Prof David Colquhoun

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Name: David Colquhoun Email: d.colquhoun@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 3765
Department: Div of Biosciences Fax: 020 7679 7298
Position: Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology Address: Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, Medical Sciences Building, UCL, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Basic Life Sciences, Neuroscience Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

Transmission of an impulse from one nerve cell to another, or to a muscle cell, occurs by the release of a chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or glutamate, which combines with specific protein molecules- receptors- in the membrane of the downstream cell.


These receptors form molecular pores which span the cell membrane, and the combination of the transmitter with them causes the pore to open, which allows the passage of sodium and other ions. The current caused by movement of these ions across the membrane then initiates an electrical impulse.


We are studying the receptors for glutamate, acetylcholine and glycine by a combination of biophysical and molecular biological approaches. We record the currents through individual receptor-channels which are in their natural environment, the membranes of nerve cells from the brain or ganglia. We also record from channels that have been made from cloned DNA and artificially inserted into a convenient cell membrane. The latter method has the advantage that (with luck) you know which molecule you are dealing with, and also that altered receptors can be made by mutating the amino acid sequence of the receptor proteins. These methods allow us to address a variety of questions.


A major question that concerns us is the exact molecular nature of the receptors that occur in living cells in various parts of the nervous system. At a more basic level we are interested in the nature of the molecular interactions that cause the channels to open and shut, and what it is that controls the speed of synaptic events. Once one knows the rates of individual steps in the ion channel reaction mechanism, the binding-gating problem is solved, the way is cleared for rational interpretation of the effects of mutations in the receptor protein, and the response to any arbitrary time course of synaptic concentration of transmitter can be calculated. We have taken this approach to analysis of natural disease-causing mutations in human muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and in human glycine receptors (the latter being in collaboration with Sivilotti's lab).


We have also been closely involved in developing new methods for the analysis of single channel recordings which, because they originate from single molecules, are random in nature. And, in collaboration with Professor A.G. Hawkes (who does all the difficult stuff), we have developed much of the underlying stochastic theory which is necessary for the interpretation of these recordings. This theory allows us to interpret single channel recordings in which short events are undetected, and most recently has been extended to deal with non-stationary channels, such as those observed after a brief pulse of agonist is applied. This theory has proved essential for the interpretation of our experimental observations. For example, we have been interested in questions such as 'what does an individual activation of an ion channel look like, and how is it related to synaptic currents?', 'how can we understand the effect of mutating an amino acid in the receptor?', and 'how can we tell whether a particular amino acid forms part of the binding site?'. One outcome of the theory has been the development of an optimum method (the HJCFIT program) for estimation of rate constants in a mechanism, with exact correction for missed events).


Research Activities

Biophysics of ion channels

Mathematical biology

Education Description

My blog is at http://dcscience.net

It is devoted to improving the understanding of science and education policy, not only by the general public but also and by university administrators from vice-chancellors downwards.  It has had over 3.3 million hits. it was Blog of the Week in the New Statesman, and got joint first prize in the Good Thinking science blog awards. 

UCL Collaborators

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Bewley S, Rose L, Gøtzsche P, Blennerhassett M, Colquhoun D, Pryke M, Tindall G, Braillon A, Richmond C, Illman J, May J (2014). Time to halt an out of control trial with ineffective oversight.. BMJ, 349, g5601 - .

    2013

    2012

    • Colquhoun D, Lape R (2012). Allosteric coupling in ligand-gated ion channels. Journal of General Physiology, 140(6), 599 - 612. doi:10.1085/jgp.201210844
    • Colquhoun D (2012). Response to whitehead.. BMJ, 345, e7088 - .
    • Colquhoun D (2012). Scarcely credible treatments do not merit university attention. BMJ (Online), 344(7847), - . doi:10.1136/bmj.e1628
    • Lape R, Plested AJ, Moroni M, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2012). The α1K276E startle disease mutation reveals multiple intermediate states in the gating of glycine receptors.. J Neurosci, 32(4), 1336 - 1352. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4346-11.2012
    • Colquhoun D (2012). In praise of randomisation. The importance of causality in medicine and its subversion by philosphers of science. In Twining W, Dawid P, Vasilaki D (Ed.), Evidence, Inference and Enquiry (pp. 323 - 343). : Oxford University Press, USA.
    • Colquhoun D (2012). OVERTREATMENT Response to Whitehead. BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 345, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.e7088
    • Colquhoun D, Lape R (2012). Perspectives on: conformational coupling in ion channels: allosteric coupling in ligand-gated ion channels.. J Gen Physiol, 140(6), 599 - 612. doi:10.1085/jgp.201210844

