Prof Stuart Cull-Candy


Personal Profile

Name: Stuart Cull-Candy Email:
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 3766
Department: Neuro, Physiology & Pharmacology Fax: 020 7679 7298
Position: Gaddum Chair of Pharmacology Address: Medical Sciences Building, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page


Research Description

Glutamateis recognized as being the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, transmitting information between nerve cells by activating AMPA- and NMDA type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs) present at synapses. My lab focuses on understanding how glutamate receptors, their constituent subunits and associated molecules, shape fast synaptic transmission at individual synapses and in specific neural circuits. Early studies on ligand gated-channels suggested that neurotransmitters activate receptors with homogeneous channel properties. However, an altogether more versatile picture has emerged from work on mammalian central synapses. Comparison of different types of neurons has shown that they possess distinct complements of mRNAs coding for the various glutamate receptor subunits. The discovery of functional heterogeneity in glutamate receptor-channel properties is starting to explain one of the major issues in our understanding of central synaptic transmission - namely, how a single transmitter generates such enormous diversity in signalling between nerve cells, and within neural circuits. It is therefore a major challenge to understand precisely how individual receptor subunits influence basic properties of transmission at specific synapses, and how subunit diversity enables various dynamic changes in synaptic function. This is an essential step towards the understanding of signalling in the brain.The properties of AMPAR receptors are determined by their constituent building blocks (subunits). AMPAR subunit composition is thus critical in shaping fast excitatory synaptic transmission, and neuronal circuit behaviour. Of the AMPAR subunits, we are particularly interested in GluR2. This subunit is subject to posttranscriptional RNA editing which results in a single amino acid switch in its pore lining region. Editing at this site profoundly affects the properties of GluR2 containing AMPARs, making GluR2 a key determinant of AMPAR function.

Research Activities

Glutamate mediated fast synaptic transmission

Ionotropic GABA and glutamate receptor signalling

Regulation of Neurotransmitter Release by Presynaptic Receptor Signalling Mechanisms and Protein Phosphorylation/Dephosphorylation

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Dr Talvinder Sihra; Prof Dmitri Rusakov; Prof Mark Farrant; Prof Matthew Walker

External Collaborators



    • Rigby M, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (2015). Transmembrane AMPAR Regulatory Protein gamma-2 Is Required for the Modulation of GABA Release by Presynaptic AMPARs. JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, 35(10), 4203 - 4214. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4075-14.2015
    • Zonouzi M, Scafidi J, Li P, McEllin B, Edwards J, Dupree JL, Harvey L, Sun D, Huebner CA, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M, Gallo V (2015). GABAergic regulation of cerebellar NG2 cell development is altered in perinatal white matter injury. NATURE NEUROSCIENCE, 18(5), 674 - +. doi:10.1038/nn.3990


    • Cull-Candy S, Ashmore J (2014). Paul Fatt 1924-2014.. Nat Neurosci, 17(12), 1634 - . doi:10.1038/nn.3873
    • Cais O, Herguedas B, Krol K, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M, Greger IH (2014). Mapping the Interaction Sites between AMPA Receptors and TARPs Reveals a Role for the Receptor N-Terminal Domain in Channel Gating. Cell Reports, 9(2), 728 - 740. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.09.029
    • Soto D, Coombs ID, Gratacòs-Batlle E, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2014). Molecular mechanisms contributing to TARP regulation of channel conductance and polyamine block of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.. J Neurosci, 34(35), 11673 - 11683. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0383-14.2014
    • Cull-Candy S, Ashmore J (2014). Paul Fatt 1924-2014 OBITUARY. NATURE NEUROSCIENCE, 17(12), 1634 - 1634.


    • Studniarczyk D, Coombs I, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (2013). TARP gamma-7 selectively enhances synaptic expression of calcium-permeable AMPARs. Nature Neuroscience, , - . doi:10.1038/nn.3473
    • Bats C, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2013). A role of TARPs in the expression and plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPARs: Evidence from cerebellar neurons and glia. Neuropharmacology, , - .


