Lock & Davies
89 Goldsmiths Row
London E2 8QR
Speak to Martin (at Lock & Davis). This place is good for smaller work. Good prices
020 7684 7390
Simon Beaugié Picture Framers ltd
Manor Farm Workshops, Hamstreet Road,
Ashford Kent TN26 1NW
Affordable quality framers as they are based outside of London. Pick up the work from your studio and deliver it back once framed.
Kay Mounting Service
4c Athelstane Mews,
LONDON N4 3EH
Mounting onto aluminium and diasec (face mounting to Perspex). Only Kay Mounting and Spectrum can do this in the UK as far as I know.
020 7272 7799
G N Hughes Picture Framing
Rear of Vandguard Court
36-38 Peckham Road
London SE5 8QT
020 7703 3182
Pendragon Fine Art Framers
1-3 Yorkton Street
Shoreditch, London E2 8NH
020 7729 0608
19-23 White Lion Street
LONDON N1 9PD
High quality framers used by the bigger galleries
020 7812 1200
Lens focal length is the most important characteristic of a lens. One of the prime advantages of a single·lens reflex camera or a view camera is the interchangeability of its lenses; the reason photographers own more than one lens is so that they can change lens focal length. 8230;
A lens of normal focal length, as you might expect from the name, produces an image on film that seems normal when compared with human vision. The image includes about the same angle of view as the human eye sees clearly when looking straight ahead, and the relative size and spacing of near and far objects appear normal. 8230;
Lenses of short focal length are also called wide-angle or sometimes wide-field lenses, which describes their most important feature they view a wider angle of a scene than normal. A lens of normal focal length records what you see when you look at a scene with eyes fixed in one position. 8230;
A lens of long focal length seems to bring things closer, just as a telescope does. As the focal length gets longer, less of the scene is shown (the angle of view narrows), but what is shown is enlarged (the magnification increases). 8230;
The zoom, or variable focal length lens offers several technical and visual advantages. To begin with you can just take out one lens instead of two or three of varying focal lengths. And within the limits of its zoom range you can continuously vary the size of the image-enlarging or reducing it until the right parts of the subject exactly fill the frame. 8230;
At our TNW Conferences we see a lot of presentations and I have given a fair share of presentations myself. I often see people making the same mistakes and cringe when I hear the same excuses or basic errors when people get on stage.
The easiest way to lose an audience is to make a mistake in the first minute, and that is exactly where most mistakes are made. Here is my list of 10 things you shouldn’t say during presentations:
1: I’m very jet-lagged/tired/hungover
Not sure where this comes from but one in five presentations at any conference will start with an excuse. ‘They only invited me yesterday’, ‘I’m really tired from my trip’ or another lame excuse that the audience really doesn’t want to hear. We, the audience, just want to see you give it your best. If you feel like shit and can’t give it your best than maybe you should’ve cancelled. Take a pill, drink an espresso and kill it!
2: I’ll get back to that later
If you happen to stumble upon an audience that is eager to learn and interact you should always grab that chance and enjoy it. If someone has a question that you will address in a later slide just skip to it right away! If someone is brave enough to raise their hand and ask you a question you should compliment them and invite the rest of the audience to do the same. Don’t delay anything.
3: Can you hear me? Yes you can!
This is how a lot of people start their talk. They will tap a microphone three times, shout ‘can you all hear me in the back’ and then smile apologetic when it becomes clear that, yes, everybody can hear you but nobody raises their hands.
It isn’t your responsibility to check the audio. There will be people for that. If you speak into the microphone and you get the impression that it’s not working, just relax, count to three, and try again. If you still think the sound isn’t working just calmly walk to the edge of the stage and discreetly ask the moderator to check for you. Smile at the audience and look confident. Assume it all works until the opposite has been proven, then stay calm and wait for a fix.
4: I can’t see you because the lights are too bright
Yes, when you are on stage the lights are bright and hot and it will be difficult to see the audience. But they don’t have to know about all that. Just stare into the dark, smile often and act like you feel right at home on there. Feel free to walk into the audience if you want to see them up close. Don’t cover your eyes to see people but politely ask the lights people to turn on the lights in the room if you plan to count hands or ask the audience a question. Even better, talk to the lights people in advance so they are prepared when you are going to ask them.
5: Can you read this?
The common rule is to make the font size on your slides twice the size of the medium age of the audience. Yes, that means that if you expect the audience to be 40 on average you are stuck with a font size of 80 points. You won’t be able to fit a lot of text on the slide that way, which is a good thing, and brings us to the next point.
tnw conference 730215;331 10 things you should NEVER say during presentations
6: Let me read this out loud for you
Never ever, ever, ever in a million years add so much text on a slide that people will spend time reading it. And if you do, make damn sure you don’t read it out loud for them! The best way to lose your audiences attention is to add text to a slide. Here’s what will happen when you have more than four words on a slide; people will start reading it. And what happens when they read it? They will stop listening to you!
