie K, Surentheran T, Sterling J, Bell L, McGregor J, Proby C, Harwood C, Leigh I, Breuer J (2005). Human papillomavirus gene expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas from immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals.
    • Tang JW, Eames I, Li Y, Taha YA, Wilson P, Bellingan G, Ward KN, Breuer J (2005). Door-opening motion can potentially lead to a transient breakdown in negative-pressure isolation conditions: the importance of vorticity and buoyancy airflows. J HOSP INFECT, 61(4), 283 - 286. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2005.05.017
    • Shahid M, Leedham-Green M, Breuer J (2005). Does the adherence of universal precautions correlate with the prevalence of blood borne infections?.
    • Quinlivan M, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2005). An evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms used to differentiate vaccine and wild type strains of varicella-zoster virus.. J Med Virol, 75(1), 174 - 180. doi:10.1002/jmv.20253
    • Youshya S, Purdie K, Breuer J, Proby C, Sheaf MT, Oliver RT, Baithun S (2005). Does human papillomavirus play a role in the development of bladder transitional cell carcinoma? A comparison of PCR and immunohistochemical analysis.. J Clin Pathol, 58(2), 207 - 210. doi:10.1136/jcp.2004.017152
    • Breuer J (2005). Commentary on varicella vaccination of children in the United States: Assessment after the first decade 1995-2005. J CLIN VIROL, 33(2), 96 - 98. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2005.03.003
    • Purdie KJ, Surentheran T, Sterling JC, Bell L, McGregor JM, Proby CM, Harwood CA, Breuer J (2005). Human papillomavirus gene expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas from immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals.. J Invest Dermatol, 125(1), 98 - 107. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23635.x
    • Weissenborn SJ, Nindl I, Purdie K, Harwood C, Proby C, Breuer J, Majewski S, Pfister H, Wieland U (2005). Human papillomavirus-DNA loads in actinic keratoses exceed those in non-melanoma skin cancers.. J Invest Dermatol, 125(1), 93 - 97. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X.2005.23733.x
    • Quinlivan M, Breuer J (2005). Molecular and therapeutic aspects of varicella-zoster virus infection.. Expert Rev Mol Med, 7(15), 1 - 24. doi:10.1017/S146239940500966X
    • Talukder Y, Gopal R, Andrews N, Glenn M, Breuer J, Brown D (2005). Development and evaluation of Varicella zoster virus ELISA for oral fluid suitable for epidemiological studies.. J Virol Methods, 128(1-2), 162 - 167. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.04.013


    • Breuer J (2004). Microarray analysis: the evolving story of oral polio vaccines.. Heredity (Edinb), 92(1), 3 - 4. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800373
    • Breuer J (2004). Varicella immunisation for staff and inmates of institutions: is this the next step in the UK?. Commun Dis Public Health, 7(3), 162 - 163.
    • Quinlivan ML, Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Breuer J (2004). Rashes occurring after immunization with a mixture of viruses in the Oka vaccine are derived from single clones of virus.. J Infect Dis, 190(4), 793 - 796. doi:10.1086/423210
    • Taha YA, Quinlivan M, Scott FT, Leedham-Green M, Hawrami K, Thomas JM, Breuer J (2004). Are false negative direct immnufluorescence assays caused by varicella zoster virus gE mutant strains?. J Med Virol, 73(4), 631 - 635. doi:10.1002/jmv.20137
    • Harwood CA, Surentheran T, Sasieni P, Proby CM, Bordea C, Leigh IM, Wojnarowska F, Breuer J, McGregor JM (2004). Increased risk of skin cancer associated with the presence of epidermodysplasia verruciformis human papillomavirus types in normal skin.. Br J Dermatol, 150(5), 949 - 957. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.05847.x
    • Harwood CA, Surentheran T, Sasieni P, Proby CM, Bordea C, Leigh IM, Wojnarowska F, Breuer J, Mcgregor JM (2004). Increased risk of skin cancer associated with the presence of epidermodysplasia verruciformis human papillomavirus types in normal skin. BRIT J DERMATOL, 150(5), 949 - 957. doi:10.1111/j.0007-0963.2004.05847.x
    • Kennedy PG, Grinfeld E, Craigon M, Vierlinger K, Roy D, Breuer J, Ghazal P (2004). Use of a Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) microarray to identify global alterations in viral gene transcription in different cell types and different clinical VZV isolates. J NEUROVIROL, 10, 113 - 114.