    • BATS C, SOTO D, STUDNIARCZYK D, FARRANT M, CULL-CANDY SG (2012). Channel properties reveal differential expression of TARPed and TARPless AMPARs in stargazer neurons. Nature Neuroscience, , - . doi:10.1038/nn.3107


    • Jackson AC, Milstein AD, Soto D, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG, Nicoll RA (2011). Probing TARP modulation of AMPA receptor conductance with polyamine toxins. Journal of Neuroscience, , - .
    • Zonouzi M, Renzi M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2011). Bidirectional plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells.. Nat Neurosci, 14(11), 1430 - 1438. doi:10.1038/nn.2942


    • Gebhardt C, Cull-Candy SG (2010). Lithium acts as a potentiator of AMPAR currents in hippocampal CA1 cells by selectively increasing channel open probability.. J Physiol, 588(Pt 20), 3933 - 3941. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.195115
    • Shelley C, Cull-Candy SG (2010). Desensitization and models of receptor-channel activation.. J Physiol, 588(Pt 9), 1395 - 1397. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.188664
    • Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2010). Neuroscience. AMPA receptors--another twist?. Science, 327(5972), 1463 - 1465. doi:10.1126/science.1187920


    • Shelley C, Soto D, Farrant M, Cull-Candy S (2009). Influence of the TARP gamma-4 on homomeric GluR1 AMPAR channels.
    • Kelly L, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2009). Synaptic mGluR activation drives plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Nature Neuroscience, 12(5), 593 - 601.
    • Coombs ID, Cull-Candy SG (2009). Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins and AMPA receptor function in the cerebellum.. Neuroscience, 162(3), 656 - 665. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.01.004
    • Kotermanski SE, Johnson JW (2009). Mg2+ imparts NMDA receptor subtype selectivity to the Alzheimer's drug memantine.. J Neurosci, 29(9), 2774 - 2779. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3703-08.2009
    • Soto D, Coombs ID, Renzi M, Zonouzi M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2009). Selective regulation of long-form calcium-permeable AMPA receptors by an atypical TARP, gamma-5. Nature Neuroscience, 12(3), 277 - 285.


    • Ali R, Renzi M, Fukaya M, Watanabe M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2008). Failure of NMDAR activation during quantal release at cerebellar mossy fibre-granule cell synapses in adult mice..
    • Soto D, Coombs ID, Zonouzi M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2008). Effects of TARPs on basic properties of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.


    • Renzi M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2007). Climbing-fibre activation of NMDA receptors in Purkinje cells of adult mice.. The Journal of Physiology, Sep 27;, Epub - ahead of p. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.141531
    • (2007). Signaling Mechanisms. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17(3), 277 - 394.
    • Soto D, Coombs ID, Kelly L, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2007). Stargazin attenuates intracellular polyamine block of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Nature Neuroscience, 10(10), 1260 - 1267.


    • Gebhardt C, Cull-Candy SG (2006). Influence of agonist concentration on AMPA and kainate channels in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices.. The Journal of Physiology, 573(2), 371 - 394.
    • Cull-Candy S, Kelly L, Farrant M (2006). Regulation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors: synaptic plasticity and beyond.. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 288 - 297.