Only use short titles on your presentations and memorize the texts you want them to read. Or, if you MUST include an awesome three-sentence quote, announce that everybody should read the quote, then shut up for six seconds so they can actually read it.
7: Shut off your phone/laptop/tablet
Once upon a time you could ask an audience to shut off their devices. That was a long time ago. Now people tweet the awesome quotes you produce or take notes on their iPads. Or they play solitaire or check Facebook. Times change. You can ask if people turn their phones to silent mode but apart from that you just have to make sure that your talk is so incredibly inspiring people will close their laptops because they don’t want to miss a second of it. Demanding their attention is just not going to work.
8: No need to write anything down or take photos, the presentation will be online later
It is really cool that you will upload your presentation later. But if it’s a good presentation it won’t contain too many words (see point 4) and it won’t be of much use to them. For a lot of people writing something down is just an easy way to memorize something you’ve said. The act of writing down a sentence also embeds it in your brain and who knows, they might be really inspired and come up with something they’ve heard in between your lines that might change their business. Allow people to do whatever they want during your presentations.
9: Let me answer that question right away
Of course it is awesome if you answer a question right away, but you need to do something else first! Very often the question from an audience member will be very clear to you but not to the rest of the audience. So please say “I’ll repeat that question first so everybody hears it and THEN I will answer it”. Make it a habit to repeat questions also because the extra time it takes to repeat it gives you extra time to think about an awesome answer.
10: I’ll keep it short
This is a promise nobody ever keeps. But a lot of presentations are started that way! The audience really doesn’t care if you keep it short or not. They’ve invested their time and just want to be informed and inspired. Tell them “This presentation is going to change your life” or “This presentation is scheduled to take 30 minutes, but I’ll do it in 25 minutes so you can go out and have a coffee earlier than expected.”. Now all you have to do is keep that promise, which brings me to the last point.
Bonus tip: What, I’m out of time? But I have 23 more slides!
If you come unprepared and need more time than you are allowed you’ve screwed up. You need to practice your presentation and make it fit within the allotted time-slot. Even better, end five minutes early and ask if anyone has questions, and if they don’t invite them for a coffee to talk one-on-one. Giving an audience five minutes back will earn their respect and gratitude. Taking an extra five will annoy and alienate them.
Conclusion: come prepared, be yourself and be professional. The audience will love you for being clear, serious and not wasting their time.
Suitable for professional use, Blender is a 3D animation suite that offers modeling, rigging, animation, simulation, rendering, compositing and motion tracking, video editing and game creation capabilities. It also features a customizable interface, and it can import and export from a wide variety of file formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Art of Illusion isn8217;t quite as polished as Blender, but its developers claim the latest version (released September 2013) 8220;is both stable and powerful enough to be used for serious, high-end animation work.8221; Impressive examples of artwork created with the tool can be found in the website8217;s online art galleryOperating System: OS Independent.
A good option for amateur artists, K-3D boasts an easy-to-use interface and extensive documentation. According to the project website, it 8220;excels at polygonal modeling, and includes basic tools for NURBS, patches, curves and animation.8221; Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
If you prefer traditional 2D cartoons to the fancy 3D stuff, Pencil might be right for you. It8217;s not meant as an alternative to professional vector graphics tool like Flash; instead, it8217;s aimed at those who enjoy playing around with 2D animation as a hobby. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Unlike Pencil, Synfig Studio does strive to meet the needs of professionals, billing itself as an 8220;industrial-strength solution for creating film-quality animation.8221; It helps users save time and money by eliminating the need to animate content on a frame-by-frame basis. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This full-featured music player integrates with a wide variety of Web audio services. The latest release adds an updated interface, a new visualization tool, smooth fade-out when pausing music, enhanced MusicBrainz tagging and improved power management. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, iOS.
This Java-based music player and manager displays complete information—including lyrics—for the song currently playing. It8217;s a good option for users with particularly large music collections. Operating System: OS Independent.
Audacious is very light on system resources, making it possible to play music and do intensive computing tasks without sacrificing performance. The interface is basic and very easy to use. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
Popular with reviewers, Jajuk makes it easy to sort, search and view large audio libraries. It combines an intuitive interface with advanced features, making it suitable for both light users and power users. Operating System: OS Independent.
