Prof Gennadij Raivich


Personal Profile

Name: Gennadij Raivich Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 6796068
Department: Maternal & Fetal Medicine Fax:
Position: Professor of Perinatal and Neuroscience Address: 86-96 Chenies Mews, , London, WC1E 6HX
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine, Populations & Lifelong Health Web Page:  


Research Description

Research in the Perinatal Neuroscience group centres on 3 strongly interrelated themes: (a) Identification of the molecular causes of perinatal brain injury, particularly in cerebral palsy, a still unsolved problem of perinatal and neonatal medicine with profound clinical, educational and social implications and (b) Developing new therapeutic strategies, including pharmaceutical agents, vectors and embryonic or adult stem cells to prevent or reduce damage, as well as to promote neural repair. (c) Studies on molecular signals involved in successful regeneration in the adult peripheral and central nervous (d) system, needed for strategies to improve repair in spinal paralysis.

Research Activities

Mechanisms underlying loss of regenerative capabilities

Perinatal Neuroscience

Perinatal Neuroscience

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Martin Birchall; Prof Nikki Robertson; Prof Sebastian Brandner; Prof Donald Peebles; Prof Kristjan Jessen; Prof Rhona Mirsky; Dr Patrizia Ferretti; Miss Eridan Rocha Ferreira; Prof Patrick Anderson; Prof Charles Marson; Prof Peter Hammond; Prof Alexander Seifalian; Dr Mariya Hristova

External Collaborators

Mr Jonathan Britto; Mr David Dunaway; Mr Neil Bulstrode



    • Bale G, Oliver-Taylor A, Fierens I, Broad K, Hassell J, Kawano G, Rostami J, Raivich G, Sanders R, Robertson N, Tachtsidis I (2014). Investigation of cerebral autoregulation in the newborn piglet during anaesthesia and surgery.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 812, 165 - 171. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-0620-8_22


    • Robertson NJ, Kato T, Bainbridge A, Chandrasekaran M, Iwata O, Kapetanakis A, Faulkner S, Cheong J, Iwata S, Hristova M, Cady E, Raivich G (2013). Methyl-isobutyl amiloride reduces brain Lac/NAA, cell death and microglial activation in a perinatal asphyxia model.. J Neurochem, 124(5), 645 - 657. doi:10.1111/jnc.12097
    • Mirsky R, Arthur-Farraj P, Latouche M, Wilton D, Quintes S, Chabrol E, Woodhoo A, Jenkins B, Turmaine M, Behrens A, Raivich G, Jessen K (2013). SCHWANN CELL C-JUN IS ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESSFUL PERIPHERAL NERVE REGENERATION.
    • Arthur-Farraj P, Latouche M, Wilton DK, Quintes S, Chabrol E, Woodhoo A, Jenkins B, Turmaine M, Behrens A, Raivich G, Mirsky R, Jessen KR (2013). SCHWANN CELL C-JUN IS ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESSFUL NERVE REGENERATION.


    • Robertson NJ, Faulkner S, Fleiss B, Bainbridge A, Andorka C, Price D, Powell E, Lecky-Thompson L, Thei L, Chandrasekaran M, Hristova M, Cady E, Gressens P, Golay X, Raivich G (2012). Melatonin augments hypothermic neuroprotection in a perinatal asphyxia model. Brain, in press, - .
    • Fontana X, Hristova M, Da Costa C, Patodia S, Thei L, Makwana M, Spencer-Dene B, Latouche M, Mirsky R, Jessen KR, Klein R, Raivich G, Behrens A (2012). c-Jun in Schwann cells promotes axonal regeneration and motoneuron survival via paracrine signaling.. J Cell Biol, 198(1), 127 - 141. doi:10.1083/jcb.201205025
    • Jessen KR, Arthur-Farraj, PJ , Latouche, M , Wilton, DK , Quintes, S , Chabrol, E , Banerjee, A , Woodhoo, A , Jenkins, B , Rahman, M , Turmaine, M , Wicher, GK , Mitter, R , Greensmith, L , Behrens, A , Raivich, G , Mirsky, R (2012). c-Jun Reprograms Schwann Cells of Injured Nerves to Generate a Repair Cell Essential for Regeneration. Neuron, 75(4), 633 - 647. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.021
    • Hunt D, Raivich G, Anderson PN (2012). Activating transcription factor 3 and the nervous system. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 5(7), - . doi:10.3389/fnmol.2012.00007
    • Hunt D, Raivich G, Anderson PN (2012). Activating transcription factor 3 and the nervous system.. Front Mol Neurosci, 5, 7 - . doi:10.3389/fnmol.2012.00007
    • Patodia S, Raivich G (2012). Downstream effector molecules in successful peripheral nerve regeneration.. Cell Tissue Res, 349(1), 15 - 26. doi:10.1007/s00441-012-1416-6
    • Ruff CA, Staak N, Patodia S, Kaswich M, Rocha-Ferreira E, Da Costa C, Brecht S, Makwana M, Fontana X, Hristova M, Rumajogee P, Galiano M, Bohatschek M, Herdegen T, Behrens A, Raivich G (2012). Neuronal c-Jun is required for successful axonal regeneration, but the effects of phosphorylation of its N-terminus are moderate.. J Neurochem, 121(4), 607 - 618. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07706.x
    • Patodia S, Raivich G (2012). Role of transcription factors in peripheral nerve regeneration.. Front Mol Neurosci, 5, 8 - . doi:10.3389/fnmol.2012.00008
    • Acosta-Saltos C, Gonitel R, Acosta-Saltos A, Chavda S, Thrasher A, Anderson P, Raivich G (2012). Lentiviral GMCSF is neuroinflammatory and proregenerative.