    • Cull-Candy S (2005). Native NMDA receptor subtypes in cerebellar cells.
    • Liu SJ, Cull-Candy S (2005). Subunit interaction with PICK and GRIP controls Ca2+-permeability of AMPARs at cerebellar synapses.. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 768 - 775. doi:10.1038/nn1468
    • Chiu CS, Brickley S, Jensen K, Southwell A, Mckinney S, Cull-Candy S, Mody I, Lester HA (2005). Dynamic analysis of learning in Behavioral experiments (vol 24, pg Nil_0003, 2004). J NEUROSCI, 25(12), - .
    • Cathala L, Holderith NB, Nusser Z, DiGregorio D, Cull-Candy SG (2005). Changes in synaptic structure underlie the developmental speeding of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs.. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1310 - 1318. doi:10.1038/nn1534
    • Chiu CS, Brickley SG, Jensen K, Southwell A, Mckinney S, Cull-Candy S, Mody I, Lester HA (2005). GABA transporter deficiency causes tremor, ataxia, nervousness, and increased GABA-induced tonic conductance in cerebellum. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 3234 - 3245.
    • Ali R, Aller M, Luscher B, Brickley SG, Korpi ER, Cull-Candy SG, Wisden W, Farrant M (2005). Loss of inhibitory postsynaptic currents following selective ablation of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit in cerebellar granule cells of mice..


    • Cathala L, Brickley S, Cull-Candy S, Farrant M (2004). Maturation of EPSCs and intrinsic membrane properties enhances precision at a cerebellar synapse (vol 23, pg 6074, 2003). J NEUROSCI, 24(9), 2343 - 2343.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Leszkiewicz DN (2004). Role of distinct NMDA receptor subtypes at central synapses. Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment, 16, 1 - 9.
    • Kelly L, Clark BA, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2004). Changes in rectification and channel conductance suggest an increase in Ca2+-impermeable AMPARs at the maturing parallel fiber-stellate cell synapse..
    • Cull-Candy SG, Leszkiewicz DN (2004). Role of distinct NMDA receptor subtypes at central synapses.. Sci STKE, 2004(255), re16 - . doi:10.1126/stke.2552004re16


    • Momiyama A, Silver RA, Hausser M, Notomi T, Wu Y, Shigemoto R, Cull-Candy SG (2003). The density of AMPA receptors activated by a transmitter quantum at the climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in immature rats. The Journal of Physiology, 549, 75 - 92.
    • Brickley SG, Misra C, Mok MH, Mishina M, Cull-Candy SG (2003). NR2B and NR2D subunits coassemble in cerebellar Golgi cells to form a distinct NMDA receptor subtype restricted to extrasynaptic sites. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(12), 4958 - 4966.
    • Cathala L, Brickley S, Cull-Candy S, Farrant M (2003). Maturation of EPSCs and intrinsic membrane properties enhances precision of a cerebellar synapse. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(14), 6074 - 6085.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Jenkinson DH (2003). Bernard Katz 1911- 2003. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 659. - 660.
    • Cull-Candy S, Jenkinson D (2003). Bernard Katz - 1911-2003 - Obituary. NAT NEUROSCI, 6(7), 659 - 660. doi:10.1038/nn0703-659


    • Liu SQJ, Cull-Candy S (2002). Activity-dependent change in AMPA receptor properties in cerebellar stellate cells. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(10), 3881 - 3889.
    • Clark BA, Cull-Candy SG (2002). Activity-dependent recruitment of extrasynaptic NMDA receptor activation by an AMPA receptor-only synapse. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(11), 4428 - 4436.


    • Cull-Candy SG (2001). Ionotropic glutamate receptors: functional and pharmacological properties in relation to constituent subunits. In Egebjerg J, Schoesboe A, Krogsgaard-Larsen P (Ed.), Glutamate and GABA Receptors and Transporters: Structure, Function and Pharmacology (pp. - ). : Taylor and Francis Inc..
    • Brickley SG, Revilla V, Cull-Candy SG, Wisden W, Farrant M (2001). Adaptive regulation of neuronal excitability by a voltage-independent potassium conductance. Nature, 409, 88 - 91.
    • Brickley SG, Farrant M, Swanson GT, Cull-Candy SG (2001). CNQX increases GABA-mediated synaptic transmission in the cerebellum by an AMPA/kainate receptor-independent mechanism. Neuropharmacology, 41, 730 - 736.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Brickley SG, Farrant M (2001). NMDA receptor subunits: diversity, development and disease. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 327 - 335.
    • Cathala L, Brickley S, Farrant M, Cull-Candy S (2001). Developmental changes in AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission at mossy fibre-granule cell synapses in the cerebellum..