Designed for DJs and 8220;serious music lovers,8221; Jukes began life as a Windows application called 8220;Put Up Your Jukes.8221; It8217;s since been re-written and released for multiple platforms, but it hasn8217;t been updated in a while. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Inspired by iTunes, Rhythmbox is a music management system designed for the Gnome desktop. Key features include easy search and sort, visualizations, Internet radio, CD playing and burning, playlists and more. Operating System: Linux.
Designed to be super fast, CoolPlayer is extremely light on system resources. It doesn8217;t have all the advanced music management features in many other applications, but it does play most audio formats. Operating System: Windows.
Similar to Bluemindo, Decibel is a simple audio player without other features like content tags and CD burning. Its modular structure makes it easy to disable any unwanted features to free up resources. Operating System: Linux.
This music player caters to those who prefer to operate from the command line and does not have a GUI. It8217;s a client-server application that plays most common audio formats. Operating System: Linux/Unix.
Ardour is an advanced, professional-grade digital recording, editing and mixing tool. It supports most hardware and offers features like flexible recording, unlimited multi-channel tracks, unlimited undo/redo, easy import and export, tools for creating video soundtracks and more. Operating System: Linux, OS X.
A perennial favorite among Linux users, Audacity makes it easy to record and edit multi-track audio. It8217;s ideal for hobbyists who want an intuitive product that also includes some of the high-tech features you would find in an application designed for professionals. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Java-based Frinika calls itself a 8220;complete music workstation software containing sequencer, midi support, soft synthesizers, audio recorder, piano roll/tracker/notation editing and more.8221; It8217;s another good option for home users. Operating System: OS Independent.
Downloaded more than 45 million times, CDex is a very popular tool for extracting the digital data from audio CDs and converting it to an MP3 or other compressed formats. It supports many different encoders and multiple languages. Operating System: Windows.
Its name is short for 8220;free audio converter,8221; and free:ac can transform CDs or digital audio files into MP3, MP4/M4A, WMA, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, AAC, WAV and Bonk formats. It8217;s optimized for multi-core systems, making it particularly fast, and it also runs from a thumb drive. Operating System: Windows.
Designed for DJs performing live, Mixx boasts a powerful mixing engine that supports most popular audio file formats. Other key features include iTunes integration, BPM detection and sync, and support for more than 30 different MIDI controllers. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
An older project that hasn8217;t been updated in a while, Mixere boasts a simple, spreadsheet-style interface. It offers similar capabilities as Mixx, but it isn8217;t quite as advanced. Operating System: Windows.
This app is a vinyl emulator that allows DJs to 8220;scratch8221; digital tracks as if they were on vinyl records. Supported features include needle drops, pitch changes, scratching, spinbacks and rewinds. Operating System: Linux.
For Windows only, InfraRecorder can create audio, video, data or mixed-use CDs and DVDs. It can also erase re-recordable discs and copy discs even if you have only one optical drive. Operating System: Windows.
If you8217;re looking to create a more professional-looking DVD, this tool lets you set up attractive menu screens that will work on most standard DVD players. It also supports the creation of digital slide shows. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
For those who are comfortable working from the command line, CDRtools is a collection of apps for converting and recording CDs, DVDs and Blu-Ray. Under development since 1996, this is a mature tool that has been around a long time. Operating System: Linux.
One of the more popular file sharing clients, eMule (and eMule Plus) boasts an easy-to-use interface, fast performance and good search capabilities. The latest version supports Windows 7 and 8. Operating System: Windows.
This file sharing client includes a chat functionality that makes it easy to meet and interact with other Ares users. Other key features include fast downloads, a built-in media player and a helpful library management tool. Operating System: Windows.
Calling itself the 8220;ultimate P2P client,8221; Shareaza supports the EDonkey2000, Gnutella, BitTorrent and Gnutella2 networks. It also has multiple-source downloads, sophisticated file hashing, global search, customization capabilities, preview filters and more. Operating System: Windows.
BitTornado is an alternative front-end for accessing the BitTorrent file-sharing network. Be warned that it8217;s not particularly user-friendly for those who are new to file sharing. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Forked from BitTornado, ABC also supports the BitTorrent network. Features include multiple downloads in a single window, a prioritized queuing system, customizable interface and more. Operating System: Windows.
This tool allows users to copy DVDs, convert videos to other formats, convert DVD audio to digital audio formats, merge and split files and more. It supports most popular file types. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
HandBrake aims to be able to convert video from nearly any file format. Basic operation is simple and fast, but it also includes a lot of options for those with more complicated needs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
For Macs only, this tool leverages code from ffmpeg, Burn and several other open source tools to convert video files among various formats. It offers a simple drag-and-drop interface and batch processing capabilities. Operating System: OS X.