    • Wagenaar TR, Grose C, Loparev VN, Schmid DS, Breuer J (2003). Genomic analysis of varicella-zoster virus: primers for individual open reading frames.. J Clin Virol, 28(1), 104 - 110.
    • Breuer J (2003). Live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of varicella-zoster virus infection: does it work, is it safe and do we really need it in the UK?. J Med Microbiol, 52(Pt 1), 1 - 3.
    • Scott FT, Leedham-Green ME, Barrett-Muir WY, Hawrami K, Gallagher WJ, Johnson R, Breuer J (2003). A study of shingles and the development of postherpetic neuralgia in East London.. J Med Virol, 70 Suppl 1, S24 - S30. doi:10.1002/jmv.10316
    • Barrett-Muir W, Scott FT, Aaby P, John J, Matondo P, Chaudhry QL, Siqueira M, Poulsen A, Yaminishi K, Breuer J (2003). Genetic variation of varicella-zoster virus: evidence for geographical separation of strains.. J Med Virol, 70 Suppl 1, S42 - S47. doi:10.1002/jmv.10319
    • Breuer J (2003). Commentary on Herpes zoster guidelines of the German Dermatological Society. J CLIN VIROL, 26(3), 291 - 293. doi:10.1016/S1386-6532(03)00032-5
    • Breuer J (2003). Monitoring virus strain variation following infection with VZV: is there a need and what are the implications of introducing the Oka vaccine?. Commun Dis Public Health, 6(1), 59 - 62.
    • Laundy M, Ajayi-Obe E, Hawrami K, Aitken C, Breuer J, Booy R (2003). Influenza A community-acquired pneumonia in East London infants and young children.. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 22(10 Suppl), S223 - S227. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000092192.59459.8b


    • Breuer J (2002). Vaccination to prevent varicella and shingles - Author's reply. J CLIN PATHOL, 55(5), 399 - 399.
    • PILLAY D, Emery VC, MUTIMER D, Ogilvie MM, Carman W, Mutton K, Wreghitt T, Westmoreland D, Breuer J, Zuckerman M (2002). Guidelines for laboratory monitoring of treatment of persistent virus infections. Journal of Clinical Virology, 25(1), 73 - 92.
    • Quinlivan M, Hawrami K, Barrett-Muir W, Aaby P, Arvin A, Chow VT, John TJ, Matondo P, Peiris M, Poulsen A, Siqueira M, Takahashi M, Talukder Y, Yamanishi K, Leedham-Green M, Scott FT, Thomas SL, Breuer J (2002). The molecular epidemiology of varicella-zoster virus: evidence for geographic segregation.. J Infect Dis, 186(7), 888 - 894. doi:10.1086/344228
    • Breuer J (2002). Studies on shingles, is the virus ordinary chickenpox virus?. Rev Med Virol, 12(1), 5 - 11.
    • McGregor JM, Harwood CA, Brooks L, Fisher SA, Kelly DA, O'nions J, Young AR, Surentheran T, Breuer J, Millard TP, Lewis CM, Leigh IM, Storey A, Crook T (2002). Relationship between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancer.. J Invest Dermatol, 119(1), 84 - 90. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01655.x
    • Muir WB, Nichols R, Breuer J (2002). Phylogenetic analysis of varicella-zoster virus: evidence of intercontinental spread of genotypes and recombination.. J Virol, 76(4), 1971 - 1979.


