Prof David Becker


Personal Profile

Name: David Becker Email:
Title: Prof Tel:
Department: Cell & Developmental Biology Fax:
Position: Honorary Professor Address: Department of Cell & Developmental Biology, UCL, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Biomedical Imaging (Frontier Disciplines), Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

Wound healing 

We have shown that cell-cell communication through gap junctions plays a pivotal role in the wound healing process. In response to injury, the expression of different connexins is dynamically regulated at the transcriptional and translational level. We have found that actively down-regulating the gap junction protein Cx43, by applying an antisense gel to the wound, dramatically speeds up the process of wound healing whilst reducing inflammation and scarring. This patented approach is effective in promoting healing in a number of tissue injuries, from skin to cornea.

Diabetic wound healing is notoriously slow and often results in the formation of chronic wounds. We have found that in response to injury, the dynamic response of connexins in diabetic skin appears to be completely different from that of normal skin, with Cx43 turning on rather than off thereby generating different communication characteristics in the injured tissue. Preventing the abnormal turn on of Cx43 with out antisense gel restores healing rates to normal.  It also highlights connexin expression as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic wound healing.

Our Biotech company, CoDaTherapeutics is now developing this antisense which is performing well in Phase 2 clinical trials treating venous leg ulcers.

Research in the lab is investigating the roles of different connexins in chronic wound healing and fibrosis with the aim of understanding why these wounds fail to heal and searching for new therapeutic targets.

Research Activities

Axonal regeneration

Circadian rhythms. Light detection. Cell cycle timing.

Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

Functional adaptation of the musculoskeletal system and its application to Pathobiology of the skeleton

Gap junctions in development and disease

Role of gap junctions and regulatory proteins in the long-term maintenance of hearing.

Sensory cell death in the inner ear, repair of the sensory epithelia and protection and regeneration of hair cells

Signalling by the RAS family of oncogenes

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Dr Jonathan Gale; Prof Steve Bolsover; Prof Adrian Thrasher; Prof David Whitmore; Dr Pablo Rodriguez-Viciana; Prof Nora De Leeuw; Prof William Richardson; Prof Gordon Blunn; Dr Masazumi Tada; Dr Dan Jagger; Prof Philip Beales; Prof Helen Birch; Dr Yoshiyuki Yamamoto; Prof Patrick Anderson; Prof Andrew Forge; Dr Manlio Vinciguerra; Dr Alexander Hergovich; Prof Allen Goodship; Dr Jeremy Cook

External Collaborators



    • Samy RP, Kandasamy M, Gopalakrishnakone P, Stiles BG, Rowan EG, Becker D, Shanmugam MK, Sethi G, Chow VT (2014). Wound healing activity and mechanisms of action of an antibacterial protein from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus).. PLoS One, 9(2), e80199 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080199
    • Chowdhury B, David AL, Bader DL, Thrasivoulou C, Becker DL, Chowdhury TT (2014). Effect of Cyclic Tensile Strain on the Biochemical and Mechanical Properties of the Human Amniotic Membrane. REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES, 21(3), 137A - 137A.
    • Chowdhury B, David A, Bader D, Thrasivoulou C, Becker D, Chowdhury T (2014). PFM.37 Cyclic tensile strain increases PGE2 release leading to weakening of the human term amniotic membrane.. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, 99 Suppl 1, A93 - A96. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306576.267
    • Chowdhury B, David AL, Thrasivoulou C, Becker DL, Bader DL, Chowdhury TT (2014). Tensile strain increased COX-2 expression and PGE2 release leading to weakening of the human amniotic membrane.. Placenta, 35(12), 1057 - 1064. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.09.006


