Lock & Davies
89 Goldsmiths Row
London E2 8QR
Speak to Martin (at Lock & Davis). This place is good for smaller work. Good prices
020 7684 7390
Simon Beaugié Picture Framers ltd
Manor Farm Workshops, Hamstreet Road,
Ashford Kent TN26 1NW
Affordable quality framers as they are based outside of London. Pick up the work from your studio and deliver it back once framed.
Kay Mounting Service
4c Athelstane Mews,
LONDON N4 3EH
Mounting onto aluminium and diasec (face mounting to Perspex). Only Kay Mounting and Spectrum can do this in the UK as far as I know.
020 7272 7799
G N Hughes Picture Framing
Rear of Vandguard Court
36-38 Peckham Road
London SE5 8QT
020 7703 3182
Pendragon Fine Art Framers
1-3 Yorkton Street
Shoreditch, London E2 8NH
020 7729 0608
19-23 White Lion Street
LONDON N1 9PD
High quality framers used by the bigger galleries
020 7812 1200
4 Morris Place
off Stroud Green Road
London N4 3JG
Costly but excellent framing and lightboxes.
020 7281 5439
Lens focal length is the most important characteristic of a lens. One of the prime advantages of a single·lens reflex camera or a view camera is the interchangeability of its lenses; the reason photographers own more than one lens is so that they can change lens focal length. 8230;
A lens of normal focal length, as you might expect from the name, produces an image on film that seems normal when compared with human vision. The image includes about the same angle of view as the human eye sees clearly when looking straight ahead, and the relative size and spacing of near and far objects appear normal. 8230;
Lenses of short focal length are also called wide-angle or sometimes wide-field lenses, which describes their most important feature they view a wider angle of a scene than normal. A lens of normal focal length records what you see when you look at a scene with eyes fixed in one position. 8230;
A lens of long focal length seems to bring things closer, just as a telescope does. As the focal length gets longer, less of the scene is shown (the angle of view narrows), but what is shown is enlarged (the magnification increases). 8230;
The zoom, or variable focal length lens offers several technical and visual advantages. To begin with you can just take out one lens instead of two or three of varying focal lengths. And within the limits of its zoom range you can continuously vary the size of the image-enlarging or reducing it until the right parts of the subject exactly fill the frame. 8230;
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This section contains 8216;How to8217; guides for every part of an artist’s career. From exhibiting, to earning money and more. Everything you need to know about sustaining a career as a practitioner is here.
Slade alumni and artist Sam Belinfante has shared this great guide on how best to back up your computer data and files, giving many different options. The guide has been written by an artist specifically for artists. This is a must read for anyone using a computer.
The Chemicals: There are three basic chemicals in the printing process. These are Developer, Stop and Fix. Developer brings out the latent image, the magic part of the process. Stop does what it says, stops the image from coming out any further. Fix prevents any white light from darkening, fogging, fading or otherwise affecting the finished print i.e. fixing it.
Most black and white paper is coated on a base consisting of paper fibre sealed front and back in clear plastic. Chemicals cannot sink into the base, so that processing, washing and drying times are shortened. The plastic coated paper has a layer of silver halide emulsion and a gelatine supercoat at the top to protect the emulsion surface from normal handling damage. Plastic paper may also have an antistatic backing. 8230;see full text
Once the overall density (the lightness or darkness) of a print is right, you will often find smaller areas that could be a little lighter or darker. For example, a face might be too dark or the sky too light, even though most of the scene looks good. Burning in (shown below and opposite) adds light after the basic exposure is made in order to darken an area. Dodging (shown on page 114) holds back light during the basic exposure to lighten an area. 8230;see full text
A bleed-mounted print is even with the edges of the mount. 8230;
An overmatted print has a raised border around the print. It consists of an overmat (a piece of mount board with a hole cut in it) placed over a print that is attached to another piece of mount board (the backing board). The overmat helps protect the print and can be easily replaced if it becomes soiled or damaged. After overmatting, the print can be framed or displayed as is. 8230;
1 Under red lighting best quality writing paper is dipped in weak silver nitrate solution, followed by potassium iodide solution, and wiped dry.