    • Smith NA, Shaw T, Berry N, Vella C, Okorafor L, Taylor D, Ainsworth J, Choudhury A, Daniels RS, El-Gadi S, Fakoya A, Moyle G, Oxford J, Tedder R, O'Shea S, de Ruiter A, Breuer J (2001). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infected patients. J INFECTION, 42(2), 126 - 133. doi:10.1053/jinf.2001.0792
    • Barrett-Muir W, Hawrami K, Clarke J, Breuer J (2001). Investigation of varicella-zoster virus variation by heteroduplex mobility assay.. Arch Virol Suppl, (17), 17 - 25.
    • Breuer J (2001). Vaccination to prevent varicella and shingles.. J Clin Pathol, 54(10), 743 - 747.
    • Harwood CA, Crook T, Brooks L, Kelly DA, Young AR, Breuer J, Millard TP, Lewis CM, Leigh IM, Storey A, McGregor JM (2001). Association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and susceptibility to skin cancer. J INVEST DERMATOL, 117(3), 777 - 777.
    • Wareham DW, Breuer J, Healy MT, Goldhill DR (2001). Pneumonitis in an elderly Bangladeshi man.. J Clin Pathol, 54(6), 494 - .
    • Breuer J, Scott F, Leedham-Green M (2001). Postherpetic neuralgia. Pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia should be determined.. BMJ, 322(7290), 860 - .


    • Wareham DW, Breuer J (2000). Management of occupational exposure to hepatitis C: survey of United Kingdom practice.. Commun Dis Public Health, 3(4), 295 - 296.
    • Ushiro-Lumb I, Norman J, Skinner C, Murphy M, Breuer J, Aitken C (2000). Performance of a HIV-1 genotyping assay with non-B subtypes: the East London experience. AIDS, 14, S120 - S120.
    • Ushiro-Lumb I, Norman J, Skinner C, Murphy M, Breuer J, Aitken C (2000). Does HIV-1 subtype influence genotypic changes associated with anti-retroviral failure. AIDS, 14, S121 - S121.
    • Whittam LR, MacDonald DM, Calonje E, Breuer J, Spink P, Barker JN (2000). Truncal hypopigmented macules and facial hyperpigmented papules.. Arch Dermatol, 136(2), 260 - 264.
    • Harwood CA, Surentheran T, McGregor JM, Spink PJ, Leigh IM, Breuer J, Proby CM (2000). Human papillomavirus infection and non-melanoma skin cancer in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals.. J Med Virol, 61(3), 289 - 297.
    • Helbert M, Breuer J (2000). Monitoring patients with HIV disease.. J Clin Pathol, 53(4), 266 - 272.
    • Barrett-Muir W, Breuer J, Millar C, Thomas J, Jeffries D, Yaqoob M, Aitken C (2000). CMV viral load measurements in whole blood and plasma--which is best following renal transplantation?. Transplantation, 70(1), 116 - 119.


    • Hawrami K, Breuer J (1999). Development of a fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction assay (TaqMan) for the detection and quantitation of varicella zoster virus.. J Virol Methods, 79(1), 33 - 40.
    • Johnson RW, Dworkin RH, Breuer J (1999). Untitled. EUR J PAIN, 3(4), 297 - 299.
    • Aitken C, Barrett-Muir W, Raftery M, Breuer J (1999). The clinical significance of ganciclovir resistance in a renal transplant patient.. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 14(4), 1050 - 1051.
    • Aitken C, Barrett-Muir W, Millar C, Templeton K, Thomas J, Sheridan F, Jeffries D, Yaqoob M, Breuer J (1999). Use of molecular assays in diagnosis and monitoring of cytomegalovirus disease following renal transplantation.. J Clin Microbiol, 37(9), 2804 - 2807.
    • Vella C, King D, Zheng NN, Fickenscher H, Breuer J, Daniels RS (1999). Alterations in the V1/V2 domain of HIV-2CBL24 glycoprotein 105 correlate with an extended cell tropism.. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 15(15), 1399 - 1402. doi:10.1089/088922299310106
    • Harwood CA, Spink PJ, Surentheran T, Leigh IM, de Villiers EM, McGregor JM, Proby CM, Breuer J (1999). Degenerate and nested PCR: a highly sensitive and specific method for detection of human papillomavirus infection in cutaneous warts.. J Clin Microbiol, 37(11), 3545 - 3555.
    • Aitken C, Hawrami K, Miller C, Barrett Muir W, Yaqoob M, Breuer J (1999). Simultaneous treatment of cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster infections in a renal transplant recipient with ganciclovir: use of viral load to monitor response to treatment.. J Med Virol, 59(3), 412 - 414.
    • Mulatero C, Surentheran T, Breuer J, Rudd RM (1999). Simian virus 40 and human pleural mesothelioma.. Thorax, 54(1), 60 - 61.
    • Harwood CA, McGregor JM, Proby CM, Breuer J (1999). Human papillomavirus and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer.. J Clin Pathol, 52(4), 249 - 253.