    • Misra C, Brickley SG, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (2000). Identification of subunits contributing to synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. The Journal of Physiology, 524, 147 - 162.
    • Misra C, Brickley SG, Wyllie DJA, Cull-Candy SG (2000). Slow deactivation kinetics of NMDA receptors containing NR1 and NR2D subunits in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. The Journal of Physiology, 525, 299 - 305.
    • Liu SQJ, Cull-Candy SG (2000). Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature, 405, 454 - 458.
    • Merlo D, Brickley SG, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG, Wisden W (2000). GABAA receptor diversity: A view from the cerebellum. In Martin DL, Olsen RW (Ed.), GABA in the Nervous System (pp. 369 - 382). : Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
    • Cathala L, Misra C, Cull-Candy SG (2000). Developmental profile of the changing properties of NMDA receptors at cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapses. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 5899 - 5905.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Brickley SG (2000). NMDA Receptors. In (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (pp. - ). : Nature Publishing.


    • Brickley S, Swanson G, Contractor A, Farrant M, Sailer A, Cull-Candy SG, Heinemann S (1999). Functional GluR5-containing kainate receptors are restricted to extrasynaptic sites in Purkinje cells of the mouse cerebellum.
    • Brickley SG, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1999). Single-channel properties of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors suggest differential targeting of receptor subtypes. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 2960 - 2973.
    • Misra C, Brickley SG, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1999). Synaptic NMDA receptors in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum.
    • Misra C, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1999). Influence of temperature on macroscopic properties of NMDA receptors in cerebellar granule cells.
    • Liu S-QJ, Cull-Candy SG (1999). CA2+-permeable AMPA receptors at cerebellar parallel fibre-stellate cell synapses.
    • Clark BA, Cull-Candy SG (1999). Frequency-dependent activation of NMDA receptors at an 'AMPA receptor only' synapse in the rat cerebellum.


    • Cull-Candy S (1998). Two functionally distinct families of native NMDA receptors. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 509P, 2S - 3S.
    • Silver RA, Momiyama A, Cull-Candy SG (1998). Locus of frequency-dependent depression identified with multiple-probability fluctuation analysis at rat climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. The Journal of Physiology, 510, 881 - 902.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Brickley SG, Misra C, Feldmeyer D, Momiyama A, Farrant M (1998). NMDA receptor diversity in the cerebellum: identification of subunits contributing to functional receptors.. Neuropharmacology, 37(10-11), 1369 - 1380.


    • Swanson G, Kamboj SK, Cull-Candy SG (1997). Single-channel properties of recombinant AMPA receptors depend on RNA editing, splice variation, and subunit composition. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 58 - 69.
    • Nusser Z, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1997). Postsynaptic GABAA receptor occupancy depends on receptor number at synapses on stellate cells in the rat cerebellum..
    • Silver RA, Momiyama A, Cull-Candy SG (1997). Transmitter release and quantal size at cerebellar climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapses of the rat.
    • Nusser Z, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1997). Differences in synaptic GABAA receptor number underlie variation in GABA mini amplitude. Neuron, 19, 697 - 709.
    • Brickley SG, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1997). CNQX increases the frequency of GABAA receptor mediated synaptic currents in cerebellar granule cells in the rat cerebellum.
    • Clark BA, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1997). A direct comparison of the single-channel properties of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 107 - 116.