2 One side is coated with an 8216;exciting8217; solution of gallic acid and silver nitrate, applied with a brush. The sensitised paper is then dried in front of the fire, and placed in a light-proof holder to take to the camera.
3 Exposure in the camera for about 1-3 min.
4 Development, in the same exciting solution as 2 but diluted to half strength.
5 Fixing in hyposulphite of soda, washing and drying.
6 Another sheet of paper is soaked in salt solution and wiped dry.
7 Under red light it is brushed over with silver chloride solution, and dried.
8 Pressed in tight face contact with the negative in printing frame, the paper is exposed to bright sunlight until it forms a strong brownish image (about 20 min).
An adjustable camera controls the amount of light reaching the film in two ways. It can make the Image darker or lighter by a variable aperture. positioned behind the lens. and it can control the length of time that the light reaches the film. by a timed shutter. The lens aperture consists of overlapping movable leaves which form a diaphragm.
This can be set to a range of diameters. so that the quantity of light admitted is controlled In the same way that the width of a funnel controls the quantity of water flowing Into a container. When photographing a dimly lit subject you use a wide lens aperture to admit as much light as possible; for a bright subject you can c;hange to a small aperture to reduce the amount of light. In this way the film still receives the same amount of llght.
What are camera movements? Essentially, they are controlled independent movements of lens or film plane which enable us to form a more usefull image under a particular set of conditions. They enable us, for instance, to increase depth of field over important parts of the subject, change image shape, and use images of subjects well above, below or to the side of the lens. Camera movements offer us all sorts of image controls, from simple square-on views of mirrors without the camera showing, to a complete change in the apparent perspective of a building. Here, indeed, is valuable 8216;professional magic.8217;
With wide angle lenses covering between 63° and 115°, there is some distortion on the wider angles. For a 35mm SLR, a 35mm focal length covering 63° may not be wide enough if your standard lens is 50mm; 28mm covering 75° would be a better choice. A 24mm covering 84° is going to extremes and, unless you particularly need this coverage with its risk of image distortion, the 28mm is the most sensible all-round choice. 8230;
Altering distance and focal length. Each picture was taken with a lens of different focal length 135 mm format, but the camera distance was altered each time so that the near end of the monument remained about the same height. 8230;
The colour processing that we shall be using is the subtractive method. Using the subtractive filters of yellow magenta and cyan. In practise you will only use two filters at any one time, as a third filter will simply reduce the effect of the other two. In practise you will only use the filters magenta and yellow. 8230;see full text
Exposure: Aperture 8211; start at f8, First Test Strip: 5,10,20,40 sec, Adjust aperture to target 20 sec exposure8230; see full text
A ring-around chart for neg/pos colour printing
Filtration data shows what to subtract from present filter settings if a print showing this cast is to revert to correct colour. centre of chart. Extreme colour shifts of SO a r e included here t o clarify differences between the six colours 8230;see full text
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The cyanotype process or blue printing was discovered by Sir John Herschel in 1842. Ifs first extensive use was in a book of botanical photograms of British algae by Anna Atkins. Around the turn of the century prepared blueprint paper was available to photographers for making proofs. The process was also used to produce postcards and stereographs of the period. The process never gained any real popularity and so was primarily used as a copying process (as engineers and architects do now). 8230;
The cyanotype printing process , commonly known as 8216;Blue Print8217;, was invented in 1842 by the English astronomer Sir John Herschel, who wanted to create a method by which he could copy or reproduce his calculations and notes. It is one of the oldest and most permanent printing processes. Because this process is simple, inexpensive, and has clear line-production, it plays an important role in the industrial field today as a method of reproducing documents and line drawings. In addition it was also popular among photographers8230;
Documentation is not the work. You need to plan your photo shot in away that it records a sense of your artwork. This may mean you need to do a number of different things. A general installation shot to give an idea of scale and contextualising the work within the space. A cropped shot of a piece to display it clearly. A close shot to show materials and texture. A clear and straightforward recording of the work is what you should be after. Decide which material you wish to record your work in, i.e. colour slide film (transparencies), colour prints, black & white or digital. 8230;
Dry mounting provides a good-looking, stable support for a print. Shown here is a mount with a wide border around the print. The mounting materials, the print, and the inner surfaces of the press should be clean; even a small particle of dirt can create a bump or dent when the print is put under pressure in the press. 8230;
We8217;re drowning in email. And the many hours we spend on it are generating ever more work for our friends and colleagues. (Here8217;s why.) We can reverse this spiral only by mutual agreement. Hence this Charter8230;
1. Respect Recipients8217; Time
This is the fundamental rule. As the message sender, the onus is on YOU to minimize the time your email will take to process. Even if it means taking more time at your end before sending.