    • Gilmartin DJ, Alexaline MM, Thrasivoulou C, Phillips AR, Jayasinghe SN, Becker DL (2013). Integration of scaffolds into full-thickness skin wounds: the connexin response.. Adv Healthc Mater, 2(8), 1151 - 1160. doi:10.1002/adhm.201200357
    • Davis NG, Phillips A, Becker DL (2013). Connexin dynamics in the privileged wound healing of the buccal mucosa.. Wound Repair Regen, 21(4), 571 - 578. doi:10.1111/wrr.12054
    • Balasubramaniyan V, Dhar DK, Warner AE, Vivien Li WY, Amiri AF, Bright B, Mookerjee RP, Davies NA, Becker DL, Jalan R (2013). Importance of Connexin-43 based gap junction in cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure.. J Hepatol, 58(6), 1194 - 1200. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2013.01.023
    • Rich T, Henderson LB, Becker DL, Cornell H, Patterson-Kane JC (2013). Indicators of replicative damage in equine tendon fibroblast monolayers. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 9, - . doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-180
    • Gujadhur P, Jayasinghe S, Becker D (2013). Use of connexin43 antisense odn gel coated alginate microspheres in wound healing.. Int J Surg, 11(8), 601 - 602. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.06.081


    • Becker DL, Thrasivoulou C, Phillips AR (2012). Connexins in wound healing; perspectives in diabetic patients.. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1818(8), 2068 - 2075. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.11.017
    • Patterson-Kane JC, Becker DL, Rich T (2012). The pathogenesis of tendon microdamage in athletes: the horse as a natural model for basic cellular research.. J Comp Pathol, 147(2-3), 227 - 247. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2012.05.010
    • Mendoza-Naranjo A, Cormie P, Serrano AE, Wang CM, Thrasivoulou C, Sutcliffe JE, Gilmartin DJ, Tsui J, Serena TE, Phillips AR, Becker DL (2012). Overexpression of the gap junction protein Cx43 as found in diabetic foot ulcers can retard fibroblast migration.. Cell Biol Int, 36(7), 661 - 667. doi:10.1042/CBI20110628
    • Mendoza-Naranjo A, Cormie P, Serrano AE, Hu R, O'Neill S, Wang CM, Thrasivoulou C, Power KT, White A, Serena T, Phillips AR, Becker DL (2012). Targeting Cx43 and N-cadherin, which are abnormally upregulated in venous leg ulcers, influences migration, adhesion and activation of Rho GTPases.. PLoS One, 7(5), e37374 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037374
    • Henderson LB, Patterson-Kane JC, Becker DL, Rich T (2012). The higher adaptive capacity of fibroblasts from injury-prone flexor tendons in cell culture: influence of matrix and oxygen tension.
    • Wright JA, Richards T, Becker DL (2012). Connexins and diabetes.. Cardiol Res Pract, 2012, 496904 - . doi:10.1155/2012/496904


    • Thrasivoulou C, Virich G, Krenacs T, Korom I, Becker DL (2011). Optical delineation of human malignant melanoma using second harmonic imaging of collagen.. Biomed Opt Express, 2(5), 1282 - 1295. doi:10.1364/BOE.2.001282
    • Mendoza-Naranjo A, Bouma G, Pereda C, Ramírez M, Webb KF, Tittarelli A, López MN, Kalergis AM, Thrasher AJ, Becker DL, Salazar-Onfray F (2011). Functional gap junctions accumulate at the immunological synapse and contribute to T cell activation.. J Immunol, 187(6), 3121 - 3132. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1100378
    • Chin KY, Sutcliffe JE, Serena TE, O'Neil S, Hu RG, White A, Phillips R, Becker DL (2011). ABNORMAL CONNEXIN43 EXPRESSION IN CHRONIC WOUNDS MAY PERTURB HEALING. WOUND REPAIR REGEN, 19(2), A18 - A18.


    • Dimitrakakis G, Thrasivoulou C, Lincoln J, Becker DL (2010). The downregulation of connexion-43 in wound healing process (40 days post injury). An experimental study.


    • Young NJ, Becker DL, Fleck RA, Goodship AE, Patterson-Kane JC (2009). Maturational alterations in gap junction expression and associated collagen synthesis in response to tendon function. MATRIX BIOL, 28(6), 311 - 323. doi:10.1016/j.matbio.2009.05.002
    • Cook JE, Becker DL (2009). Gap-junction proteins in retinal development: new roles for the "nexus".. Physiology, 24(August), 219 - 230. doi:10.1152/physiol.00007.2009
    • Waghabi MC, Coutinho-Silva R, Feige JJ, Higuchi MDEL, Becker D, Burnstock G, Araújo-Jorge TC (2009). Gap junction reduction in cardiomyocytes following transforming growth factor-beta treatment and Trypanosoma cruzi infection.. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 104(8), 1083 - 1090.
    • Chang CY, Laux-Fenton WT, Law LY, Becker DL, Sherwin T, Green CR (2009). Antisense down regulation of connexin31.1 reduces apoptosis and increases thickness of human and animal corneal epithelia. CELL BIOL INT, 33(3), 376 - 385. doi:10.1016/j.cellbi.2008.12.006