The 8220;Swiss Army knife of sound processing programs,8221; SoX can convert audio files to and from most file formats and add special effects. It’s a command line program, so you’ll need to be comfortable working without a GUI to use it. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Based on FFMpeg, MEncoder and MPlayer, TEncoder is a multi-threaded multimedia converter that supports most file formats. It can run up to eight processes simultaneously and can run two passes to improve quality on converted files. Operating System: Windows.
This tool makes it easy to download videos from Internet sites like Yahoo, Vimeo, and many others and convert them to any file format you like. It’s very popular and has won numerous awards. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Extremely popular, VLC can play DVDs, CDs, streaming files and most digital audio and video formats. It can also convert files from one format to another. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
This VLC fork offers a streamlined, full-screen interface with large font sizes. It’s also portable and can be run from a thumb drive or portable hard drive. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
This tool not only plays multimedia files, it can also record, convert and stream audio or video. It’s a full suite of tools and libraries for end users and developers working on similar projects. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
While many media players place a premium on features, Miro aims to be beautiful as well as functional. It imports files from iTunes and other media management systems, and it syncs with your mobile devices. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS.
Banshee describes itself as “Simple enough to enjoy. Powerful enough to thrill.” It’s a full-featured multi-media player and management system with the ability to sync with smartphones and tablets. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS.
Most of the video players on this list support traditional 2D playback, but Bino supports 3D and multi-display video, such as powerwalls and virtual reality interfaces. Key features include dual camera support, scriptability and support for high precision color. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
With a huge library of codecs, UMPlayer aims to play anything. Key features include skinnable interface, built-in subtitles search, audio/subtitles sync, enhanced filter rendering, and YouTube playback and recording. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
SMPlayer is based on the code from MPlayer, but it adds an intuitive graphic interface. When you play a file, it remembers your settings—in other words, if you turn off a movie before it is finished, it will start at the same place when you return. Operating system: Linux.
Designed for big screens and home theater PCs (HTPCs), this media player comes with built-in support for remote controllers. A large number of add-ons connect it to various services and add functionality. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Totem is the Gnome desktop’s movie player. It includes features like playlist, full-screen mode, seek and volume controls, keyboard navigation and a Firefox plug-in for watching movies in your browser. Operating System: Linux.
If you remember the old version of Windows Media Player fondly, you’ll probably like this app, which attempts to recreate that experience. Because it’s very lightweight, it’s a good option for older or underpowered systems. Operating System: Windows.
Xine is a fast, extensible player that supports a wide range of file formats. Capabilities include a skinnable GUI, Linux InfraRed Control support, closed caption support, playlists, audio resampling, fullscreen display and more. Operating System: OS X, Linux.
If your inner librarian has been wanting an application that makes it easy to catalog your music, videos, books, video games and other stuff, Data Crow might be for you. It creates an easy-to-use database for organizing just about anything you collect—and if you loan things to friends, it can even track who borrowed your stuff. Operating System: OS Independent.
This app, which integrates with VLC Media Player, strives to be 8220;Del.icio.us for your video collection.8221; Use it to organize, tag and search your video library. (Source code is available through GitHub.) Operating System: Windows, OS X, Linux.
Turn your Linux/Unix system into a full-featured drum machine. The latest version includes a sample editor, time stretch and pitch functions, playlists, a director window with a visual metronome and more. Operating System: Linux.
Java-based orDrumbox includes features like auto-composition, poly-rhythms, an unusual arpeggiator, automatic sounds/track matching, custom softsynths, lowfi rendering and more. There’s a “lite” online version so you can try it out before you download. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Designed as a free alternative to FL Studio, LMMS allows users to create melodies and beats, synthesize and mix sounds, and arrange samples. It works with MIDI keyboards and comes with a lot of built-in plugins, presets and samples. Operating System: Windows, Linux.
There’s no need to spend hundreds of dollars on software that creates sheet music. MuseScore makes it easy to “create, play and print beautiful sheet music,” and it’s absolutely free. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This variant of Ubuntu Linux is specifically designed for multimedia content creation. It includes tools for audio and video production, graphic design, photography and publishing, and it8217;s supported by Canonical.
Need to record what’s happening on your screen? CamStudio makes AVI videos of on-screen activities, including sound. It’s a good option for educators, trainers and tech support staff. Operating System: Windows.
Java-based Krut records both audio and video and creates wav and mov files. Key features include support for two different frame rates, moveable recording areas, timer controls and more. Operating System: Windows, Linux OS X.
Ampache allows users to set up their own streaming servers so that they can see and hear their audio and video files from any device. Note that in order to use it you’ll need your own Web server running Apache, Nginx or similar software. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
VideoLAN can stream “MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 files, DVDs, digital satellite channels, digital terrestrial television channels and live videos on the network in unicast or multicast.” It comes bundled with VLC Media Player. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Calling itself the “most complete personal streaming system,” Subsonic offers a huge range of features for setting up your own streaming server. Download the free version or use the premium version for $1 per month. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, Android, iOS, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Roku, others.