    • Powell E, Faulkner S, Bainbridge A, Kereyni A, Kelen D, Chandrasekaran M, Lecky-Thompson L, Price D, Cady E, Raivich G, Golay X, Robertson NJ (2011). IMPROVED NEUROPROTECTION WITH MELATONIN-AUGMENTED HYPOTHERMIA VS HYPOTHERMIA ALONE IN A PERINATAL ASPHYXIA MODEL: A RANDOMIZED STUDY. PEDIATRIC RESEARCH, 70, 67 - 67. doi:10.1038/pr.2011.292
    • Kendall GS, Hristova M, Zbarsky V, Clements A, Peebles DM, Robertson NJ, Raivich G (2011). Distribution of pH changes in mouse neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic insult.. Dev Neurosci, 33(6), 505 - 518. doi:10.1159/000333850
    • Acosta-Saltos C, Gonitel R, Chavda S, Acosta-Saltos A, Rahim A, Thrasher A, Anderson P, Raivich G (2011). Viral expression of GM-CSF: neuroinflammatory response and effects on regeneration. HUM GENE THER, 22(10), A95 - A95.
    • Kendall GS, Hristova M, Horn S, Dafou D, Acosta-Saltos A, Almolda B, Zbarsky V, Rumajogee P, Heuer H, Castellano B, Pfeffer K, Nedospasov SA, Peebles DM, Raivich G (2011). TNF gene cluster deletion abolishes lipopolysaccharide-mediated sensitization of the neonatal brain to hypoxic ischemic insult.. Lab Invest, 91(3), 328 - 341. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2010.192
    • Acosta-Saltos A, Makwana M, Gilchrist A, Yilmaz D, Davis J, Acosta-Saltos C, DaCosta C, Behrens A, Raivich G (2011). The role of transcription factor c-Jun in SOD1 G93A-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    • RAIVICH G (2011). Transcribing the path to neurological recovery - from early signals through transcription factors to downstream effectors of successful regeneration.. Annals of Anatomy, in press, - .
    • Faulkner S, Bainbridge A, Kato T, Chandrasekaran M, Kapetanakis AB, Hristova M, Liu M, Evans S, De Vita E, Kelen D, Sanders RD, Edwards AD, Maze M, Cady EB, Raivich G, Robertson NJ (2011). Xenon augmented hypothermia reduces early lactate/N-acetylaspartate and cell death in perinatal asphyxia.. Ann Neurol, 70(1), 133 - 150. doi:10.1002/ana.22387


    • Gonitel R, Acosta-Saltos C, T MJ, Anderson P, Raivich G, Thrasher A (2010). Non-Integrating Polycistronic Lentiviral Vectors for Use in the Central Nervous System.
    • Makwana M, Werner A, Acosta-Saltos A, Gonitel R, Pararajasingham A, Ruff C, Rumajogee P, Cuthill D, Galiano M, Bohatschek M, Wallace AS, Anderson PN, Mayer U, Behrens A, Raivich G (2010). Peripheral facial nerve axotomy in mice causes sprouting of motor axons into perineuronal central white matter: time course and molecular characterization.. J Comp Neurol, 518(5), 699 - 721. doi:10.1002/cne.22240
    • Kanu N, Penicud K, Hristova MD, Wong B, Raivich G, Behrens A (2010). The ATM cofactor ATMIN protects against oxidative stress and prevents accumulation of DNA damage in the ageing brain. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(49), 38534 - 38542.
    • RAIVICH G, Peebles DM (2010). Infection, Inflammation and Damage to Fetal and Perinatal Brain.. In (Ed.), In The Newborn Brain. 2nd edition (pp. 245 - 260). : .
    • Hristova M, Cuthill D, Zbarsky V, Acosta-Saltos A, Wallace A, Blight K, Buckley SM, Peebles D, Heuer H, Waddington SN, Raivich G (2010). Activation and deactivation of periventricular white matter phagocytes during postnatal mouse development.. Glia, 58(1), 11 - 28. doi:10.1002/glia.20896