    • Lei Y, Garrahan N, Hermann B, Becker DL, Hernandez MR, Boulton ME, Morgan JE (2008). Quantification of retinal transneuronal degeneration in human glaucoma: a novel multiphoton-DAPI approach. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 49(5), 1940 - 1945. doi:10.1167/iovs.07-0735
    • Cronin M, Anderson PN, Cook JE, Green CR, Becker DL (2008). Blocking connexin43 expression reduces inflammation and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 39(2), 152 - 160. doi:10.1016/j.mcn.2008.06.005
    • Marina N, Becker DL, Gilbey MP (2008). Immunohistochemical detection of connexin36 in sympathetic preganglionic and somatic motoneurons in the adult rat. Autonomic Neuroscience, 139(1-2), 15 - 23. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.12.004


    • Tibber MS, Becker DL, Jeffery G (2007). Levels of transient gap junctions between the retinal pigment epithelium and the neuroblastic retina are influenced by catecholamines and correlate with patterns of cell production. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 503(1), 128 - 134.
    • Stanley RL, Fleck RA, Becker DL, Goodship AE, Ralphs JR, Patterson-Kane JC (2007). Gap junction protein expression and cellularity: comparison of immature and adult equine digital tendons. Journal of Anatomy, 211(3), 325 - 334. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2007.00781.x
    • Wang CM, Lincoln J, Cook JE, Becker DL (2007). Abnormal connexin expression underlies delayed wound healing in diabetic skin. Diabetes, 56(11), 2809 - 2817. doi:10.2337/db07-0613
    • Becker DL, Webb KF, Thrasivoulou C, Lin C-C, Nadershahi R, Tsakiri N, Cook JE (2007). Multiphoton imaging of chick retinal development in relation to gap junctional communication. The Journal of Physiology, 585(3), 711 - 719. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.138776
    • Valasek P, Macharia R, Neuhuber WL, Wilting J, Becker DL, Patel K (2007). Lymph heart in chick - somitic origin, development and embryonic oedema. Development, 134(24), 4427 - 4436. doi:10.1242/dev.004697
    • Wang CM, Green C, Duft BJ, Becker DL (2007). Targeting connexin43 expression accelerates the rate of skin and diabetic wound repair. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2007.07.110
    • Gorbe A, Krenacs T, Cook JE, Becker DL (2007). Myoblast proliferation and syncytial fusion both depend on connexin43 function in transfected skeletal muscle primary cultures. Experimental Cell Research, 313(6), 1135 - 1148. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.01.012


    • Theodossiou TA, Thrasivoulou C, Ekwobi C, Becker DL (2006). Second harmonic generation confocal microscopy of collagen type I from rat tendon cryosections. Biophysical Journal, 91(12), 4665 - 4677. doi:10.1529/biophysj.106.093740
    • Wang M, Lincoln J, Becker D (2006). Gap junction expression in diabetic rat wound healing. J ANAT, 209(4), 569 - 569.
    • Becker DL (2006). Treatment of chronic wounds with formulations comprising antisense nucleotides to connexins.
    • Becker DL, Thrasivoulou C (2006). Imaging method and apparatus. Multiphoton second harmonic imaging for defining the borders of skin cancers..
    • Cronin M, Anderson P, Green CR, Becker DL (2006). Antisense delivery and protein knockdown within the intact central nervous system. Frontiers in Bioscience, 11, 2967 - 2975.
    • Nickel R, Becker D, Forge A (2006). Molecular and functional characterization of gap junctions in the avian inner ear. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 6190 - 6199. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1116-06.2006
    • Gorbe A, Becker DL, Dux L, Krenacs L, Krenacs T (2006). In differentiating prefusion myoblasts connexin43 gap junction coupling is upregulated before myoblast alignment then reduced in post-mitotic cells. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 125(6), 705 - 716.
    • Mori R, Power K, Wang CM, Martin P, Becker DL (2006). Acute downregulation of connexin43 at wound sites leads to a reduced inflammatory response, enhanced keratinocyte proliferation and wound fibroblast migration. Journal of Cell Science, 119(24), 5193 - 5203. doi:10.1242/jcs.03320
    • Nickel R, Becker D, Forge A (2006). Molecular and functional characterization of gap junctions in the avian inner ear. J NEUROSCI, 26(23), 6190 - 6199. doi:10.1523/KNEUROSCI.1116-06.2006
    • Law LY, Zhang W, Stott S, Becker DL, Green CR (2006). In vitro optimization of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide design: an example using the connexin gene family. Journal of Biomolecular Techniques, 17(4), 270 - 282.