    • Brickley SG, Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M (1996). Development of a tonic form of synaptic inhibition in rat cerebellar granule cells resulting from persistent activation of GABAA receptors.. The Journal of Physiology, 497(3), 753 - 759.
    • Swanson GT, Feldmeyer D, Kaneda M, Cull-Candy SG (1996). Effect of RNA editing and subunit co-assembly single-channel properties of recombinant kainate receptors.. J Physiol, 492 ( Pt 1), 129 - 142.
    • Silver RA, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG, Edmonds B (1996). Deactivation and desensitization of non-NMDA receptors in patches and the time course of EPSCs in rat cerebellar granule cells.. The Journal of Physiology, 493(1), 167 - 173.
    • Silver RA, Cull-Candy SG, Takahashi T (1996). Non-NMDA glutamate receptor occupancy and open probability at a rat cerebellar synapse with single and multiple release sites.. The Journal of Physiology, 494(1), 231 - 250.
    • Feldmeyer D, Cull-Candy S (1996). Functional consequences of changes in NMDA receptor subunit expression during development.. J Neurocytol, 25(12), 857 - 867.
    • Takahashi T, Feldmeyer D, Suzuki N, Onodera K, Cull-Candy SG, Sakimura K, Mishina M (1996). Functional correlation of NMDA receptor epsilon subunits expression with the properties of single-channel and synaptic currents in the developing cerebellum.. J Neurosci, 16(14), 4376 - 4382.
    • Momiyama A, Feldmeyer D, Cull-Candy SG (1996). Identification of a native low-conductance NMDA channel with reduced sensitivity to Mg2+ in rat central neurones.. J Physiol, 494 ( Pt 2), 479 - 492.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Farrant M, Feldmeyer D (1995). NMDA channel conductance: a user’s guide. In Wheal H, Thomson A (Ed.), Excitatory Amino Acids and Synaptic Transmission (pp. 121 - 132). : Academic Press Ltd.
    • Kaneda M, Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1995). Whole-cell and single-channel currents activated by GABA and glycine in granule cells of the rat cerebellum.. The Journal of Physiology, 485(2), 419 - 435.
    • Cull-Candy S (1995). Neurotransmitters. NMDA receptors: do glia hold the key?. Curr Biol, 5(8), 841 - 843.
    • Kamboj SK, Swanson GT, Cull-Candy SG (1995). Intracellular spermine confers rectification on rat calcium-permeable AMPA and kainate receptors.. J Physiol, 486 ( Pt 2), 297 - 303.


    • Farrant M, Feldmeyer D, Takahashi T, Cull-Candy SG (1994). NMDA-receptor channel diversity in the developing cerebellum. Nature, 368, 335 - 339.
    • Feldmeyer D, Cull-Candy S (1994). Neurotransmitters. Elusive glutamate receptors.. Curr Biol, 4(1), 82 - 84.
    • Wyllie DJ, Cull-Candy SG (1994). A comparison of non-NMDA receptor channels in type-2 astrocytes and granule cells from rat cerebellum.. J Physiol, 475(1), 95 - 114.


    • Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1993). News & Views. Neurobiology: GABA receptors granule cells and genes.. Nature, 361, 302 - 303.
    • Farrant M, Cull-Candy S (1993). GABA receptors, granule cells and genes.. Nature, 361(6410), 302 - 303. doi:10.1038/361302a0
    • Traynelis SF, Silver RA, Cull-Candy SG (1993). Estimated conductance of glutamate receptor channels activated during EPSCs at the cerebellar mossy fiber-granule cell synapse.. Neuron, 11(2), 279 - 289.
    • Wyllie DJ, Traynelis SF, Cull-Candy SG (1993). Evidence for more than one type of non-NMDA receptor in outside-out patches from cerebellar granule cells of the rat.. J Physiol, 463, 193 - 226.


    • Silver RA, Traynelis SF, Cull-Candy SG (1992). Rapid-time-course miniature and evoked excitatory currents at cerebellar synapses in situ.. Nature, 355(6356), 163 - 166. doi:10.1038/355163a0
    • Newland CF, Cull-Candy SG (1992). On the mechanism of action of picrotoxin on GABA receptor channels in dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat.. J Physiol, 447, 191 - 213.
    • Cull-Candy SG (1992). Neuronal and glial glutamate-receptor channels in the cerebellum.. C R Acad Sci III, 314(9 Suppl), 83 - 87.