    2011

    • Colquhoun D (2011). COLLEGE OF MEDICINE College of Medicine is Prince's Foundation reincarnated. BRIT MED J, 343, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.d4368
    • Colquhoun D (2011). Acupuncture for 'frequent attenders' with medically unexplained symptoms. BRIT J GEN PRACT, 61(589), 491 - 491. doi:10.3399/bjgp11X588268
    • Colquhoun D (2011). WELLBEING The A to Z of the wellbeing industry: from angelic reiki to patient centred care. BRIT MED J, 342, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.d2711
    • Colquhoun D (2011). The A to Z of the wellbeing industry: from Angelic Reiki to patient centred care. Wellbeing is big business, but how much of it works?. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 342, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.d2711
    • Holt S, Gilbey A, Colquhoun D, Baum M, Ernst E (2011). Call for doctors not to practice homeopathy or refer to homeopaths. New Zealand Medical Journal, 124(1332), 87 - 88.
    • Krashia P, Lape R, Lodesani F, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2011). The long activations of α2 glycine channels can be described by a mechanism with reaction intermediates ("flip").. J Gen Physiol, 137(2), 197 - 216. doi:10.1085/jgp.201010521

    2010

    • Colquhoun D (2010). Homoeopathy debate: Author's reply to the minister. BMJ (Online), 340(7741), 279 - 279. doi:10.1136/bmj.c640
    • Colquhoun D (2010). Homoeopathy debate reply. BRIT MED J, 340, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.c640

    2009

    • Colquhoun D (2009). Secret remedies: 100 Years on. BMJ (Online), 339(7735), 1386 - 1386. doi:10.1136/bmj.b5432
    • Lape R, Krashia P, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2009). Agonist and blocking actions of choline and tetramethylammonium on human muscle acetylcholine receptors. The Journal of Physiology, 587, 5045 - 5072. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2009.176305
    • Colquhoun D, Lape R, Sivilotti L (2009). Single ion channels. In Knight A (Ed.), Single Molecule Biology (pp. 223 - 251). : Academic Press.
    • Colquhoun D (2009). The arrogance of trying to sum up abilities in a number. NATURE, 458(7235), 145 - 145. doi:10.1038/458145c
    • Colquhoun D (2009). Personal View The highs and lows of policy based evidence. BRIT MED J, 339, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.b4564
    • Colquhoun D (2009). Christmas 2009: Years Like This Secret remedies: 100 years on. BRIT MED J, 339, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.b5432
    • Colquhoun D (2009). Homoeopathic product licence MHRA label seems to be illegal. BRIT MED J, 338, - . doi:10.1136/bmj.b2333

    2008

    • Lape R, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2008). On the nature of partial agonism in the nicotinic superfamily. Nature, 454(7205), 722 - 727. doi:10.1038/nature07139
    • Colquhoun D (2008). Classical Perspective. What have we learned from single ion channels?. The Journal of Physiology, 581, 435 - 427.
    • Colquhoun D (2008). How to get good science.. Physiology News, 69, 12 - 14.
    • Colquhoun D (2008). Complementary medicine - A very bad report on regulating complementary medicine. BRIT MED J, 337(7660), - .
    • Shelley C, Colquhoun D (2008). A human congenital myasthenia-causing-mutation (epsilon L78P) of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with unusual single channel properties (vol 564, pg 377, 2005). J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 586(21), 5277 - 5277. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.162628
    • Colquhoun D (2008). Colquhoun reply to chiropractic-defending letters from Kelly, Bale, and Roughan. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1281), 98 - 99.
    • Colquhoun D (2008). A very bad report on regulating complementary medicine. BMJ, 337(7660), 7 - 7.
    • Colquhoun D (2008). Doctor who? Inappropriate use of titles by some alternative "medicine" practitioners. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1278), 6 - 10.
    • Colquhoun D (2008). Response from David Colquhoun. New Zealand Medical Journal, 121(1279), 115 - 116.