    • Pearson RA, Catsicas M, Becker D, Mobbs P (2005). A technique for the study of cell migration in the developing chick retina.
    • Roberts R, Iatropoulou A, Ciantar D, Stark J, Becker DL, Franks S, Hardy K (2005). Follicle-Stimulating Hormone affects Metaphase 1 chromosome alignment and increases aneuploidy in mouse oocytes matured in vitro.. Biology of Reproduction, 72, 107 - 118.
    • Pearson RA, Luneborg NL, Becker DL, Mobbs P (2005). Gap junctions modulate interkinetic nuclear movement in retinal progenitor cells. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(46), 10803 - 10814. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2312-05.2005
    • Gorbe A, Becker DL, Dux L, Stelkovics E, Krenacs L, Bagdi E, Krenacs T (2005). Transient upregulation of connexin43 gap junctions and synchronized cell cycle control precede myoblast fusion in regenerating skeletal muscle in vivo. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 123, 573 - 583.
    • Coutinho P, Qiu C, Frank S, Wang CM, Brown T, Green CR, Becker DL (2005). Limiting burn extension by transient inhibition of Connexin43 expression at the site of injury. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 58, 658 - 667.
    • Mori R, Becker DL, Martin P (2005). Modulating the inflammatory response at wound sites to improve the quality of healing.
    • Becker DL, Green CR (2005). Antisense compounds targeted to connexins and methods of use thereof.


    • Pearson RA, Catsicas M, Becker DL, Bayley P, Luneborg NL, Mobbs P (2004). Ca2+ signalling and gap junction coupling within and between pigment epithelium and neural retina in the developing chick. EUR J NEUROSCI, 19(9), 2435 - 2445. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03338.x
    • Laux-Fenton WT, Chang C, McGhee CN, Grupcheva CN, Becker DL, Green CR (2004). Modulation of connexins for corneal tissue remodelling and engineering.
    • Saitongdee P, Becker DL, Milner P, Knight GE, Burnstock G (2004). Levels of gap junction proteins in coronary arterioles and aorta of hamsters exposed to the cold and during hibernation and arousal. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 52(5), 603 - 615.
    • Becker DL (2004). Visions of Science first prize "Action" images - formed part of a national touring exhibition. Telegraph and Royal Photographic Society, , - .
    • Stilinovic A, Green CR, Klette R, Franke S, Klette G, Becker DL (2004). Texture analysis of collagen fibers in scar tissue.
    • Roberts R, Stark J, Iatropoulou A, Becker DL, Franks S, Hardy K (2004). Energy substrate metabolism of mouse cumulus-oocyte-complexes: response to follicle-stimulating hormone is mediated by the phosphatididylinositol 3-kinase pathway and associated with oocyte maturation. Biology of Reproduction, 71, 199 - 209.
    • Pearson RA, Catsicas M, Becker DL, Bayley P, Luneborg NL, Mobbs P (2004). Ca(2+) signalling and gap junction coupling within and between pigment epithelium and neural retina in the developing chick. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(9), 2435 - 2445. doi:10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03338.x
    • Gorbe A, Becker DL, Dux L, Krenacs T (2004). Cx43 gap junction communication during muscle development.