2. Short or Slow is not Rude
Let8217;s mutually agree to cut each other some slack. Given the email load we8217;re all facing, it8217;s OK if replies take a while coming and if they don8217;t give detailed responses to all your questions. No one wants to come over as brusque, so please don8217;t take it personally. We just want our lives back!
3. Celebrate Clarity
Start with a subject line that clearly labels the topic, and maybe includes a status category [Info], [Action], [Time Sens] [Low Priority]. Use crisp, muddle-free sentences. If the email has to be longer than five sentences, make sure the first provides the basic reason for writing. Avoid strange fonts and colors.
4. Quash Open-Ended Questions
It is asking a lot to send someone an email with four long paragraphs of turgid text followed by 8220;Thoughts?8221;. Even well-intended-but-open questions like 8220;How can I help?8221; may not be that helpful. Email generosity requires simplifying, easy-to-answer questions. 8220;Can I help best by a) calling b) visiting or c) staying right out of it?!8221;
5. Slash Surplus cc8217;s
cc8217;s are like mating bunnies. For every recipient you add, you are dramatically multiplying total response time. Not to be done lightly! When there are multiple recipients, please don8217;t default to 8216;Reply All8217;. Maybe you only need to cc a couple of people on the original thread. Or none.
6. Tighten the Thread
Some emails depend for their meaning on context. Which means it8217;s usually right to include the thread being responded to. But it8217;s rare that a thread should extend to more than 3 emails. Before sending, cut what8217;s not relevant. Or consider making a phone call instead.
7. Attack Attachments
Don8217;t use graphics files as logos or signatures that appear as attachments. Time is wasted trying to see if there8217;s something to open. Even worse is sending text as an attachment when it could have been included in the body of the email.
8. Give these Gifts: EOM NNTR
If your email message can be expressed in half a dozen words, just put it in the subject line, followed by EOM (= End of Message). This saves the recipient having to actually open the message. Ending a note with 8220;No need to respond8221; or NNTR, is a wonderful act of generosity. Many acronyms confuse as much as help, but these two are golden and deserve wide adoption.
9. Cut Contentless Responses
You don8217;t need to reply to every email, especially not those that are themselves clear responses. An email saying 8220;Thanks for your note. I8217;m in.8221; does not need you to reply 8220;Great.8221; That just cost someone another 30 seconds.
If we all agreed to spend less time doing email, we8217;d all get less email! Consider calendaring half-days at work where you can8217;t go online. Or a commitment to email-free weekends. Or an 8216;auto-response8217; that references this charter. And don8217;t forget to smell the roses.
There are a range of Photoshop plugins to assist with enlarging image files.
Attached Mac User article article discussing the most recent versions of these plugins. The conclusion to draw is the type of enlargement software used, really depends on the file you start with. The plugins mentioned make a noticeable difference to enlargement of web-graphics.