    • Wilton D, Arthur-Farraj P, Latouche M, Turmaine M, Behrens A, Mirsky R, Raivich G, Jessen K (2009). SCHWANN CELL C-JUN IS ESSENTIAL FOR PERIPHERAL NERVE REGENERATION.
    • Latouche M, Wilton D, Arthur-Farraj P, Dacosta C, Mitter R, Turmaine M, Raivich G, Behrens A, Mirsky R, Jessen KR (2009). SCHWANN CELL C-JUN REGULATES GLIAL SUPPORT FOR SURVIVAL OF PNS NEURONS AFTER INJURY.
    • Jessen KR, Arthur-Farraj P, Latouch-Hartman M, Wilton D, Bherens A, Raivich G, Mirsky R (2009). THE CONTROL OF NERVE DEVELOPMENT, PATHOLOGY AND REPAIR BY c-JUN AND NOTCH IN SCHWANN CELLS.
    • Arthur-Farraj P, Makwana M, Wilton D, Latouche-Hartman M, Acosta A, Cuthill D, Bherens A, Mirsky R, Raivich G, Jessen KR (2009). IN INJURED NERVES, C-JUN IN SCHWANN CELLS CONTROLS DEMYELINATION, NEURONAL SURVIVAL, AXONAL RE-GROWTH AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY.
    • Laufer J, Zhang E, Raivich G (2009). Three dimensional non invasive imaging of the vasculature in the mouse brain using a high resolution photoacoustic scanner.. Applied Optics, 48, D299 - D306.
    • Hristova M, Cuthill D, Zbarsky V, Acosta-Saltos A, Wallace A, Acosta-Saltos F, Blight K, Peebles D, Waddington S, Raivich G (2009). Periventricular Fountains of Microglia and the Down-Regulation of Microglial Activation (luring Postnatal Mouse Development.
    • Makwana M, Serchov T, Hristova M, Bohatschek M, Gschwendtner A, Kalla R, Liu Z, Heumann R, Raivich G (2009). Regulation and function of neuronal GTP-Ras in facial motor nerve regeneration.. J Neurochem, 108(6), 1453 - 1463. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05890.x
    • Acosta-Saltos A, Hristova M, Zbarsky V, Acosta-Saltos F, Peebles D, Behrens A, Raivich G (2009). Role of c-Jun in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.
    • Faulkner S, Kapetanakis AB, Bainbridge A, Kato T, DeVita E, Evans S, Cady EB, Raivich G, Scaravilli F, Robertson NJ (2009). Neuroprotective effects of xenon, hypothermia, and combined xenon and hypothermia after transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in the newborn piglet..
    • Rahim AA, Wong AM, Howe SJ, Buckley SM, costa-Saltos AD, Elston KE, Ward NJ, Philpott NJ, Cooper JD, Anderson PN, Waddington SN, Thrasher AJ, Raivich G (2009). Efficient gene delivery to the adult and fetal CNS using pseudotyped non-integrating lentiviral vectors. Gene Ther., 16(4), 509 - 520.


    • Hristova M, Zbarsky V, Cuthill D, Wallace A, Peebles D, Raivich G (2008). Regulation of microglial activation in the developing murine brain..
    • Mills C, Makwana M, Wallace A, Benn S, Schmidt H, Tegeder I, Costigan M, Brown RH, Raivich G, Woolf CJ (2008). Ro5-4864 promotes neonatal motor neuron survival and nerve regeneration in adult rats.. Eur J Neurosci, 27(4), 937 - 946. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06065.x
    • Hristova M, Zbarsky V, Kendall G, Makwana M, Miller F, Kaplan D, Raivich G, Peebles D (2008). The role of mitogen kinase kinase (MEK) and its inhibition in perinatal brain injury.
    • Rahim AA, Waddington SN, Wong AMS, Ward NJ, Elston KE, Buckley SMK, Philpott NJ, Cooper JD, Anderson PN, Thrasher AJ, Raivich G (2008). Efficient gene delivery to the adult and fetal central nervous system using pseudotyped non-integrating lentiviral vectors.
    • RAIVICH G (2008). c-Jun expression, activation and function in neural cell death, inflammation and repair.. J Neurochem, 107, 898 - 906.
    • Tebar LA, Géranton SM, Parsons-Perez C, Fisher AS, Bayne R, Smith AJH, Turmaine M, Perez-Luz S, Sheasby A, De Felipe C, Ruff C, Raivich G, Hunt SP (2008). Deletion of the mouse RegIIIβ (Reg2) gene disrupts ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling and delays myelination of mouse cranial motor neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(32), 11400 - 11405. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711978105
    • Wang X, Carmichael DW, Cady EB, Gearing O, Bainbridge A, Ordidge RJ, Raivich G, Peebles DM (2008). Greater hypoxia-induced cell death in prenatal brain after bacterial-endotoxin pretreatment is not because of enhanced cerebral energy depletion: a chicken embryo model of the intrapartum response to hypoxia and infection.. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 28(5), 948 - 960. doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600586
    • RAIVICH G (2008). Axonal Injury: Neuronal Response.. In (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (pp. - ). : Elsevier.