    • Becker DL, Taskiri N, Thrasivoulou C, Mobbs P (2003). Potential role for CX43 in the migration of progenitor cells from chick retinal ventricular zone.
    • Pearson R, Catsicas M, Becker D, Mobbs P (2003). Ca2+ signalling and gap junctional communication in the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium of the embryonic chick eye.
    • Coutinho P, Qiu C, Frank S, Tamber K, Becker DL (2003). Dynamic changes in connexin expression correlate with key events in the wound healing process. Cell Biology International, 27, 525 - 541.
    • Luneborg N, Pearson R, Becker D, Mobbs P (2003). Purinergic and muscarinic signalling affect cell movements in the E5 embryonic chick retina.
    • Hardy K, Spanos S, Becker DL (2003). Cell death (Apoptosis) in human blastocysts. In Veeck LL, Zaninovic N (Ed.), An Atlas of Human Blastocysts (pp. 185 - 202). : CRC Press.
    • Berkovitz BKB, Becker DL (2003). The detailed morphology and distribution of gap junction protein associated with cells from the intra-articular disc of the rat temporomandibular joint. Connective Tissue Research, 44, 12 - 18.
    • Marziano NK, Casalotti SO, Portelli AE, Becker DL, Forge A (2003). Mutations in the gene for connexin 26 (GJB2) that cause hearing loss have a dominant negative effect on connexin 30. Human Molecular Genetics, 12(8), 805 - 812. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg076
    • Forge A, Marziano N, Casalotti SO, Becker DL, Jagger D (2003). The inner ear contains heteromeric channels composed of Cx26 and Cx30 and deafness-related mutations in Cx26 have a dominant negative effect on Cx30. Cell Communication and Adhesion, 10(4-6), 341 - 346.
    • Gorbe A, Becker DL, Dux L, Krenacs T (2003). Communication via gap junctions and its modification during skeletal muscle development.
    • Forge A, Becker D, Casalotti S, Edwards J, Marziano N, Nevill G (2003). Gap junctions in the inner ear:comparison of distribution patterns in different vertebrates and assessment of connexin composition in mammals. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 467(2), 207 - 231. doi:10.1002/cne.10916
    • Qiu C, Coutinho P, Frank S, Franke S, Law L-Y, Martin P, Green CR, Becker DL (2003). Targeting connexin43 expression accelerates the rate of wound repair. Current Biology, 13, 1697 - 1703. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2003.09.007


    • Forge A, Becker D, Casalotti S, Edwards J, Marziano N, Nickel R (2002). Connexins and gap junctions in the inner ear. Audiology and Neuro-Otology, 7(3), 141 - 145.
    • Berkovitz BKB, Becker D (2002). The morphology of fibroblasts and expression of gap junctions in the intra-articular disc of the rat temporomandibular joint.. JOURNAL OF DENTAL RESEARCH, 81, A387 - A387.
    • Common JEA, Becker DL, Di WL, Leigh IM, O'Toole EA, Kelsell DP (2002). Functional studies of human skin disease- and deafness-associated Connexin 30 mutations. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 298, 651 - 656.
    • Forster C, Makela S, Warri A, Kietz S, Becker DL, Hultenby K, Warner M, Gustafsson JA (2002). Involvement of estrogen receptor beta in terminal differentiation of mammary epithelium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 15578 - 15583.
    • Gorbe A, Dux L, Becker DL, Krenacs T (2002). Connexin43 gap junctions are involved in early skeletal muscle development.
    • Law LY, Lin JS, Becker DL, Green CR (2002). Knockdown of connexin43-mediated regulation of the zone of polarizing activity in the developing chick limb leads to digit truncation. Development Growth and Differentiation, 44, 537 - 547.
    • Becker DL, Bonness V, Catsicas M, Mobbs P (2002). Changing patterns of ganglion cell coupling and connexin expression during chick retinal development. Journal of Neurobiology, 52, 280 - 293.
    • Pearson RA, Catsicas M, Becker DL, Mobbs P (2002). Purinergic and muscarinic modulation of the cell cycle and calcium signaling in the chick retinal ventricular zone. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(17), 7569 - 7579.
    • Marziano NK, Casalotti SO, Portelli AE, Becker DL, Forge A (2002). Deafness related mutations in gap junction protein connexin 26 have a dominant effect on connexin 30.
    • Spanos S, Rice S, Karagiannis P, Taylor D, Becker DL, Winston RML, Hardy K (2002). Caspase activity and expression of cell death genes during development of human preimplantation embryos. Reproduction, 124, 353 - 363.
    • Bittman K, Becker DL, Cicirata F, Parnavelas JG (2002). Connexin expression in homotypic and heterotypic cell coupling in the developing cerebral cortex. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 443, 201 - 212.