    2007

    • Colquhoun D (2007). CAM - What to do about CAM?. BRIT MED J, 335(7623), 736 - 736.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). What have we learned from single ion channels?. J Physiol, 581(Pt 2), 425 - 427. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.131656
    • Franck L, Chantler C, Dixon M, Colquhoun D (2007). Should NICE evaluate complementary and alternative medicine?. British Medical Journal, 334(7592), 506 - 507.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). What to do about CAM? [5]. British Medical Journal, 335(7623), 736 - 736.
    • Sivilotti L, Colquhoun D, Beato M (2007). Single channel properties of glycine receptors from rat spinal motoneurones.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). London News BBC1 TV, with Riz Lateef.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). The Age of Endarkenment. Guardian, , - .
    • Colquhoun D (2007). Why the Schild method is better than Schild realised. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 28, 608 - 614.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). Treating critically ill patients with sugar pills. CHEST, 131(2), 635 - 636. doi:10.1378/chest.06-2402
    • Colquhoun D (2007). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - From molecular biology to cognition. SCIENCE, 315(5815), 1079 - 1079. doi:10.1126/science.1132059
    • Franck L, Colquhoun D (2007). Demand for complementary and alternative medicine is high despite limited evidence.. BRIT MED J, 334(7592), 507 - 507.
    • Colquhoun D (2007). Should NICE evaluate complementary and alternative medicines?. BMJ, 334(7592), 507 - . doi:10.1136/bmj.39122.551250.BE
    • Colquhoun D (2007). Science degrees without the science.. Nature, 446(7134), 373 - 374. doi:10.1038/446373a
    • Plested AJR, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2007). Single channel study of the spasmodic mutation α1A52S in recombinant rat glycine receptors. The Journal of Physiology, 581(1), 51 - 73. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.126920

    2006

    • Colquhoun D (2006). Agonist-activated ion channels.. Br J Pharmacol, 147 Suppl 1, S17 - S26. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706502
    • Colquhoun D (2006). The quantitative analysis of drug-receptor interactions: a short history.. Trends Pharmacol Sci, 27(3), 149 - 157. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2006.01.008

    2005

    • Colquhoun D, Persaud R, Konečni VJ, Musch DC, Fiske ST, Harris LT, Cuddy AJC (2005). Abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib (multiple letters) [1]. Science, 307(5717), 1873 - 1875.
    • Colquhoun D (2005). Homoepathy: a relict ot the past.. Focus an Alternative and Complementary Medicine (FACT), 10, 278 - 280.
    • Colquhoun D (2005). Abuse of Prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Science, 307(1873), - .
    • Colquhoun D (2005). Too many 'omics [4]. Scientist, 19(3), 8 - 8.
    • Colquhoun D, Vais I (2005). Suite of programs for analysis and interpretation of single ion channel measurements. In particular, SCAN, EKDIST and HJCFIT..
    • Shelley C, Colquhoun D (2005). A human congenital myasthenia-causing mutation (epsilon l78P) of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with unusual single channel properties. The Journal of Physiology, 564(pt 2), 377 - 396.
    • Colquhoun D (2005). Too many 'omics. SCIENTIST, 19(3), 8 - 8.
    • Colquhoun D (2005). From shut to open: What can we learn from linear free energy relationships?. BIOPHYS J, 89(6), 3673 - 3675. doi:10.1529/biophysj.105.072563
    • Schorge S, Elenes S, Colquhoun D (2005). Maximum likelihood fitting of single channel NMDA activity with a mechanism composed of independent dimers of subunits. The Journal of Physiology, 569(2), 395 - 418. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2005.095349
    • Lape R, Colquhoun D (2005). Effect of slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome mutation delta S268F on human acetylcholine receptor function.
    • Plested AJR, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2005). Single channel study of the spasmodic mutation (A52S) in the glycine receptor.
    • Colquhoun D (2005). From shut to open: what can we learn from linear free energy relationships?. Biophysical Journal, 89, 3673 - 3675.

    2004

    • Colquhoun D (2004). Professor Sir Bernard Katz. Biophysicist who arrived in England with £4 and went on to win a Nobel Prize (Obituary). Independent, , - .
    • Beato M, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2004). The activation mechanism of α1 homomeric glycine receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 895 - 906. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4420-03.2004
    • Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2004). Function and structure in glycine receptors and some of their relatives. Trends in Neurosciences, 27, 337 - 344.
    • Burzomato V, Groot-Kormelink P, Colquhoun D, Beato M, Sivilotti L (2004). Activation of heteromeric alpha 1/beta rat glycine receptors.
    • Burzomato V, Beato M, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2004). Single-channel behavior of heteromeric α1β glycine receptors: an attempt to detect a conformational change before the channel opens. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 10924 - 10940.
    • Colquhoun D, Dowsland KA, Beato M, Plested AJ (2004). How to impose microscopic reversibility in complex reaction mechanisms. Biophysical Journal, 86, 3510 - 3518. doi:10.1529/biophysj.103.038679