    • Nateri AS, Raivich G, Gebhardt C, Da Costa C, Naumann H, Vreugdenhil M, Makwana M, Brandner S, Adams RH, Jefferys JG, Kann O, Behrens A (2007). ERK activation causes epilepsy by stimulating NMDA receptor activity.. EMBO J, 26(23), 4891 - 4901. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj.7601911
    • Makwana M, Jones LL, Cuthill D, Heuer H, Bohatschek M, Hristova M, Friedrichsen S, Ormsby I, Bueringer D, Koppius A, Bauer K, Doetschman T, Raivich G (2007). Endogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 suppresses inflammation and promotes survival in adult CNS.. J Neurosci, 27(42), 11201 - 11213. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2255-07.2007
    • Rahim A, Ward N, Waddington S, Elston K, Cooper J, Philpott N, Anderson P, Thrasher A, Raivich G (2007). Cell-specific gene delivery to the adult and in utero CNS using pseudotyped non-integrating lentivirus.
    • Trajkovic M, Visser TJ, Mittag J, Horn S, Lukas J, Raivich G, Bauer K (2007). Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.. J Clin Invest, 117, 627 - 635.
    • Raivich G, Kendall G, Hristova M, Peebles DM, Nedospasov SA, Pfeffer K (2007). Inflammation and the neurodegenerative process in perinatal brain damage.
    • Raivich G, Makwana M (2007). The making of successful axonal regeneration: genes, molecules and signal transduction pathways.. Brain Res Rev, 53(2), 287 - 311. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.09.005
    • Raivich G, Bohatschek M, Kalla R (2007). Receptors and intracellular signals in the control of microglial morphology and function.


    • Guo C, Willem M, Werner A, Raivich G, Emerson M, Neyses L, Mayer U (2006). Absence of alpha7 integrin in dystrophin-deficient mice causes a myopathy similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum.Mol.Genet., 15(6), 989 - 998. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl018
    • Wang XL, Raivich G, Peebles DM (2006). Effect of mild hyperthermia on hypoxia induced neural cell death in chick embryos in ovo..
    • Rhodes KE, Raivich G, Fawcett JW (2006). The injury response of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is induced by platelets, macrophages and inflammation-associated cytokines.. Neuroscience, 140, 87 - 100.
    • Kendall GS, Robertson NJ, Iwata I, Peebles D, Raivich G (2006). N-Methyl-isobutyl-amiloride ameliorates brain injury when commenced before hypoxia-ischaemia in neonatal mice. Pediatric Research, , - .
    • RAIVICH G, Behrens A (2006). Role of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun in developing, adult and injured brain.. Progress in Neurobiology, 78(6), 347 - 363.
    • Kendall G, Varley H, Peebles DM, Raivich G (2006). Time window for sensitising effects of inflammation on hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury..


    • Raivich G (2005). Like cops on the beat: the active role of resting microglia.. Trends Neurosci, 28(11), 571 - 573. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2005.09.001
    • Iwata O, De Vita E, Bainbridge A, Iwata S, West DA, Raivich G, Peebles D, Cady EB, Ordidge R, Wyatt JS, Robertson NJ (2005). Cerebral energy depletion during hypoxia-ischaemia, therapeutic window, and regional severity of secondary energy failure in newborn piglets.
    • Iwata O, Thornton JS, Sellwood MW, Iwata S, Sakata Y, Noone MA, O'Brien FE, Bainbridge A, De Vita E, Raivich G, Peebles D, Scaravilli F, Cady EB, Ordidge R, Wyatt JS, Robertson NJ (2005). Depth of delayed cooling alters neuroprotection pattern after hypoxia-ischemia.. Annals of Neurology, 58(1), 75 - 87. doi:10.1002/ana.20528
    • Makwana M, Raivich G (2005). Molecular mechanisms in successful peripheral regeneration.. FEBS J, 272(11), 2628 - 2638. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04699.x
    • Raivich G, Banati RB (2005). Role of macrophages in EAE.. In Lavi E, Constantinescu CS (Ed.), Experimental Models of Multiple Sclerosis (pp. 109 - 132). : Springer.
    • Heppner FL, Greter M, Marino D, Falsig J, Raivich G, Hovelmeyer N, Waisman A, Rulicke T, Becher B, Aguzzi A (2005). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis repressed by microglial paralysis.. NAT MED, 11(2), 146 - 152. doi:10.1038/nm1177
    • Friedrichsen S, Heuer H, Christ S, Cuthill D, Bauer K, Raivich G (2005). Gene expression of connective tissue growth factor in adult mouse.. Growth Factors, 23, 43 - 53.
    • Liu ZQ, Bohatschek M, Pfeffer K, Bluethmann H, Raivich G (2005). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC2+)perivascular macrophages in the axotomized facial motor nucleus are regulated by receptors for interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).. Neuroscience, 131, 283 - 292.
    • Heppner FL, Greter M, Marino D, Falsig J, Raivich G, Hovelmeyer N, Waisman A, Rulicke T, Prinz M, Priller J, Becher B, Aguzzi A (2005). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis repressed by microglial paralysis (vol 11, pg 146, 2005). NAT MED, 11(4), 455 - 455.