Cameras! It’s almost impossible to get away from cameras nowadays, yet most of us use them with the bare minimum of knowledge required to snap the nearest tweet-worthy scene. That’s not because we don’t care about truly pretty pictures — even casual observers know the difference between good and bad photography — but have you tried to make an educated choice between cameras lately?
Spec sheets are laden with alien terminology like ISO and F numbers, and once you manage to get a grasp of what those mean, you’re still confronted with a spectacular variety of options. To help you navigate your way through this quagmire of excess information, we8217;ve put together this guide. It8217;ll enlighten you about which specs are important when, and what cameras are suitable for whom. Sound good? Then read on!
Scenes that are light overall, such as a snow scene, can look too dark in the final photograph if you make just an overall reading or let an automatic camera make one for you. The reason is that the meter will make its usual assumption that it is pointed at a scene consisting of light, medium, and dark tones, and it will expose the film accordingly. But this will underexpose a scene that consists mostly of light tones, resulting in a too-dark final photograph. Try giving one or two stops extra exposure to such scenes.
The Zone System is the simplest and best method yet devised for planning an exposure. Created by Ansel Adams and expounded by Minor White and others, it is more than just a shirt-sleeve approach to sensitometry; it is an elegant method of integrating all the decisions and techniques of exposure control. 8230;
The zone system was invented by Ansel Adams, one of the most famous photographers ever. He was a master of technique, and had an eye for light that few are blessed with. His photographs were the result of a happy combination of comprehensive technique and the knack of taking a picture when the light was at its best. A distinguishing feature of his black and white photographs is how light and dark areas play off each other in an instantly appealing manner.
Fill light makes shadows less dark by adding light to them. Photographic materials can record detail and texture in either brightly lit areas or deeply shadowed ones but generally not in both at the same time.
It makes good sense to work with a limited range of well-chosen films. You get to know their performance intimately 8211; what each can contribute to your particular style of picture, its response to different subject situations and, when necessary, just how far you can abuse the film before results become unacceptable. 8230;
Film is, very simply, a light-sensitive emulsion on a plastic base. An easy way to think of film is to compare it with bread and butter. Think of the bread as the base, the butter as the emulsion. When you hold this combination in your hand, what you feel and see is mostly bread, the base 8211; not butter, the emulsion. The base (bread) holds and supports the emulsion (butter), the active part of the film. 8230;
How sensitive a film is to light, that is, how much it reacts to a given quantity of light, is indicated by its film speed. The more sensitive-or faster-the film, the higher its number in the rating system. 8230;
Most people8217;s experience of colour film will be buying a colour negative daylight balanced film. This means the image goes onto the negative film and then is reversed into a positive colour image in the printing process. 8230;
1. Your darkroom (kitchen, bathroom or cupboard) needs to be completely blocked out to stop light from entering. For windows use thick card cut to shape and held in place with blade canvas tape. 8230;see full text
Even if you have never developed a film before, you are unlikely to find it very difficult. You do not need a specially-built darkroom, and once you have loaded the film into the developing tank, the rest of the process takes place in daylight. 8230;see full text
It is important that you match the correct type of developer with your particular film being used or for specific results. For example, if push processing and you would like to keep grain to a minimum, you must use a fine grain 8216;speed enhancing8217; developer, such as Ilford Microphen. Other developers available include 8216;low contrast8217; or 8216;soft working8217; developers such as Kodak Technicol. Other developers are known as 8216;high acutance8217; developers, where acutance is a measure of the contrast at sharply delineated boundaries of light and dark tone. High acutance developers, such as Agfa Rodinal, emphasize grain structure and should usually be restricted to fine grained films. 8230;see full text
Push processing can help you shoot in very dim light. Sometimes the light on a scene is so dim that you cannot use a fast enough shutter speed even at the widest lens aperture. Pushing the film lets you shoot at a film speed higher than the normal rating by, in effect, underexposing the film. 8230;see full text
What developer does. Even after film has been exposed to light, the image is latent, not yet visible. Developer chemicals take the film to its next step by converting the exposed crystals of silver halide in the film emulsion to visible metallic silver. 8230;see full text