Designed to perform well even on older, slower systems, AmpJuke is an audio-only streaming solution that lets you listen two different ways: each end user can select which music he or she wants to hear or you put together a broadcast, similar to a traditional radio show, where everyone hears the same thing. It can run over the Internet or a LAN. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This open source application was developed by Apple and is built on the same code as the QuickTime Streaming Server. It supports QuickTime and MPEG-4 media formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
The Universal Media Server allows you to stream videos from your PC so that you can watch them on your TV or other devices. It supports UPnP and DLNA, and it can handle most common types of media files. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
Award-winning Amara claims to be “simply the best subtitling toolset in the world.” The organization also offers paid pro and enterprise versions, which are used by companies like TED, Netflix, Udacity, Twitter, Mozilla and many Hollywood production companies. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
This app can create, edit and convert text-only subtitles. Key features include a customizable interface, support for multiple languages, automatic durations, smart line adjusting, spell check and more. Operating System: Windows.
Designed to be “useful and fast,” Cinelerra invites users to “unleash the 50,000 watt flamethrower of content creation in your Linux box.” It includes a long list of features and built-in special effects. Operating System: Linux.
This community-focused version of Cinelerra offers some advanced features and help that isn’t available with the standard version of Cinelerra. As new features are added to the regular version, they also get added to this community version. Operating System: Linux.
Very easy to use, OpenShot is a good option for people who are new to video editing. It exports completed videos to DVD, YouTube, Vimeo, Xbox 360 and several other common formats. Operating System: Linux.
Best for simple cutting, filtering and encoding projects, Avidemux isn’t quite as full-featured as some of the other applications on this list. However, it does have some helpful automation, queuing and scripting capabilities. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
This new video editor hasn8217;t released a 1.0 version yet, but it8217;s under very active development. It offers an intuitive, very stylish interface plus a full slate of features. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.
VirtualDub also offers video capture and processing capabilities without all the advanced editing capabilities of some other tools. Thanks to its batch processing features, it can handle large numbers of files at once. Operating System: Windows.
LiVES serves two different functions: standard video editing or live video mixing performed by VJs. It makes it easy to mix, switch and add effects in real time. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.
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Stage Prop suppliers based in London, supplying furniture and small props to the entertainment industry, incorporating Film, Television, Theatre, Events, Themed Parties, Photographic Shoots and Show houses. We have our own Photographic Studios which can be hired at competitive rates, with a discount when you hire your props from our prop house.
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With over a million items to choose from we8217;re one of the largest prop houses in Europe. Anyone who walks through the door can only be impressed by the quality and quantity of our stock whether from the film / television companies or the amateur theatres. As one of the leading stage prop suppliers we have 4 floors of furniture and small props from which to choose, so if it8217;s a themed party you wish to create, try us first.
This section contains 8216;How to8217; guides for every part of an artist’s career. From exhibiting, to earning money and more. Everything you need to know about sustaining a career as a practitioner is here.
Slade alumni and artist Sam Belinfante has shared this great guide on how best to back up your computer data and files, giving many different options. The guide has been written by an artist specifically for artists. This is a must read for anyone using a computer.
The Chemicals: There are three basic chemicals in the printing process. These are Developer, Stop and Fix. Developer brings out the latent image, the magic part of the process. Stop does what it says, stops the image from coming out any further. Fix prevents any white light from darkening, fogging, fading or otherwise affecting the finished print i.e. fixing it.
Most black and white paper is coated on a base consisting of paper fibre sealed front and back in clear plastic. Chemicals cannot sink into the base, so that processing, washing and drying times are shortened. The plastic coated paper has a layer of silver halide emulsion and a gelatine supercoat at the top to protect the emulsion surface from normal handling damage. Plastic paper may also have an antistatic backing. 8230;see full text
Once the overall density (the lightness or darkness) of a print is right, you will often find smaller areas that could be a little lighter or darker. For example, a face might be too dark or the sky too light, even though most of the scene looks good. Burning in (shown below and opposite) adds light after the basic exposure is made in order to darken an area. Dodging (shown on page 114) holds back light during the basic exposure to lighten an area. 8230;see full text
A bleed-mounted print is even with the edges of the mount. 8230;
An overmatted print has a raised border around the print. It consists of an overmat (a piece of mount board with a hole cut in it) placed over a print that is attached to another piece of mount board (the backing board). The overmat helps protect the print and can be easily replaced if it becomes soiled or damaged. After overmatting, the print can be framed or displayed as is. 8230;
1 Under red lighting best quality writing paper is dipped in weak silver nitrate solution, followed by potassium iodide solution, and wiped dry.