    • Raivich G, Bohatschek M, Da Costa C, Iwata O, Galiano M, Hristova M, Nateri AS, Makwana M, Riera-Sans L, Wolfer DP, Lipp HP, Aguzzi A, Wagner EF, Behrens A (2004). The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration.. Neuron, 43(1), 57 - 67. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.06.005
    • Iwata O, Bainbridge A, West D, Cheong J, Priest A, Cady E, Shanmugalingam S, Raivich G, Ordidge R, Wyatt J, Robertson N (2004). Comparison of ADC values with neuronal necrosis in a piglet model of hypoxia-ischaemia.
    • Bohatschek M, Kloss CU, Hristova M, Pfeffer K, Raivich G (2004). Microglial major histocompatibility complex glycoprotein-1 in the axotomized facial motor nucleus: regulation and role of tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2.. J Comp Neurol, 470(4), 382 - 399. doi:10.1002/cne.20017
    • Wang XL, Dixon J, Raivich G, Peebles D (2004). The effect of endotoxin and hypoxia on the brain of chick embryos in ovo..
    • Brecht S, Kirchhof R, Chromik A, Willesen M, Nicolaus T, Raivich G, Wessig J, Waetzig V, Goetz M, Claussen M, Pearse D, Kuan CY, Vaudano E, Behrens A, Wagner E, Flavell RA, Davis RJ, Herdegen T (2004). Specific pathophysiological functions of JNK isoforms in the brain. European Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 363 - 377.
    • Raivich G, Banati RB (2004). Brain microglia and blood-derived macrophages: molecular profiles and functional roles in multiple sclerosis and animal models of autoimmune demyelinating disease. Brain Research Reviews, 46, 261 - 281.
    • Bainbridge A, Iwata O, West DA, Cheong JL, Priest AN, Cady EB, Shanmugalingam S, Raivich G, Ordidge RJ, Wyatt JS, Robertson NJ (2004). Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient of water to histology in a model of hypoxia-ischemia in new-born brain.
    • Werner C, Raivich G, Cowen M, Sillaber I, Spanagel R, Hofmann F (2004). Importance of NO/cGMP signalling via cGMP-dependent protein kinase II for controlling emotionality and neurobehavioural effects of alcohol. European Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 3498 - 3506.
    • Bohatschek M, Kloss CUA, Pfeffer K, Bluethmann H, Raivich G (2004). B7.2 on activated and phagocytic microglia in the facial axotomy model: regulation by interleukin-1 receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 and endotoxin. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 156, 132 - 145.


    • Gschwendtner A, Liu Z, Hucho T, Bohatschek M, Kalla R, Dechant G, Raivich G (2003). Regulation, cellular localization, and function of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) during the regeneration of facial motoneurons.. Mol Cell Neurosci, 24(2), 307 - 322.
    • Friedrichsen S, Heuer H, Christ S, Winckler M, Brauer D, Bauer K, Raivich G (2003). CTGF expression during mouse embryonic development.. Cell Tissue Res, 312(2), 175 - 188. doi:10.1007/s00441-003-0712-6
    • Heuer H, Christ S, Friedrichsen S, Brauer D, Winckler M, Bauer K, Raivich G (2003). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a novel marker of layer VII neurons in the rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience, 119, 43 - 52.
    • Kalla R, Kloss CUA, Bohatschek M, Krol J, von Maltzan X, Raivich G (2003). Loss of microglial ramification in microglia-astrocyte cocultures: involvement of adenylate cyclase, calcium, phosphatase and Gi-protein systems. Glia, 40, 50 - 63.
    • Raivich G, Jones LL, Kloss CUA, Werner A, Bohatschek M, Galiano M, Zhu XZ, Pfeffer K, Labow M, Liu ZQ (2003). Lymphocyte infiltration in the injured brain: role of proinflammatory cytokines. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 72, 726 - 733.
    • Friedrichsen S, Heuer H, Christ S, Brauer D, Winckler M, Bauer K, Raivich G (2003). Regulation and localization of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in the development of the mouse embryo. Cell Tissue Research, 312, 175 - 188.


