Exposing Scenes that are Lighter or Darker than Average

  Scenes that are light overall, such as a snow scene, can look too dark  in the final photograph if you make just an overall read­ing or let an automatic camera make one for you. The reason is that the meter will make its usual assumption that it is pointed at a scene consisting of light, medium, and dark tones, and it will expose the film accordingly. But this will underexpose a scene that consists mostly of light tones,  resulting in a too-dark  final photograph. Try giving one or two stops extra exposure to such scenes. PDF: Exposing Scenes that are Lighter or Darker than Average

How To Calculate your own Flash Exposure

  The Inverse square Jaw The Inverse square Jaw is the basis for flash exposure calculations.  The farther the light travels, the more the light rays spread out and the dimmer the  resulting illumination. …see full text To Calculate your own Flash Exposure To calculate your own flash exposure you need to know two things: the distance that the light travels to the subject and the guide number (a rating given by the manufacturer for the flash when used with a  specific film speed) …see full text Bounce Flash Travels an Extra Distance If you are calculating a bounce flash exposure, measure the distance not from flash to subject but Read more