2 One side is coated with an 8216;exciting8217; solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, applied with a brush. The sensitised paper is then dried in front of the fire, and placed in a light-proof holder to take to the camera.
3 Exposure in the camera for about 1-3 min.
4 Development, in the same exciting solution as 2 but diluted to half strength.
5 Fixing in hyposulphite of soda, washing and drying.
6 Another sheet of paper is soaked in salt solution and wiped dry.
7 Under red light it is brushed over with silver chloride solution, and dried.
8 Pressed in tight face contact with the negative in printing frame, the paper is exposed to bright sunlight until it forms a strong brownish image (about 20 min).
An adjustable camera controls the amount of light reaching the film in two ways. It can make the Image darker or lighter by a variable aperture. positioned behind the lens. and it can control the length of time that the light reaches the film. by a timed shutter. The lens aperture consists of overlapping movable leaves which form a diaphragm.
This can be set to a range of diameters. so that the quantity of light admitted is controlled In the same way that the width of a funnel controls the quantity of water flowing Into a container. When photographing a dimly lit subject you use a wide lens aperture to admit as much light as possible; for a bright subject you can c;hange to a small aperture to reduce the amount of light. In this way the film still receives the same amount of llght.
What are camera movements? Essentially, they are controlled independent movements of lens or film plane which enable us to form a more usefull image under a particular set of conditions. They enable us, for instance, to increase depth of field over important parts of the subject, change image shape, and use images of subjects well above, below or to the side of the lens. Camera movements offer us all sorts of image controls, from simple square-on views of mirrors without the camera showing, to a complete change in the apparent perspective of a building. Here, indeed, is valuable 8216;professional magic.8217;
With wide angle lenses covering between 63° and 115°, there is some distortion on the wider angles. For a 35mm SLR, a 35mm focal length covering 63° may not be wide enough if your standard lens is 50mm; 28mm covering 75° would be a better choice. A 24mm covering 84° is going to extremes and, unless you particularly need this coverage with its risk of image distortion, the 28mm is the most sensible all-round choice. 8230;
Altering distance and focal length. Each picture was taken with a lens of different focal length 135 mm format, but the camera distance was altered each time so that the near end of the monument remained about the same height. 8230;
The colour processing that we shall be using is the subtractive method. Using the subtractive filters of yellow magenta and cyan. In practise you will only use two filters at any one time, as a third filter will simply reduce the effect of the other two. In practise you will only use the filters magenta and yellow. 8230;see full text
Exposure: Aperture 8211; start at f8, First Test Strip: 5,10,20,40 sec, Adjust aperture to target 20 sec exposure8230; see full text
A ring-around chart for neg/pos colour printing
Filtration data shows what to subtract from present filter settings if a print showing this cast is to revert to correct colour. centre of chart. Extreme colour shifts of SO a r e included here t o clarify differences between the six colours 8230;see full text
The cyanotype process or blue printing was discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1842. Ifs first extensive use was in a book of botanical photograms of British algae by Anna Atkins. Around the turn of the century prepared blueprint paper was available to photographers for making proofs. The process was also used to produce postcards and stereographs of the period. The process never gained any real popularity and so was primarily used as a copying process (as engineers and architects do now). 8230;
The cyanotype printing process , commonly known as 8216;Blue Print8217;, was invented in 1842 by the English astronomer Sir John Herschel, who wanted to create a method by which he could copy or reproduce his calculations and notes. It is one of the oldest and most permanent printing processes. Because this process is simple, inexpensive, and has clear line-production, it plays an important role in the industrial field today as a method of reproducing documents and line drawings. In addition it was also popular among photographers8230;
Documentation is not the work. You need to plan your photo shot in away that it records a sense of your artwork. This may mean you need to do a number of different things. A general installation shot to give an idea of scale and contextualising the work within the space. A cropped shot of a piece to display it clearly. A close shot to show materials and texture. A clear and straightforward recording of the work is what you should be after. Decide which material you wish to record your work in, i.e. colour slide film (transparencies), colour prints, black & white or digital. 8230;
Dry mounting provides a good-looking, stable support for a print. Shown here is a mount with a wide border around the print. The mounting materials, the print, and the inner surfaces of the press should be clean; even a small particle of dirt can create a bump or dent when the print is put under pressure in the press. 8230;
We8217;re drowning in email. And the many hours we spend on it are generating ever more work for our friends and colleagues. (Here8217;s why.) We can reverse this spiral only by mutual agreement. Hence this Charter8230;
1. Respect Recipients8217; Time
This is the fundamental rule. As the message sender, the onus is on YOU to minimize the time your email will take to process. Even if it means taking more time at your end before sending.