    • Fuss B, Braun C, Raivich G, Kirchhoff F (2002). Imaging analysis of oligodendrocytes during myelination and trauma in living brain tissue of PLP-DsRED mice. GLIA, , S67 - S68.
    • Raivich G (2002). Microglial response in the axotomized facial motor nucleus. In Streit WJ (Ed.), The Microglia (pp. 166 - 187). : Springer Inc..
    • Raivich G, Liu ZQ, Kloss CUA, Labow M, Bluethmann H, Bohatschek M (2002). Cytotoxic potential of proinflammatory cytokines: combined deletion of TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 prevents motoneuron cell death after facial axotomy in adult mouse. Experimental Neurology, 178, 186 - 193.
    • Raivich G (2002). Cell recruitment in the axotomized facial nucleus, role of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules. In Ransohoff R (Ed.), Universes in delicate balance: Chemokines and the Nervous System (pp. 203 - 215). : Elsevier.


    • Raivich G (2001). Adhesion molecules in development, learning and regeneration. In (Ed.), Proceedings of the 29th G”ttingen Neurobiology Conference/4th German Neuroscience Meeting (pp. 226 - 231). : Thieme Inc.
    • Gerber J, Raivich G, Wellmer A, Noeske C, Kunst T, Werner A, Bruck W, Nau R (2001). A mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis mimicking several features of human disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 101, 499 - 508.
    • Werner A, Martin S, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Raivich G (2001). Leukocyte recruitment and neuroglial activation during facial nerve regeneration in ICAM-1-deficient mice: effects of breeding strategy. CELL TISSUE RES, 305(1), 25 - 41.
    • Galiano M, Liu ZQ, Kalla R, Bohatschek M, Koppius A, Gschwendtner A, Xu S, Werner A, Kloss CU, Jones LL, Bluethmann H, Raivich G (2001). Interleukin-6 (IL6) and cellular response to facial nerve injury: effects on lymphocyte recruitment, early microglial activation and axonal outgrowth in IL6-deficient mice.. Eur J Neurosci, 14(2), 327 - 341.
    • Bohatschek M, Werner A, Raivich G (2001). Systemic LPS injection leads to granulocyte into normal and injured brain: effects of ICAM-1 deficiency. Experimental Neurology, 172, 137 - 152. doi:10.1006/exnr.2001.7764
    • Vogelezang MG, Liu Z, Relvas JB, Raivich G, Scherer SS, ffrench-Constant C (2001). Alpha 4 integrin is expressed during peripheral nerve regeneration and enhances neurite outgrowth. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 6732 - 6744.
    • Carenini S, Maurer M, Werner A, Blazyca H, Toyka KV, Schmid CD, Raivich G, Martini R (2001). The role of macrophages in demyelinating peripheral nervous system of mice heterozygously deficient in p0. The Journal of Cell Biology, 152, 301 - 308.
    • Kalla R, Liu Z, Xu S, Koppius A, Imai Y, Kloss CU, Kohsaka S, Gschwendtner A, Moller JC, Werner A, Raivich G (2001). Microglia and the early phase of immune surveillance in the axotomized facial motor nucleus: impaired microglial activation and lymphocyte recruitment but no effect on neuronal survival or axonal regeneration in macrophage-colony stimulating factor-defici. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 436, 182 - 201.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (2001). Inflammatory response following nerve injury. In Ingoglia N, Murray M (Ed.), CNS Regeneration (pp. 287 - 314). : Marcel Decker.
    • Bohatschek M, Kloss CU, Kalla R, Raivich G (2001). In vitro model of microglial deramification: ramified microglia transform into amoeboid phagocytes following addition of brain cell membranes to microglia-astrocyte cocultures. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 64, 508 - 522.
    • Kloss CU, Bohatschek M, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (2001). Effect of lipopolysaccharide on the morphology and integrin immunoreactivity of ramified microglia in the mouse brain and in cell culture. Experimental Neurology, 168, 32 - 46.


    • Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (2000). Neurobiology of regeneration and degeneration. In May M (Ed.), The Facial Nerve (pp. 67 - 79). : Thieme.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (2000). Inflammatory response following nerve injury. In Ingoglia N, Murray M (Ed.), CNS Regeneration (pp. 287 - 314). : Marcel Decker.
    • Werner A, Willem M, Jones LL, Kreutzberg GW, Mayer U, Raivich G (2000). Impaired axonal regeneration in alpha7-integrin deficient mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 1822 - 1830.
    • Raivich G (2000). Non-neuronal cells in the injured brain: cellular pathology and molecular activation signals. In Krieglstein J, Klumpp S (Ed.), Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia (pp. 275 - 284). : Medpharm Scientific Publishers.
    • Jones LL, Liu ZQ, Shen J, Werner A, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (2000). Regulation of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 after nerve transection and direct trauma to the mouse brain. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 426, 468 - 492.