    2003

    • Colquhoun D, Hatton CJ, Hawkes AG (2003). The quality of maximum likelihood estimates of ion channel rate constants.. J Physiol, 547(Pt 3), 699 - 728. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2002.034165
    • Colquhoun D (2003). Challenging the tyranny of impact factors. NATURE, 423(6939), 479 - 479. doi:10.1038/423479a
    • Colquhoun D, Hatton CJ, Hawkes AG (2003). The quality of maximum likelihood estimates of ion channel rate constants. The Journal of Physiology, 547, 699 - 728. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2003.00699.x
    • Schorge S, Colquhoun D (2003). Studies of NMDA receptor function and stoichiometry with truncated and tandem subunits. Journal of Neuroscience, 23(4), 1151 - 1158.
    • Shelley C, Brydson M, Beeson D, Colquhoun D (2003). Effects of epsilon L78P, an acetylcholine receptor mutation that causes slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome..
    • Beeson D, Webster R, Ealing J, Croxen R, Brownlow S, Brydson M, Newsom-Davis J, Slater C, Hatton C, Shelley C, Colquhoun D, Vincent A (2003). Structural abnormalities of the AChR caused by mutations underlying congenital myasthenic syndromes. doi:10.1196/annals.1254.013
    • Hatton CJ, Shelley C, Brydson M, Beeson D, Colquhoun D (2003). Properties of the human muscle nicotinic receptor, and of the slow-channel myasthenic syndrome mutant epsilonL221F, inferred from maximum likelihood fits. The Journal of Physiology, 547(3), 729 - 760.
    • Colquhoun D (2003). Challenging the tyranny of impact factors, Nature Vol. 234.
    • Colquhoun D (2003). Debate: UK government funds CAM research in Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies (FACT), 8, 400 - 401.
    • Colquhoun D (2003). Professor Sir Bernard Katz: A longer account of his life in Physiology News Autumn 2003 no 52 pp 34-38.
    • Colquhoun D, Unwin N, Shelley C, Hatton CJ, Sivilotti L (2003). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In Abraham D (Ed.), Burger's Medicinal Chemistry (pp. 357 - 405). : J. Wiley.

    2002

    • Beato M, Groot-Kormelink P, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2002). Openings of the recombinant rat α1 homomeric glycine receptor as a function of the number of agonist molecules bound. Journal of General Physiology, 119, 443 - 466. doi:10.1085/jgp.20028530
    • Besson D, Croxen R, Hatton C, Shelley C, Colquhoun D, Chauplannaz G, Oosterhuis H, Newsom-Davis J, Vincent A (2002). Recessive inheritance and variable pentrance of slow channel myasthenic syndromes. J NEUROL NEUROSUR PS, 73(2), 229 - 229.
    • Colquhoun D, Sivilotti L (2002). Acetylcholine receptor-nicotinic. In Creighton TE (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine (pp. 9 - 14). : John Wiley & Sons Inc..
    • Croxen R, Hatton CJ, Shelley C, Brydson M, Chauplannaz G, Oosterhuis H, Vincent A, Newsom-Davis A, Colquhoun D, Beeson D (2002). Recessive inheritance and variable penetrance of slow channel congenital myasthenic syndromes. Neurology, 59, 162 - 168.

    2001

    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG (2001). Analysis of human muscle nicotinic receptor function by a direct maximum likelihood method (HJCFIT). BIOPHYS J, 80(1), 103A - 103A.
    • Beato M, Groot-Kormelink PJ, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (2001). Concentration dependence of single channel currents through rat recombinant alpha 1 glycine receptors.
    • Colquhoun D (2001). The lady tasting tea: How statistics revolutionized science in the twentieth century. NATURE, 411(6837), 524 - 525.

    2000

    • Colquhoun DS (2000). Letter to the Editor. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 84, 639 - 640.
    • Anson L, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D, Wyllie DJA (2000). Single-channel analysis of a NMDA receptor possessing a mutation in the region of the glutamate binding site. The Journal of Physiology, 527, 225 - 237.
    • Cheffings CM, Colquhoun D (2000). Single channel analysis of a novel NMDA channel from Xenopus oocytes expressing recombinant NR1A, NR2A and NR2D subunits. The Journal of Physiology, 526, 481 - 491.
    • Colquhoun D, Senn S (2000). Letter to the Editor (and response from Prof. Bellanti). Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 84, 639640 - .
    • Hatton C, Chen J, Shelley C, Croxen R, Beeson DMW, Colquhoun D (2000). The defect in a slow channel myasthenic syndrome mutant, ?L221F.
    • Colquhoun D, Senn SJ (2000). Letter to the Editor. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 84, 636 - 640.
    • Sivilotti LG, Colquhoun D, Millar N (2000). Comparison of native and recombinant neuronal nicotinic receptors: Problems of measurement and expression. In Clementi F, Fornasari D, Gotti C (Ed.), Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (pp. 379 - 416). : Springer Verlag.
    • Colquhoun D, Senn S (2000). Untitled. ANN ALLERG ASTHMA IM, 84(6), 639 - 639.
    • Hatton C, Chen J, Shelley C, Croxen R, Beeson D, Colquhoun D (2000). The defect in a slow channel myasthenic syndrome mutant, epsilon L221F. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 527, 110P - 111P.
    • Beeson DMW, Croxen R, Newland C, Chen J, Colquhoun D (2000). Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to mutations in the AChR î subunit.