    • Mathie A, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1991). Conductance and kinetic properties of single nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in rat sympathetic neurones.. J Physiol, 439, 717 - 750.
    • Farrant M, Cull-Candy SG (1991). Excitatory amino acid receptor-channels in Purkinje cells in thin cerebellar slices.. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 244(1311), 179 - 184.
    • Howe JR, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1991). Currents through single glutamate receptor channels in outside-out patches from rat cerebellar granule cells.. J Physiol, 432, 143 - 202.
    • Newland CF, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1991). Single channels activated by high concentrations of GABA in superior cervical ganglion neurones of the rat.. J Physiol, 432, 203 - 233.
    • Wyllie DJ, Mathie A, Symonds CJ, Cull-Candy SG (1991). Activation of glutamate receptors and glutamate uptake in identified macroglial cells in rat cerebellar cultures.. J Physiol, 432, 235 - 258.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Wyllie DJ (1991). Glutamate-receptor channels in mammalian glial cells.. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 633, 458 - 474.
    • Traynelis SF, Cull-Candy SG (1991). Pharmacological properties and H+ sensitivity of excitatory amino acid receptor channels in rat cerebellar granule neurones.. J Physiol, 433, 727 - 763.


    • Traynelis SF, Cull-Candy SG (1990). Proton inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cerebellar neurons.. Nature, 345(6273), 347 - 350. doi:10.1038/345347a0
    • Mathie A, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1990). Rectification of currents activated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat sympathetic ganglion neurones.. J Physiol, 427, 625 - 655.


    • Usowicz MM, Gallo V, Cull-Candy SG (1989). Multiple conductance channels in type-2 cerebellar astrocytes activated by excitatory amino acids.. Nature, 339(6223), 380 - 383. doi:10.1038/339380a0
    • Cull-Candy SG, Marshall CG, Ogden D (1989). Voltage-activated membrane currents in rat cerebellar granule neurones.. J Physiol, 414, 179 - 199.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Usowicz MM (1989). On the multiple-conductance single channels activated by excitatory amino acids in large cerebellar neurones of the rat.. J Physiol, 415, 555 - 582.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Usowicz MM (1989). Whole-cell current noise produced by excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in large cerebellar neurones of the rat.. J Physiol, 415, 533 - 553.


    • Howe JR, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1988). On the kinetics of large-conductance glutamate-receptor ion channels in rat cerebellar granule neurons.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 233(1273), 407 - 422.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Howe JR, Ogden DC (1988). Noise and single channels activated by excitatory amino acids in rat cerebellar granule neurones.. J Physiol, 400, 189 - 222.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Mathie A, Powis DA (1988). Acetylcholine receptor channels and their block by clonidine in cultured bovine chromaffin cells.. J Physiol, 402, 255 - 278.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Usowicz MM (1987). Multiple-conductance channels activated by excitatory amino acids in cerebellar neurons.. Nature, 325(6104), 525 - 528. doi:10.1038/325525a0
    • Mathie A, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1987). Single-channel and whole-cell currents evoked by acetylcholine in dissociated sympathetic neurons of the rat.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 232(1267), 239 - 248.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Usowicz MM (1987). Glutamate and aspartate activated channels and inhibitory synaptic currents in large cerebellar neurons grown in culture.. Brain Res, 402(1), 182 - 187.


    • Cull-Candy SG (1986). Miniature and evoked inhibitory junctional currents and gamma-aminobutyric acid-activated current noise in locust muscle fibres.. J Physiol, 374, 179 - 200.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Mathie A (1986). Ion channels activated by acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid in freshly dissociated sympathetic neurones of the rat.. Neurosci Lett, 66(3), 275 - 280.
    • Cull-Candy SG (1986). Amino acid activated receptor-channels at peripheral and central synapses.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 203, 513 - 523.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Ogden DC (1985). Ion channels activated by L-glutamate and GABA in cultured cerebellar neurons of the rat.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 224(1236), 367 - 373.