    • Hol EM, Schwaiger FW, Werner A, Schmitt A, RAIVICH G, Kreutzberg GW (1999). Regulation of the LIM-type homeobox gene islet-1 during neuronal regeneration.. Neuroscience, 88, 917 - 925.
    • Kloss CUA, Werner A, Shen J, Klein MA, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (1999). The integrin family of cell adhesion molecules in the injured brain: regulation and cellular localization in the normal and regenerating mouse facial nucleus.. J Comp Neurol, 441, 162 - 178.
    • RAIVICH G, Jones LL, Werner A, Blüthmann H, Doetschmann T, Kreutzberg GW (1999). Molecular signals for glial activation: pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the injured brain.. Acta Neurochir, 73 [Suppl], 21 - 30.
    • Schwaiger FW, Hager G, RAIVICH G, Kreutzberg GW (1999). Cellular activation in neuroregeneration.. Progress Brain Research, 117, 197 - 210.
    • RAIVICH G (1999). Neuroglial activation in the injured brain: graded response, molecular mechanisms and cues to physiological function.. Brain Res Rev, 30, 77 - 105.


    • Werner A, Kloss CU, Walter J, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (1998). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the mouse facial motor nucleus after axonal injury and during regeneration.. J Neurocytol, 27(4), 219 - 232.
    • RAIVICH G (1998). Immune surveillance in the injured nervous system: T-lymphocytes invade the axotomized mouse facial motor nucleus and aggregate around sites of neuronal degeneration.. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 5804 - 5816.
    • RAIVICH G (1998). Regulation of MCSF receptors on microglia in the normal and injured central nervous system: A quantitative immunofluorescence study using confocal laser microscopy.. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 395, 342 - 358.
    • Jones LL, Kreutzberg GW, RAIVICH G (1998). Transforming growth factor b’s 1, 2 and 3 inhibit proliferation of ramified microglia on an astrocyte monolayer.. Brain Research, 795, 301 - 306.
    • Raivich G, Jones LL, Kreutzberg GW (1998). Neuroglial activation in the injured brain: new insights from transgenic models.


    • Jones LL, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (1997). Regulation of CD44 in the regenerating mouse facial motor nucleus.. European Journal of Neuroscience, 9, 1854 - 1863.
    • Kloss CUA, Kreutzberg GW, RAIVICH G (1997). Proliferation of ramified microglia on an astrocyte monolayer: characterization of stimulatory and inhibitory cytokines.. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 49, 248 - 254.
    • Jones LL, Banati R, Graeber MB, Bonfanti L, RAIVICH G, Kreutzberg GW (1997). Population control of microglia: does apoptosis play a role?. Journal of Neurocytology, 26, 755 - 770.
    • Klein MA, Möller JC, Jones LL, Bluethmann H, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (1997). Impaired neuroglial activation in interleukin-6 deficient mice.. Glia, 19, 227 - 233.
    • Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G (1997). The microglial activation concept.


    • Möller JC, Klein MA, Haas S, Jones LL, Kreutzberg GW, RAIVICH G (1996). Regulation of thrombospondin in the regenerating mouse facial motor nucleus.. Glia, 17, 121 - 132.
    • RAIVICH G (1996). Signaling molecules and neuroglial activation in the injured central nervous system.. Keio Journal of Medicine, 45, 239 - 247.
    • Jones LL, Banati RB, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1996). Population control by cell death in situ: The fate of activated microglia.


    • Stürzl M, Brandstetter H, Zietz C, Eisenburg B, Raivich G, Gearing DP, Brockmeyer NH, Hofschneider PH (1995). Identification of interleukin-1 and platelet-derived growth factor B as major mitogens for the spindle cells of Kaposi's sarcoma: a combined in vitro and in vivo analysis.. Oncogene, 10, 2007 - 2016.
    • RAIVICH G, Reddington M, Haas CA, Kreutzberg GW (1995). Peptides in motoneurons.. Progress in Brain Research, 104, 3 - 20.


    • Raivich G, Graeber M, Gehrmann J, Moreno-Flores MT, Kreutzberg GW (1994). Regulation of transferrin receptors and iron uptake in normal and injured nervous system.. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, , S51 - S54.
    • Hellweg R, Raivich G (1994). Nerve growth factor: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications.. Pharmacopsychiatry, 27 Suppl 1, 15 - 17. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1014319
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1994). Pathophysiology of glial growth factor receptors.. Glia, 11(2), 129 - 146. doi:10.1002/glia.440110208
    • Raivich G, Moreno-Flores MT, Müller JC, Kreutzberg GW (1994). Regulation of microglial proliferation: colony-stimulating factors and their receptors.. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol, 20(2), 209 - 211.
    • Raivich G, Moreno-Flores MT, Möller JC, Kreutzberg GW (1994). Inhibition of posttraumatic microglial proliferation in a genetic model of macrophage colony stimulating factor deficiency in mouse.. European Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 1615 - 1618.
    • Hellweg R, RAIVICH G, Hartung HD, Hock C, Kreutzberg GW (1994). Axonal transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and NGF receptor in experimental diabetic neuropathy.. Experimental Neurology, 130, 24 - 30.
    • Haas CA, Dumoulin FL, Lazar P, Raivich G, Reddington M, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1994). The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regenerating facial nucleus.. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, , S71 - S74.