    • Storey A, Harwood C, Matlashewski G, Thomas M, Breuer J, Leigh I, Gardiol D, Kalita A, Banks L (1998). A genetic polymorphism determines susceptibility to Human Papillomavirus associated cancers.. J INVEST DERMATOL, 110(4), 485 - 485.
    • Barrett-Muir WY, Aitken C, Templeton K, Raftery M, Kelsey SM, Breuer J (1998). Evaluation of the murex hybrid capture cytomegalovirus DNA assay versus plasma PCR and shell vial assay for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus viremia in immunocompromised patients.. J Clin Microbiol, 36(9), 2554 - 2556.
    • Harwood CA, Spink PJ, Surentheran T, Leigh IM, Hawke JL, Proby CM, Breuer J, McGregor JM (1998). Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in PUVA-associated non-melanoma skin cancers.. J Invest Dermatol, 111(1), 123 - 127. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00240.x
    • Storey A, Thomas M, Kalita A, Harwood C, Gardiol D, Mantovani F, Breuer J, Leigh IM, Matlashewski G, Banks L (1998). p53 polymorphism and risk of cervical cancer - Reply. NATURE, 396(6711), 532 - 532.
    • Pawson R, Richardson DS, Pagliuca A, Kelsey SM, Hoque S, Breuer J, Newland AC, Mufti GJ (1998). Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in London: clinical experience of 21 cases.. Leuk Lymphoma, 31(1-2), 177 - 185. doi:10.3109/10428199809057597
    • Surentheran T, Harwood CA, Spink PJ, Sinclair AL, Leigh IM, Proby CM, McGregor JM, Breuer J (1998). Detection and typing of human papillomaviruses in mucosal and cutaneous biopsies from immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients and patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a unified diagnostic approach.. J Clin Pathol, 51(8), 606 - 610.
    • Oliver RT, Breuer J, Nouri AM, Campo S (1998). Malignancy associated papillomaviruses and morphology of human bladder cancer.. Cancer Surv, 31, 29 - 47.
    • Grassly NC, Xiang Z, Ariyoshi K, Aaby P, Jensen H, Schim van der Loeff M, Dias F, Whittle H, Breuer J (1998). Mortality among human immunodeficiency virus type 2-positive villagers in rural Guinea-Bissau is correlated with viral genotype.. J Virol, 72(10), 7895 - 7899.
    • Smith NA, Kennedy J, Bewley S, O'Shea S, du Mont G, Berry N, Breuer J, de Ruiter A (1998). HIV-2 in pregnancy: to treat or not to treat?. Int J STD AIDS, 9(4), 246 - .
    • Storey A, Thomas M, Kalita A, Harwood C, Gardiol D, Mantovani F, Breuer J, Leigh IM, Matlashewski G, Banks L (1998). Role of a p53 polymorphism in the development of human papillomavirus-associated cancer.. Nature, 393(6682), 229 - 234. doi:10.1038/30400


    • Hawrami K, Hart IJ, Pereira F, Argent S, Bannister B, Bovill B, Carrington D, Ogilvie M, Rawstorne S, Tryhorn Y, Breuer J (1997). Molecular epidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in East London, England, between 1971 and 1995.. J Clin Microbiol, 35(11), 2807 - 2809.
    • Xiang Z, Ariyoshi K, Wilkins A, Dias F, Whittle H, Breuer J (1997). HIV type 2 pathogenicity is not related to subtype in rural Guinea Bissau.. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 13(6), 501 - 505.
    • Hawrami K, Breuer J (1997). Analysis of United Kingdom wild-type strains of varicella-zoster virus: differentiation from the Oka vaccine strain.. J Med Virol, 53(1), 60 - 62.