    • Hardy K, Spanos S, Becker D, Iannelli P, Winston RML, Stark J (2001). From cell death to embryo arrest: Mathematical models of human preimplantation embryo development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(4), 1655 - 1660.
    • Becker D, Ciantar D, Catsicas M, Pearson R, Mobbs P (2001). Use of pIRES vectors to express EGFP and connexin constructs in studies of the role of gap junctional communication in the early development of the chick retina and brain. Cell Communication and Adhesion, 8(4-6), 355 - 359.
    • Wright CS, Becker DL, Lin JS, Warner A, Hardy K (2001). Stage-specific and differential expression of gap junctions in the mouse ovary: connexin-specific roles in follicular regulation. Reproduction, 121, 77 - 88. doi:10.1530/rep.0.1210077
    • McGonnell IM, Green CR, Tickle C, Becker DL (2001). Connexin43 gap junction protein plays an essential role in morphogenesis of the embryonic chick face.. Dev Dyn, 222(3), 420 - 438. doi:10.1002/dvdy.1208
    • Pearson R, Catsicas M, Becker D, Mobbs P (2001). Neurotransmitter regulation of calcium signalling and proliferation in progenitor cells of the embryonic chick retina. JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, 533, 51P - 51P.
    • Ratkay-Traub I, Hopp B, Bor Z, Dux L, Becker DL, Krenacs T (2001). Regeneration of rabbit cornea following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy: a study on gap junctions, epithelial junctions and epidermal growth factor receptor expression in correlation with cell proliferation. Experimental Eye Research, 73, 291 - 302.
    • McGonnel I, Green CR, Tickle C, Becker DL (2001). Communication through connexin 43 gap junction channels contributes to the normal development of the embryonic face. Developmental Dynamics, 222, 420 - 438.
    • Green CR, Law LY, Lin JS, Becker DL (2001). Spatiotemporal depletion of connexins using antisense oligonucleotides. In Bruzzone R, Giuame C (Ed.), Techniques in the Study of Gap Junctions. Connexin Methods and Protocols (pp. 175 - 185). : .
    • Di W-L, Lachelin GCL, McGarrigle HHG, Thomas NSB, Becker DL (2001). Oestriol and oestradiol increase cell to cell communication and connexin43 protein expression in human myometrium. Molecular Human Reproduction, 7(7), 671 - 679.
    • Becker DL (2001). Images.
    • Spanos S, Rice S, Becker D, Winston RML, Hardy K (2001). Timing of caspase activity and expression of apoptosis-related genes in human preimplantation embryos.. BIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION, 64, 260 - 260.
    • Becker DL (2001). Images and article about my work. Wired, , - .
    • Becker DL (2001). Gap junction-mediated interactions between cells. In Fleming TP (Ed.), Cell-Cell Interactions - A Practical Approach (pp. 47 - 70). : .