    • Cull-Candy SG (1984). Inhibitory synaptic currents in voltage-clamped locust muscle fibres desensitized to their excitatory transmitter.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 221(1224), 375 - 383.


    • Cull-Candy SG (1983). Glutamate- and GABA-receptor channels at the locust nerve-muscle junction: noise analysis and single-channel recording.. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 48 Pt 1, 269 - 278.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R (1983). Block of glutamate-activated synaptic channels by curare and gallamine.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 218(1210), 111 - 118.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R (1982). Properties of miniature excitatory junctional currents at the locust nerve-muscle junction.. J Physiol, 326, 527 - 551.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Uchitel OD (1982). Denervation changes in normal and myasthenia gravis human muscle fibres during organ culture.. J Physiol, 333, 227 - 249.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Parker I (1982). Rapid kinetics of single glutamate-receptor channels.. Nature, 295(5848), 410 - 412.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Uchitel OD (1982). Properties of junctional and extrajunctional acetylcholine-receptor channels in organ cultured human muscle fibres.. J Physiol, 333, 251 - 267.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Parker I (1981). Single glutamate-activated channels recorded from locust muscle fibres with perfused patch-clamp electrodes.. J Physiol, 321, 195 - 210.
    • Alemà S, Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Trautmann A (1981). Properties of end-plate channels in rats immunized against acetylcholine receptors.. J Physiol, 311, 251 - 266.
    • Vincent A, Cull-Candy SG, Newsom-Davis J, Trautmann A, Molenaar PC, Polak RL (1981). Congenital myasthenia: end-plate acetylcholine receptors and electrophysiology in five cases.. Muscle Nerve, 4(4), 306 - 318. doi:10.1002/mus.880040407
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R (1981). Junctional and extrajunctional membrane channels activated by GABA in locust muscle fibres.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 211(1185), 527 - 535.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Uchitel OD (1980). Diffusion of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft of normal and myasthenia gravis human endplates.. Nature, 286(5772), 500 - 502.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Uchitel OD (1980). Induction of action potentials in cultured slow muscle fibres of the frog.. J Physiol, 299, 197 - 202.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Nakajima Y, Uchitel OD (1980). Visualization of satellite cells in living muscle fibres of the frog.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 209(1177), 563 - 568.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Trautmann A, Uchitel OD (1980). On the release of transmitter at normal, myasthenia gravis and myasthenic syndrome affected human end-plates.. J Physiol, 299, 621 - 638.


    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Uchitel OD (1979). Acetylcholine receptors in organ-cultured human muscle fibres.. Nature, 277(5693), 236 - 238.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Trautmann A (1979). End-plate currents and acetylcholine noise at normal and myasthenic human end-plates.. J Physiol, 287, 247 - 265.


    • Anderson CR, Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R (1978). Glutamate current noise: post-synaptic channel kinetics investigated under voltage clamp.. J Physiol, 282, 219 - 242.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R, Trautmann A (1978). Acetylcholine-induced channels and transmitter release at human endplates.. Nature, 271(5640), 74 - 75.
    • Cull-Candy SG (1978). Glutamate sensitivity and distribution of receptors along normal and denervated locust muscle fibres.. J Physiol, 276, 165 - 181.


    • Anderson CR, Cull-Candy SG, Miledi R (1977). Potential-dependent transition temperature of ionic channels induced by glutamate in locust muscle.. Nature, 268(5621), 663 - 665.
    • Lundh H, Leander S, Thesleff S (1977). Antagonism of the paralysis produced by botulinum toxin in the rat. The effects of tetraethylammonium, guanidine and 4-aminopyridine.. J Neurol Sci, 32(1), 29 - 43.


    • Cull-Candy SG (1976). Two types of extrajunctional L-glutamate receptors in locust muscle fibres.. J Physiol, 255(2), 449 - 464.
    • Cull-Candy SG, Lundh H, Thesleff S (1976). Effects of botulinum toxin on neuromuscular transmission in the rat.. J Physiol, 260(1), 177 - 203.
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