    1999

    • Colquhoun D (1999). Unfair exchange [5]. Nature, 402(6759), 230 - 230.
    • Cheffings CM, Colquhoun D (1999). A novel NMDA channel type recorded from Xenopus oocytes expressing recombinant NR1a, NR2A and NR2D subunits.
    • Béhé P, Colquhoun D, Wyllie DJA (1999). Activation of AMPA-and NMDA-type glutamate receptor channels. In Jonas P, Monyer H (Ed.), Ionotropic glutamate receptors in the CNS (pp. 175 - 218). : Springer Verlag.
    • Colquhoun D (1999). Unfair exchange. Nature, 402, 230 - 230.
    • Colquhoun D (1999). GABA and the single oocyte: relating binding to gating. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 201 - 202.
    • Chen J, Beeson D, Newland C, Colquhoun D (1999). Human muscle nicotinic receptor mechanisms.

    1998

    • Groot-Kormelink PJ, Luyten WHML, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG (1998). A receptor mutation approach shows incorporation of the "orphan" subunit β3 into a functional nicotinic receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273, 15317 - 15320.
    • Colquhoun D (1998). Binding, gating, affinity and efficacy: The interpretation of structure-activity relationships for agonists acid of the effects of mutating receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 125(5), 923 - 947. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0702164
    • Lewis TM, Sivilotti LG, Colquhoun D, Gardiner RM, Schoepfer R, Rees M (1998). Properties of human glycine receptors containing the hyperekplexia mutation α1 (K276E) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The Journal of Physiology, 507, 25 - 40.
    • Anson LC, Chen PE, Wyllie DJA, Colquhoun D, Schoepfer R (1998). Identification of amino acid residues of the NR2A subunit which control glutamate potency in recombinant NR1/NR2A NMDA receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 581 - 589.
    • Colquhoun D, Sakmann B (1998). From muscle endplate to brain synapses: A short history of synapses and agonist-activated ion channels. Neuron, 20, 381 - 387.
    • Colquhoun D (1998). Binding, gating, affinity and efficacy. British Journal of Pharmacology, 125, 923 - 947.
    • Wyllie DJA, B h P, Colquhoun D (1998). Single-channel activations and concentration jumps: comparison of recombinant NR1a/NR2A and NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors. The Journal of Physiology, 510, 1 - 18.
    • Colquhoun D (1998). Binding, gating, affinity and efficacy: the interpretation of structure-activity relationships for agonists and of the effects of mutating receptors.. Br J Pharmacol, 125(5), 924 - 947.

    1997

    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG, Merlushkin A, Edmonds B (1997). Properties of single ion channel currents elicited by a pulse of agonist concentration or voltage. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 355, 1743 - 1786.
    • Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG, McNeil DK, Lewis TM (1997). Functional aspects of nicotinic receptors: native and recombinant.
    • Wyllie DJA, Edmonds B, Colquhoun D (1997). Single activations of recombinant NMDA NR1A/NR2A receptors recorded in one-channel patches.
    • Wyllie DJA, Behe P, Edmonds B, Colquhoun D (1997). Fast concentration jumps on recombinant NMDA NR1A/NR2A and NR1A/NR2D channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.
    • Sivilotti LG, McNeil DK, Lewis TM, Nassar MA, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1997). Recombinant nicotinic receptors, expressed in Xenopus oocyte, do not resemble rat sympathetic ganglion receptors in single channel behaviour. The Journal of Physiology, 500, 123 - 138.
    • Lewis TM, Harkness PC, Sivilotti LG, Colquhoun D, Millar NS (1997). The ion channel properties of a rat recombinant neuronal nicotinic receptor are dependent on the host cell type. The Journal of Physiology, 505, 299 - 306.
    • Colquhoun D, Foreman J (1997). Complementary medicine in the medical curriculum.