    • Pearson R, Catsicas M, Becker D, Mobbs P (2000). Calcium signalling amongst progenitor cells of the embryonic chick retina.
    • Becker DL, Green CR (2000). Formulations comprising Antisense Nucleotides to Connexins.
    • Becker DL, Green CR (2000). Formulations comprising Antisense Nucleotides to Connexins.
    • Edwards JC, Becker DL, Forge A (2000). Differential expression of conexin isoforms in the developing and mature mouse inner ear.
    • Pearson R, Catsicas M, Becker D, Mobbs P (2000). ACh and GABA induce calcium signals in different cell populations in the proliferative zone of the developing chick retina.
    • Law LY, Lin JS, Becker DL, Green CR (2000). The role of Connexin43 gap junction channels in early chick limb development.. MOL BIOL CELL, 11, 523A - 523A.
    • Green CR, Law LY, Lin JS, Becker DL (2000). Spatiotemporal depletion of connexins using antisense oligonucleotides. In Bruzzone R, Giuame C (Ed.), Techniques in the study of gap junctions. Connexin methods and protocols 154 (pp. - ). : .
    • Spanos S, Becker DL, Winston RML, Hardy K (2000). Anti-apoptotic action of insulin-like growth factor-I during human preimplantation embryo development. Biology of Reproduction, 63, 1413 - 1420.
    • Becker DL (2000). Image of a retinal ganglion cell with its dendrites entwined around blood vessels in the eye.
    • Saitongdee P, Milner P, Becker DL, Knight GE, Burnstock G (2000). Increased connexin43 gap junction protein in hamster cardiomyocytes during cold acclimatization and hibernation. Cardiovascular Research, 47(1), 108 - 115.
    • Becker DL (2000). Variety of approx 30 images created over many years and projects.
    • Becker DL (2000). Image of breast cancer cells.
    • Becker DL (2000). Images of cancer cell undergoing apoptosis and mast cell exploding.


    • Becker DL (1999). Formulations: Subject Antisense handled by UCL Ventures.
    • Becker DL, Mobbs P (1999). Connexin alpha1 and cell proliferation in the developing chick retina. Experimental Neurology, 156(2), 326 - 332.
    • Spanos S, Becker D, Winston RML, Hardy K (1999). Cell death in human preimplantation embryos. HUMAN REPRODUCTION, 14, 39 - 40.
    • Shamim KM, Toth P, Becker DL, Cook JE (1999). Large retinal ganglion cells that form independent, regular mosaics in the bufonoid frogs Bufo marinus and Litoria moorei.. Visual Neuroscience, 16(5), 861 - 879.
    • Forge A, Becker D, Casalotti S, Edwards J, Evans WH, Lench N, Souter M (1999). Gap junctions and connexin expression in the inner ear.. Novartis Found Symp, 219, 134 - 150.
    • Becker DL, Cook JE, Davies CS, Evans WH, Gourdie RG (1999). Expression of major gap junction connexin types in the working myocardium of eight chordates. Cell Biology International, 22(7), 527 - 543.
    • Becker DL, Lin JS, Green CR (1999). Pluoronic gel as a means of antisense delivery. In Leslie R, Hunter AJ, Robertson HA (Ed.), Antisense techniques in the CNS. A practical approach (pp. 149 - 157). : .
    • Becker DL, McGonnell IM, Makarenkova H, Patel K, Tickle C, Lorimer J, Green CR (1999). Roles for alpha 1 connexin in morphogenesis of chick embryos using a novel antisense approach. Developmental Genetics, 24, 33 - 42.
    • Richardson GP, Forge A, Kros CJ, Marcotti W, Becker D, Williams DS, Thorpe J, Fleming J, Brown SD, Steel KP (1999). A missense mutation in myosin VIIA prevents aminoglycoside accumulation in early postnatal cochlear hair cells.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 884, 110 - 124.


    • Nadarajah B, Makarenkova H, Evans WH, Becker DL, Parnavelas JG (1998). Basic FGF increases communication between cells of the developing neocortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 7881 - 7890.
    • Lim GEK, McNeill L, Whitley K, Becker DL, Zamoyska R (1998). Co-capping studies reveal CD8/TCR interactions after capping CD8 beta polypeptides and intracellular associations of CD8 with p56(lck). EUR J IMMUNOL, 28(2), 745 - 754.
    • Catsicas M, Bonness V, Becker DL, Mobbs P (1998). Spontaneous Ca2+ transients and their transmission in the developing chick retina. Current Biology, 8(5), 283 - 286.
    • Becker DL, Bonness V, Mobbs P (1998). Cell coupling in the retina: patterns and purpose. Cell Biology International, 22(11-12), 781 - 792.
    • Kwan-Lim G, McNeill L, Whitley K, Becker DL, Zamoyska R (1998). CD8/TCR Associations revealed by capping CD8b polypeptides. European Journal of Immunology, 28, 745 - 754.