    • RAIVICH G, Gehrmann J, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1993). Quantitative immunocytochemistry in the rat facial nucleus using [125I]-iodinated secondary antibodies and in situ autoradiography: Nonlinear binding characteristics of primary monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 41, 579 - 592.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1993). Nerve growth factor and regeneration of peripheral nervous system.. Clin Neurol Neurosurg, 95 Suppl, S84 - S88.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1993). Peripheral nerve regeneration: role of growth factors and their receptors.. Int J Dev Neurosci, 11(3), 311 - 324.
    • Raivich G, Gehrmann J, Moreno-Floros M, Kreutzberg GW (1993). Microglia: growth factor and mitogen receptors.. Clin Neuropathol, 12(5), 293 - 295.


    • Dumoulin FL, Raivich G, Haas CA, Lazar P, Reddington M, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1992). Calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripheral nerve regeneration.. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 657, 351 - 360.
    • Monaco S, Gehrmann J, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1992). MHC-positive, ramified macrophages in the normal and injured rat peripheral nervous system.. Journal of Neurocytology, 21, 623 - 634.
    • RAIVICH G, Dumoulin FL, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1992). Calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regenerating rat sciatic nerve.. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 4, 107 - 115.


    • Lazar P, Reddington M, Streit WJ, RAIVICH G, Kreutzberg GW (1991). The action of calcitonin gene-related peptide on astrocyte morphology and cyclic AMP accumulation in astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brain.. Neuroscience Letters, 130, 99 - 102.
    • Raivich G, Graeber MB, Gehrmann J, Kreutzberg GW (1991). Transferrin receptor expression and iron uptake in the injured and regenerating rat sciatic nerve.. European Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 919 - 927.
    • RAIVICH G, Hellweg R, Kreutzberg GW (1991). NGF Receptor-mediated reduction in axonal NGF uptake and retrograde transport following sciatic nerve injury and during regeneration.. Neuron, 7, 151 - 164.
    • Dumoulin FL, Raivich G, Streit WJ, Kreutzberg GW (1991). Differential regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in regenerating facial nucleus and dorsal root ganglion.. European Journal of Neuroscience, 3, 338 - 342.
    • Knyihar-Csillik E, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G, Csillik B (1991). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in dorsal root terminals of the rat spinal cord is regulated by the axoplasmic transport in the peripheral nerve.. Neuroscience Letters, 131, 83 - 87.
    • Raivich G, Gehrmann J, Kreutzberg GW (1991). Increase of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptors in the regenerating rat facial nucleus.. J Neurosci Res, 30(4), 682 - 686. doi:10.1002/jnr.490300412
    • Knyihar-Csillik E, Kreutzberg GW, Raivich G, Csillik B (1991). A case for transmitter plasticity at the molecular level: axotomy-induced VIP increase in the upper spinal dorsal horn is related to blockade of retrograde axoplasmic transport of nerve growth factor in the peripheral nerve.. Acta histochemica, 91, 77 - 83.


    • Raivich G, Hellweg R, Graeber MB, Kreutzberg GW (1990). The expression of growth factor receptors during nerve regeneration.. Restor Neurol Neurosci, 1(3), 217 - 223. doi:10.3233/RNN-1990-13407


    • Streit WJ, Dumoulin FL, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1989). Calcitonin gene-related peptide increases in rat facial motoneurons after peripheral nerve transection.. Neuroscience Letters, 101, 143 - 148.
    • Graeber MB, Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1989). Increase of transferrin receptors and iron uptake in the regenerating facial motoneurons.. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 23, 342 - 345.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1989). Topography of beta NGF receptor-positive and AChE-reactive neurons in the central nervous system.. EXS, 57, 50 - 58.


    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1987). Expression of growth factor receptors in injured nervous tissue. I. Axotomy leads to a shift in the cellular distribution of specific b-nerve growth factor binding in the injured and regenerating PNS.. Journal of Neurocytology, 16, 689 - 700.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1987). Expression of growth factor receptors in injured nervous tissue. II. Induction of specific platelet-derived growth factor binding in the injured PNS is associated with a breakdown in the blood-nerve barrier and endoneural interstitial oedema.. Journal of Neurocytology, 16, 701 - 711.
    • RAIVICH G, Zimmermann A, Suter A (1987). Nerve growth factor receptor expression in chicken cranial development.. J Comp Neurol, 256, 229 - 245.
    • Raivich G, Kreutzberg GW (1987). The localization and distribution of high affinity b-nerve growth factor in the central nervous system of the adult rat. A light microscopic autoradiographic study using [125I]b-nerve growth factor.. Neuroscience, 20, 23 - 36.


    • RAIVICH G, Zimmermann A, Suter A (1985). The spatial and temporal pattern of bNGF receptor expression in the developing chick embryo.. EMBO J, 4, 637 - 644.