Your film may contain negatives that, at first sight, seem successful but reveal problems when you come to enlarge them. Check dry, processed film through a magnifier if there are signs of spots or slight variations in density. 8230;see full text
When your length of film is dry, cut it into convenient, easy-to-view strips of five or six negatives, and examine the results, The negatives on these pages and pp. 74-5 will help you to identify some common, but at first puzzling, faults. 8230;see full text
8216;Image quality8217; is a term which is applied to the ability of a film, negative or positive, to render fine detail. It is not a term which makes a judgement about the value of a photograph in respect of its content or ability to communicate a visual message. It is a purely technical reference. 8230;see full text
Filter is optical device to remove or absorb selected wavelengths or proportion of all wavelengths. Types and description of special effects filters, close-up filters, trick filters, filters for b&w and colour. 8230;
is a panchromatic black-and-white reversal film intended for taking black-and-white
slides and/or for making movies. The nominal film speed is ISO 100/21o. Due to undercoated very effective silver antihalo layer the film features very good resolving power and high contour sharpness. This antihalo layer will be decolorised during processing. Film is produced on a cellulose triacetate safety film base of thickness 0,125 mm when high mechanical and dimensional stability and high life expectancy is required.
Our Basics section covers some of the most common issues that you might come across while developing an art or design related career, from gaining confidence to sorting out your taxes. We8217;re expanding this section all the time so keep checking back.
The articles here are intended as informal guidance, giving you an overview of some important topics. For in-depth advice, always consult a lawyer, accountant or other relevant professional. You can also get one-to-one guidance from our free helpline service, Fuel Line, plus there are lots of helpful books on business matters and career development in the FuelRCA library collection.
The term high and low key refer to the dominant prevailing tones 8211; light or dark 8211; used in a picture. A high key photograph consist mostly of white and light tones and some middle tones, whereas a low key photograph is composed predominately of black and dark tones. 8230;
This chapter discusses how our light-sensitive camera materials work, especially colour films. It traces the way that ingenious principles have been put into practice and compares how films record relative to the way our eyes see subjects directly. So the chapter begins by describing how eyes and brain receive and interpret the sensation of colours and comparing this with the far more fixed chemical response of colour films. Differences between seeing and photographing are important to grasp in order to control results. 8230;
Colour Film consists of three light sensitive layers. Each of which responds to about one-third of the colours in the light spectrum. Each layer is matched to a primary colour dye that is built into the emulsion or added during processing, and every colour in the spectrum can be produced by mixing varying proportions of the colour primaries. 8230;
The Inverse square Jaw is the basis for flash exposure calculations. The farther the light travels, the more the light rays spread out and the dimmer the resulting illumination. …see full text
To Calculate your own Flash Exposure
To calculate your own flash exposure you need to know two things: the distance that the light travels to the subject and the guide number (a rating given by the manufacturer for the flash when used with a specific film speed) …see full text
Bounce Flash Travels an Extra Distance
If you are calculating a bounce flash exposure, measure the distance not from flash to subject but from flash to reflecting surface to subject. …see full text
Basic skin retouching using frequency separation and dodging & burning. I use this process on every photo that I do, and I usually spend about 4-5 minutes on headshots like this (and less time on full body shots when there is obviously less detail in the face). This is not intended to be a high-end retouching tutorial, but techniques that can help people who want to do natural-looking retouching while maintaining most of the natural skin texture!
Frequency separation is a technique that allows you to give skin a smooth-yet-sharp look.
[Frequency separation is] a technique that enables you to selectively process not only different areas of an image, but also different detail levels. Frequency separation involves creating a high detail (high spatial frequency) layer and a low detail layer from a source image [...] Using this technique enables you to smooth and rework rough and fine details independently, and opens up some very high-quality and non-destructive methods with which to sharpen your images.