    • Becker DL (1997). Confocal microscope image of a human fibroblast cell with dividing nucleus.
    • Makarenkova H, Becker DL, Tickle C, Warner AE (1997). Fibroblast growth factor 4 directs gap junction expression in the mesenchyme of the vertebrate limb bud. The Journal of Cell Biology, 138, 1125 - 1137.
    • Hopkins J, Becker D, Darling S (1997). Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural studies of the my blistering mouse mutation. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY, 186(2), B53 - B53.
    • Bonness V, Whitley K, Becker DL, Mobbs P (1997). Gap-junctional communication in ganglion cells of the embryonic chick retina.
    • Bonness V, Whitley K, Becker DL, Mobbs P (1997). Gap-junctional communication in ganglion cells of the embryonic chick retina.
    • Forge A, Evans WH, Becker DL (1997). Gap junction connexin isoforms in the inner ear of gerbils and guinea pigs.


    • Philpott KL, McCarthy MJ, Becker DL, Gatchalian C, Rubin LL (1996). Morphological and biochemical changes in neurons: apoptosis versus mitosis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 8(9), 1906 - 1915. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01334.x
    • Hardy K, Warner A, Winston RML, Becker DL (1996). Expression of intercellular junctions during preimplantation development of the human embryo. Molecular Human Reproduction, 2(8), 621 - 632.


    • Becker DL, Evans WH, Green CR, Warner A (1995). Functional analysis of amino acid sequences in connexin43 involved in intercellular communication through gap junctions. Journal of Cell Science, 108(4), 1455 - 1467.
    • Cook JE, Becker DL (1995). Gap junctions in the vertebrate retina. Microscopy Research and Technique, 31(5), 408 - 419.
    • Becker DL, Davies CS (1995). Role of gap junctions in the development of the preimplantation mouse embryo. Microscopy Research and Technique, 31(5), 364 - 374.


    • Leclerc C, Becker DL, Buehr M, Warner A (1994). Low intracellular pH is involved in the early embryonic death of DDK mouse eggs fertilized by alien sperm. Developmental Dynamics, 200(3), 257 - 267. doi:10.1002/aja.1002000307
    • Dekkers J, Becker DL, Cook JE, Navarrete R (1994). Early postnatal changes in the somatodendritic morphology of ankle flexor motoneurons in the rat. European Journal of Neuroscience, 6(1), 87 - 97.


    • Becker DL, Leclerc-David C, Warner A (1992). The relationship of gap junctions and compaction in the preimplantation mouse embryo.. Dev Suppl, , 113 - 118.
    • Cook JE, Becker DL, Kapila R (1992). Independent mosaics of large inner- and outer-stratified ganglion cells in the goldfish retina. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 318(4), 355 - 366.


    • Cook JE, Becker DL (1991). Regular mosaics of large displaced and non-displaced ganglion cells in the retina of a cichlid fish. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 306(4), 668 - 684.
    • Becker DL, Dekkers J, Navarrete R, Green CR, Cook JE (1991). Enhancing the laser scanning confocal microscopic visualization of Lucifer yellow filled cells in whole-mounted tissue. Scanning Microscopy, 5(3), 619 - 624.


    • Cook JE, Becker DL (1990). Spontaneous activity as a determinant of axonal connections. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2(2), 162 - 169.
    • Becker DL, Cook JE (1990). Changes in goldfish retinal ganglion cells during axonal regeneration. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 241(1301), 73 - 77. doi:10.1098/rspb.1990.0068


    • Cook JE, Becker DL (1988). Retinotopic refinement of the regenerating goldfish optic tract is not linked to activity-dependent refinement of the retinotectal map. Development, 104(2), 321 - 330.
    • Becker DL, Cook JE (1988). Divergent axon collaterals in the regenerating goldfish optic tract: a fluorescence double-label study. Development, 104(2), 317 - 320.


    • Becker DL (1987). Microelectrode techniques. In Standen NB (Ed.), Microelectrode techniques (pp. - ). : .
    • Becker DL, Cook JE (1987). Initial disorder and secondary retinotopic refinement of regenerating axons in the optic tract of the goldfish: signs of a new role for axon collateral loss. Development, 101(2), 323 - 337.

    • Becker DL (). Visions of Science.
    • Becker DL (). Biomedical image awards.