2. Short or Slow is not Rude
Let8217;s mutually agree to cut each other some slack. Given the email load we8217;re all facing, it8217;s OK if replies take a while coming and if they don8217;t give detailed responses to all your questions. No one wants to come over as brusque, so please don8217;t take it personally. We just want our lives back!
3. Celebrate Clarity
Start with a subject line that clearly labels the topic, and maybe includes a status category [Info], [Action], [Time Sens] [Low Priority]. Use crisp, muddle-free sentences. If the email has to be longer than five sentences, make sure the first provides the basic reason for writing. Avoid strange fonts and colors.
4. Quash Open-Ended Questions
It is asking a lot to send someone an email with four long paragraphs of turgid text followed by 8220;Thoughts?8221;. Even well-intended-but-open questions like 8220;How can I help?8221; may not be that helpful. Email generosity requires simplifying, easy-to-answer questions. 8220;Can I help best by a) calling b) visiting or c) staying right out of it?!8221;
5. Slash Surplus cc8217;s
cc8217;s are like mating bunnies. For every recipient you add, you are dramatically multiplying total response time. Not to be done lightly! When there are multiple recipients, please don8217;t default to 8216;Reply All8217;. Maybe you only need to cc a couple of people on the original thread. Or none.
6. Tighten the Thread
Some emails depend for their meaning on context. Which means it8217;s usually right to include the thread being responded to. But it8217;s rare that a thread should extend to more than 3 emails. Before sending, cut what8217;s not relevant. Or consider making a phone call instead.
7. Attack Attachments
Don8217;t use graphics files as logos or signatures that appear as attachments. Time is wasted trying to see if there8217;s something to open. Even worse is sending text as an attachment when it could have been included in the body of the email.
8. Give these Gifts: EOM NNTR
If your email message can be expressed in half a dozen words, just put it in the subject line, followed by EOM (= End of Message). This saves the recipient having to actually open the message. Ending a note with 8220;No need to respond8221; or NNTR, is a wonderful act of generosity. Many acronyms confuse as much as help, but these two are golden and deserve wide adoption.
9. Cut Contentless Responses
You don8217;t need to reply to every email, especially not those that are themselves clear responses. An email saying 8220;Thanks for your note. I8217;m in.8221; does not need you to reply 8220;Great.8221; That just cost someone another 30 seconds.
If we all agreed to spend less time doing email, we8217;d all get less email! Consider calendaring half-days at work where you can8217;t go online. Or a commitment to email-free weekends. Or an 8216;auto-response8217; that references this charter. And don8217;t forget to smell the roses.
There are a range of Photoshop plugins to assist with enlarging image files.
Attached Mac User article article discussing the most recent versions of these plugins. The conclusion to draw is the type of enlargement software used, really depends on the file you start with. The plugins mentioned make a noticeable difference to enlargement of web-graphics.
Cameras! It’s almost impossible to get away from cameras nowadays, yet most of us use them with the bare minimum of knowledge required to snap the nearest tweet-worthy scene. That’s not because we don’t care about truly pretty pictures — even casual observers know the difference between good and bad photography — but have you tried to make an educated choice between cameras lately?
Spec sheets are laden with alien terminology like ISO and F numbers, and once you manage to get a grasp of what those mean, you’re still confronted with a spectacular variety of options. To help you navigate your way through this quagmire of excess information, we8217;ve put together this guide. It8217;ll enlighten you about which specs are important when, and what cameras are suitable for whom. Sound good? Then read on!
Scenes that are light overall, such as a snow scene, can look too dark in the final photograph if you make just an overall reading or let an automatic camera make one for you. The reason is that the meter will make its usual assumption that it is pointed at a scene consisting of light, medium, and dark tones, and it will expose the film accordingly. But this will underexpose a scene that consists mostly of light tones, resulting in a too-dark final photograph. Try giving one or two stops extra exposure to such scenes.
The Zone System is the simplest and best method yet devised for planning an exposure. Created by Ansel Adams and expounded by Minor White and others, it is more than just a shirt-sleeve approach to sensitometry; it is an elegant method of integrating all the decisions and techniques of exposure control. 8230;
The zone system was invented by Ansel Adams, one of the most famous photographers ever. He was a master of technique, and had an eye for light that few are blessed with. His photographs were the result of a happy combination of comprehensive technique and the knack of taking a picture when the light was at its best. A distinguishing feature of his black and white photographs is how light and dark areas play off each other in an instantly appealing manner.