    1996

    • Silver RA, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG, Edmonds B (1996). Deactivation and desensitization of non-NMDA receptors in patches and the time course of EPSCs in rat cerebellar granule cells.. The Journal of Physiology, 493(1), 167 - 173.
    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG, Srodzinski K (1996). Joint distributions of apparent open and shut times of single-ion channels and maximum likelihood fitting of mechanisms. PHILOS T R SOC A, 354(1718), 2555 - 2590.
    • Wyllie DJ, Béhé P, Nassar M, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1996). Single-channel currents from recombinant NMDA NR1a/NR2D receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.. Proc Biol Sci, 263(1373), 1079 - 1086. doi:10.1098/rspb.1996.0159
    • Wyllie D, Behe P, Edmonds B, Nassar M, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1996). Whole-cell and single-channel currents from recombinant NMDA NR1/2D receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 491P, P135 - P136.

    1995

    • Edmonds B, Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1995). Mechanisms of activation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the time course of endplate currents.. Annu Rev Physiol, 57, 469 - 493. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.002345
    • Chen CC, Akopian AN, Sivilotti LG, Colquhoun D, Burnstock G, Wood JN (1995). A P2X purinoceptor expressed by a subset of sensory neurons. Nature, 377, 428 - 428. doi:10.1038/377428a0
    • Edmonds B, Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1995). Mechanisms of activation of glutamate receptors and the time course of excitatory synaptic currents.. Annu Rev Physiol, 57, 495 - 519. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.57.030195.002431
    • Sivilotti L, Colquhoun D (1995). Acetylcholine receptors: too many channels, too few functions. Science, 269, 1681 - 1682. doi:10.1126/science.7569892
    • Fredkin DR, Rice JA, Colquhoun D, Gibb AJ (1995). Persistence: A new statistic for characterizing ion-channel activity. PHILOS T R SOC B, 350(1334), 353 - 367.
    • Béhé P, Stern P, Wyllie DJ, Nassar M, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1995). Determination of NMDA NR1 subunit copy number in recombinant NMDA receptors.. Proc Biol Sci, 262(1364), 205 - 213. doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0197
    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG (1995). Desensitization of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: a problem of interpretation.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92(22), 10327 - 10329.
    • Connolly JG, Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1995). Heterogeneity of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in thin slices of rat medial habenula.. J Physiol, 484 ( Pt 1), 87 - 105.

    1994

    • Covernton PJO, Kojima H, Sivilotti LG, Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1994). Comparison of neuronal nicotinic receptors in rat sympathetic neurones with subunit pairs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The Journal of Physiology, 481, 27 - 34.
    • Stern P, Cik M, Colquhoun D, Stephenson FA (1994). Single channel properties of cloned NMDA receptors in a human cell line: comparison with results from Xenopus oocytes.. J Physiol, 476(3), 391 - 397.
    • SILVER RA, COLQUHOUN D, CULLCANDY SG, EDMONDS B (1994). MECHANISMS UNDERLYING DECAY OF THE FAST COMPONENT OF EPSCS IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 476P, P67 - P68.

    1993

    • Colquhoun D, Farrant M (1993). News & Views. Molecular Pharmacology: The binding issue.. Nature, 366, 510 - 511. doi:10.1038/366510b0
    • Colquhoun D (1993). Nonselective cation channels. Pharmacology, physiology and biophysics.. EXS, 66, ix - x.
    • Stern P, Behe P, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1993). Single channel kinetics of recombinant NMDA receptors. Journal of Physiology, 473, - .

    1992

    • Edmonds B, Colquhoun D (1992). Rapid decay of averaged single-channel NMDA receptor activations recorded at low agonist concentration.. Proc Biol Sci, 250(1329), 279 - 286. doi:10.1098/rspb.1992.0160
    • Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1992). Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by L-glutamate in cells dissociated from adult rat hippocampus.. J Physiol, 456, 143 - 179.
    • Edwards FA, Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1992). ATP receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the central nervous system.. Nature, 359(6391), 144 - 147. doi:10.1038/359144a0
    • Stern P, Behe P, Schoepfer R, Colquhoun D (1992). Single-channel conductances of NMDA receptors expressed from cloned cDNAs: Comparison with native receptors. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 250(1329), 271 - 277. doi:10.1098/rspb.1992.0159
    • Colquhoun D, Jonas P, Sakmann B (1992). Action of brief pulses of glutamate on AMPA/kainate receptors in patches from different neurones of rat hippocampal slices. Journal of Physiology, 458, 261 - 287.
    • Colquhoun D, Harris RA, Samson HH (1992). Unravelling the paradox [2]. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 13(12), 429 - 430.