    • Pawson R, Richardson D, Pagliuca A, Kelsey S, Hoque S, Breuer J, Newland AC, Mufti GJ (1996). Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma in London: Clinical experience of 21 cases.. BRIT J HAEMATOL, 93, 285 - 285.
    • Jenks P, Raftery MJ, Breuer J (1996). HTLV-I screening in Britain. Donors and recipients of organ transplants should also be screened.. BMJ, 312(7032), 707 - .
    • Hoque S, Kelsey S, van der Walt JD, Breuer J (1996). Experience of human lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in an East London hospital.. J Infect, 32(1), 33 - 39.
    • Jenks PJ, Breuer J (1996). Acyclovir in chickenpox.. Arch Dis Child, 74(2), 184 - .
    • Hawrami K, Harper D, Breuer J (1996). Typing of varicella zoster virus by amplification of DNA polymorphisms.. J Virol Methods, 57(2), 169 - 174.
    • Caldwell CJ, Barrett WY, Breuer J, Farmer SF, Swash M (1996). HTLV-1 polymyositis.. Neuromuscul Disord, 6(3), 151 - 154.
    • Richardson DS, Pawson R, Kelsey SM, Pagliuca A, Hoque S, Breuer J, Mufti GJ, Newland AC (1996). Therapy at adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma: Experience of two London hospitals. BRIT J HAEMATOL, 93, 1169 - 1169.
    • Harwood CA, Spink PJ, Breuer J, Proby CM, Leigh IM, Raftery MJ, Cunningham J (1996). Human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage in renal transplant recipients (RTRS) at high risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC).. J AM SOC NEPHROL, 7(9), A3428 - A3428.
    • Aitken C, BarrettMuir W, Hill S, Jeffries D, Breuer J, Parkin J (1996). Does the measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA concentrations using the digene hybrid capture assay predict response to therapy?. AIDS, 10, OP32 - OP32.
    • Aitken C, Booth J, Booth M, Boriskin Y, Testard H, Kempley S, Breuer J (1996). Molecular epidemiology and significance of a cluster of cases of CMV infection occurring on a special care baby unit.. J Hosp Infect, 34(3), 183 - 189.


    • Jenks PJ, Barrett WY, Raftery MJ, Kelsey SM, van der Walt JD, Kon SP, Breuer J (1995). Development of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma during immunosuppressive treatment following renal transplantation.. Clin Infect Dis, 21(4), 992 - 993.


    • Lewis DA, Jenks P, Gent AE, Side L, Breuer J (1994). Varicella-zoster vaccination for health care workers. Lancet, 343(8909), 1362 - 1363.


    • Breuer J, Jeffries DJ (1990). Control of viral infections in hospitals.. J Hosp Infect, 16(3), 191 - 221.
    • Breuer J, Kenny C, Shah N, Kitchen VS, Harris JR, Parry JV, Jeffries DJ (1990). HIV-2 antibody in a low-risk individual.. Lancet, 336(8711), 384 - .


    • Breuer J, Jeffries DJ (1989). Rape and seroconversion.. BMJ, 299(6706), 1032 - .
    • Murphy S, Breuer J, Chinn R, Goldmeier D, Harris JR (1989). HIV infection among sub-Saharan African patients in the UK.. Lancet, 2(8673), 1225 - .


    • Breuer J, Bragman SG, Sahatlevan MD, Philpott-Howard JN, Casewell MW (1988). The possible role of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of endocarditis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. J Infect, 16(1), 106 - 107.


    • Burnie JP, Matthews R, Lee W, Philpott-Howard J, Brown R, Damani N, Breuer J, Honeywell K, Jordans Z (1987). Four outbreaks of nosocomial systemic candidiasis.. Epidemiol Infect, 99(1), 201 - 211. doi:10.1017/S0950268800067030
    • Breuer J, Moniz C, Baldwin D, Parsons V (1987). The effects of zero magnesium dialysate and magnesium supplements on ionised calcium concentration in patients on regular dialysis treatment.. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2(5), 347 - 350.