Fill light makes shadows less dark by adding light to them. Photographic materials can record detail and texture in either brightly lit areas or deeply shadowed ones but generally not in both at the same time.
It makes good sense to work with a limited range of well-chosen films. You get to know their performance intimately 8211; what each can contribute to your particular style of picture, its response to different subject situations and, when necessary, just how far you can abuse the film before results become unacceptable. 8230;
Film is, very simply, a light-sensitive emulsion on a plastic base. An easy way to think of film is to compare it with bread and butter. Think of the bread as the base, the butter as the emulsion. When you hold this combination in your hand, what you feel and see is mostly bread, the base 8211; not butter, the emulsion. The base (bread) holds and supports the emulsion (butter), the active part of the film. 8230;
How sensitive a film is to light, that is, how much it reacts to a given quantity of light, is indicated by its film speed. The more sensitive-or faster-the film, the higher its number in the rating system. 8230;
Most people8217;s experience of colour film will be buying a colour negative daylight balanced film. This means the image goes onto the negative film and then is reversed into a positive colour image in the printing process. 8230;
1. Your darkroom (kitchen, bathroom or cupboard) needs to be completely blocked out to stop light from entering. For windows use thick card cut to shape and held in place with blade canvas tape. 8230;see full text
Even if you have never developed a film before, you are unlikely to find it very difficult. You do not need a specially-built darkroom, and once you have loaded the film into the developing tank, the rest of the process takes place in daylight. 8230;see full text
It is important that you match the correct type of developer with your particular film being used or for specific results. For example, if push processing and you would like to keep grain to a minimum, you must use a fine grain 8216;speed enhancing8217; developer, such as Ilford Microphen. Other developers available include 8216;low contrast8217; or 8216;soft working8217; developers such as Kodak Technicol. Other developers are known as 8216;high acutance8217; developers, where acutance is a measure of the contrast at sharply delineated boundaries of light and dark tone. High acutance developers, such as Agfa Rodinal, emphasize grain structure and should usually be restricted to fine grained films. 8230;see full text
Push processing can help you shoot in very dim light. Sometimes the light on a scene is so dim that you cannot use a fast enough shutter speed even at the widest lens aperture. Pushing the film lets you shoot at a film speed higher than the normal rating by, in effect, underexposing the film. 8230;see full text
What developer does. Even after film has been exposed to light, the image is latent, not yet visible. Developer chemicals take the film to its next step by converting the exposed crystals of silver halide in the film emulsion to visible metallic silver. 8230;see full text
Your film may contain negatives that, at first sight, seem successful but reveal problems when you come to enlarge them. Check dry, processed film through a magnifier if there are signs of spots or slight variations in density. 8230;see full text
When your length of film is dry, cut it into convenient, easy-to-view strips of five or six negatives, and examine the results, The negatives on these pages and pp. 74-5 will help you to identify some common, but at first puzzling, faults. 8230;see full text
8216;Image quality8217; is a term which is applied to the ability of a film, negative or positive, to render fine detail. It is not a term which makes a judgement about the value of a photograph in respect of its content or ability to communicate a visual message. It is a purely technical reference. 8230;see full text
Filter is optical device to remove or absorb selected wavelengths or proportion of all wavelengths. Types and description of special effects filters, close-up filters, trick filters, filters for b&w and colour. 8230;
is a panchromatic black-and-white reversal film intended for taking black-and-white
slides and/or for making movies. The nominal film speed is ISO 100/21o. Due to undercoated very effective silver antihalo layer the film features very good resolving power and high contour sharpness. This antihalo layer will be decolorised during processing. Film is produced on a cellulose triacetate safety film base of thickness 0,125 mm when high mechanical and dimensional stability and high life expectancy is required.
Our Basics section covers some of the most common issues that you might come across while developing an art or design related career, from gaining confidence to sorting out your taxes. We8217;re expanding this section all the time so keep checking back.
The articles here are intended as informal guidance, giving you an overview of some important topics. For in-depth advice, always consult a lawyer, accountant or other relevant professional. You can also get one-to-one guidance from our free helpline service, Fuel Line, plus there are lots of helpful books on business matters and career development in the FuelRCA library collection.
The term high and low key refer to the dominant prevailing tones 8211; light or dark 8211; used in a picture. A high key photograph consist mostly of white and light tones and some middle tones, whereas a low key photograph is composed predominately of black and dark tones. 8230;
This chapter discusses how our light-sensitive camera materials work, especially colour films. It traces the way that ingenious principles have been put into practice and compares how films record relative to the way our eyes see subjects directly. So the chapter begins by describing how eyes and brain receive and interpret the sensation of colours and comparing this with the far more fixed chemical response of colour films. Differences between seeing and photographing are important to grasp in order to control results. 8230;