    1991

    • Newland CF, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1991). Single channels activated by high concentrations of GABA in superior cervical ganglion neurones of the rat.. J Physiol, 432, 203 - 233.
    • Howe JR, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1991). Currents through single glutamate receptor channels in outside-out patches from rat cerebellar granule cells.. J Physiol, 432, 143 - 202.
    • Gibb AJ, Colquhoun D (1991). Glutamate activation of a single NMDA receptor-channel produces a cluster of channel openings.. Proc Biol Sci, 243(1306), 39 - 45. doi:10.1098/rspb.1991.0007
    • Marshall CG, Ogden D, Colquhoun D (1991). Activation of ion channels in the frog endplate by several analogues of acetylcholine.. J Physiol, 433, 73 - 93.
    • Mathie A, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1991). Conductance and kinetic properties of single nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in rat sympathetic neurones.. J Physiol, 439, 717 - 750.
    • Colquhoun D (1991). Trials of homeopathy [10]. British Medical Journal, 302(6790), 1466 - 1466.
    • Colquhoun D (1991). Ion channels: This year's Nobel prize in physiology or medicine. British Medical Journal, 303(6808), 938 - 939.

    1990

    • Marshall CG, Ogden DC, Colquhoun D (1990). The actions of suxamethonium (succinyldicholine) as an agonist and channel blocker at the nicotinic receptor of frog muscle.. J Physiol, 428, 155 - 174.
    • Mathie A, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1990). Rectification of currents activated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat sympathetic ganglion neurones.. J Physiol, 427, 625 - 655.
    • Colquhoun D, Cachelin AB, Marshall CG, Mathie A, Ogden DC (1990). Function of nicotinic synapses.. Prog Brain Res, 84, 43 - 50.
    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG (1990). Stochastic properties of ion channel openings and bursts in a membrane patch that contains two channels: Evidence concerning the number of channels present when a record containing only single openings is observed. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 240(1299), 453 - 477. doi:10.1098/rspb.1990.0048
    • Gibb AJ, Kojima H, Carr JA, Colquhoun D (1990). Expression of cloned receptor subunits produces multiple receptors.. Proc Biol Sci, 242(1304), 108 - 112. doi:10.1098/rspb.1990.0112

    1989

    • Cachelin AB, Colquhoun D (1989). Desensitization of the acetylcholine receptor of frog end-plates measured in a Vaseline-gap voltage clamp.. J Physiol, 415, 159 - 188.
    • Colquhoun D (1989). Validity of the operational model. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 10(1), 17 - 17.
    • Colquhoun D, Mathie A, Mulrine NK, Ogden DC (1989). Studies on single acetylcholine-receptor channels in muscle end-plate and sympathetic neurones. Fernstrom Foundation Series, 13, 217 - 234.

    1988

    • Howe JR, Colquhoun D, Cull-Candy SG (1988). On the kinetics of large-conductance glutamate-receptor ion channels in rat cerebellar granule neurons.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 233(1273), 407 - 422.
    • Colquhoun D, Ogden DC (1988). Activation of ion channels in the frog end-plate by high concentrations of acetylcholine.. J Physiol, 395, 131 - 159.
    • Colquhoun D (1988). Single channel analysis costs time. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 9(5), 157 - 158.

    1987

    • Mathie A, Cull-Candy SG, Colquhoun D (1987). Single-channel and whole-cell currents evoked by acetylcholine in dissociated sympathetic neurons of the rat.. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 232(1267), 239 - 248.
    • Colquhoun D (1987). A new type of ion-channel block. Nature, 329(6136), 204 - 205.
    • Colquhoun D, Mathie A, Ogden DC (1987). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of nerve and muscle: Functional aspects. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 8(12), 465 - 472.
    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG (1987). A note on correlations in single ion channel records. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences, 230(1258), 15 - 52.
    • Ogden D, Colquhoun D, Gibb NA (1987). Ogden et al. reply. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 8(9), 335 - 335. doi:10.1016/0165-6147(87)90141-6
    • Ogden DC, Colquhoun D, Gibb AJ (1987). Regulation of the acetylcholine receptor. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 8(8), 294 - 295.

    1986

    • Colquhoun D (1986). Caution: agonists are complex. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 7(C), 390 - 390.
    • Colquhoun D (1986). Mechanism of action of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Advanced Research Workshop, Island of Santorini, Greece. May 19-23, 1986. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 7(C), 292 - 294.
    • Colquhoun D (1986). Structure and function of acetylcholine-receptor ion channels. Nature, 321(6068), 382 - 383.

    1985

    • Colquhoun D (1985). Imprecision in presentation of binding studies. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 6(C), 197 - 197.
    • Ogden DC, Colquhoun D (1985). Ion channel block by acetylcholine, carbachol and suberyldicholine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences, 225(1240), 329 - 355.
    • Colquhoun D, Sakmann B (1985). Fast events in single-channel currents activated by acetylcholine and its analogues at the frog muscle end-plate. Journal of Physiology, VOL. 369, 501 - 557.

    1984

    • Gardner P, Ogden DC, Colquhoun D (1984). Conductances of single ion channels opened by nicotinic agonists are indistinguishable. Nature, 309(5964), 160 - 162.
    • Colquhoun D, Ogden DC (1984). Evidence from single-channel recording of channel block by nicotinic agonists at the frog neuromuscular junction. Journal of Physiology, VOL. 353, - .
    • Ogden DC, Gray PTA, Colquhoun D, Rang HP (1984). Kinetics of acetylcholine activated ion channels in chick ciliary ganglion neurones grown in tissue culture. Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 400(1), 44 - 50. doi:10.1007/BF00670535

    1983

    • Ogden DC, Colquhoun D (1983). The efficacy of agonists at the frog neuromuscular junction studied with single channel recording. Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, 399(3), 246 - 248. doi:10.1007/BF00656725
    • COLQUHOUN D, GARDNER P, OGDEN DC (1983). THE CONDUCTANCE OF ION CHANNELS OPENED BY DIFFERENT CHOLINOMIMETIC AGONISTS IN CULTURED RAT MUSCLE. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 345(DEC), P139 - P139.

    1981

    • COLQUHOUN D, NEHER E, REUTER H, STEVENS C (1981). INWARD CURRENT CHANNELS ACTIVATED BY INTRACELLULAR CA IN CULTURED CARDIAC-CELLS. NATURE, 294(5843), 752 - 754. doi:10.1038/294752a0

    1980

    • Colquhoun D, Sheridan RE (1980). Kinetic effects of tubocurarine on skeletal muscle at high agonist concentrations. British Journal of Pharmacology, 68(1), - .

    1979

    • Colquhoun D, Dreyer F, Sheridan RE (1979). The actions of tubocurarine at the frog neuromuscular junction. Journal of Physiology, 293, 247 - 284.
    • Colquhoun D, Sheridan RE (1979). Modes of action of gallamine at the neuromuscular junction. British Journal of Pharmacology, 66(1), - .

    1978

    • Colquhoun D, Dreyer F, Sheridan RE (1978). Is curare a competitive acetylcholine antagonist at the neuromuscular junction?. Neuroscience Letters, 10(suppl. 1), - .
    • Colquhoun D, Dreyer F, Sheridan RE (1978). The action of tubocurarine at the neuromuscular junction. Journal of Physiology, VOL. 284, - .

    1977

    • Colquhoun D, Hawkes AG (1977). Relaxation and fluctuations of membrane currents that flow through drug-operated channels. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London - Biological Sciences, 199(1135), 231 - 262.

    1976

    • Colquhoun D, Rang HP (1976). Effects of inhibitors on the binding of iodinated α bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptors in rat muscle. Molecular Pharmacology, 12(4), 519 - 535.
    • Colquhoun D (1976). Analysis of end plate current fluctuations produced by acetylcholine and acetylmonoethylcholine in rat muscle. British Journal of Pharmacology, 58(3), - .

    1975

    • Colquhoun D, Dionne VE, Steinbach JH, Stevens CF (1975). Conductance of channels opened by acetylcholine like drugs in muscle end plate. Nature, 253(5488), 204 - 206.
    • COLQUHOUN D (1975). MECHANISMS OF DRUG ACTION AT VOLUNTARY MUSCLE ENDPLATE. ANNUAL REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY, 15, 307 - 325. doi:10.1146/annurev.pa.15.040175.001515

    1974

    • Colquhoun D, Rang HP, Ritchie JM (1974). The binding of tetrodotoxin and α bungarotoxin to normal and denervated mammalian muscle. Journal of Physiology, 240(1), 199 - 226.
    • Colquhoun D, Rang HP, Ritchie JM (1974). Tetrodotoxin binding to innervated and denervated rat diaphragm homogenates. BRIT.J.PHARMACOL., 51(1), 125 - 126.
    • Colquhoun D, Rang HP (1974). The inhibition of α bungarotoxin binding to denervated rat muscle by tubocurarine and other drugs. BRIT.J.PHARMACOL., 51(1), 124 - 125.

    1973

    • Colquhoun D, Rang HP, Ritchie JM (1973). The binding of labelled tetrodotoxin and cobra toxin by the rat diaphragm. BRIT.J.PHARMACOL., 47(3), - .

    • COLQUHOUN D (). DCscience.net.