Women’s support groups improve newborn survival rates
5 March 2010
Women’s community groups have had a dramatic effect on reducing neonatal mortality rates in some of the poorest areas on India, according to new UCL research.
The study, published today in The Lancet, reports that the groups provide a cost-effective intervention
with added benefits such as reducing significantly maternal depression and
improving decision-making amongst the women.
Every year, an estimated four million children worldwide die within the first month of their lives. Less than a quarter of the 68 countries targeted by the Millennium Development Goal 4 (reduction of mortality rate in children less than five years old by two-thirds by 2015) are on track to achieve that goal.
A previous study conducted in Nepal and published by The
Lancet in 2004 suggested that participatory
women’s groups could achieve a significant impact on neonatal health in poorer
countries, far more than one-to-one contact with a health worker.
To see if these findings could be applied in other countries, the researchers repeated the exercise in Jharkhand and Orissa, two of the poorest states in eastern India. Neonatal mortality rates in the two regions are 49 and 45 per 1,000 live births respectively, disproportionately higher than India’s national estimates of 39 per 1000. By comparison, in the UK the figures are 4 per 1,000.
Between 2005 and 2008, a team of researchers led by Professor
Anthony Costello from the UCL Institute of Child Health and Dr Prasanta Tripathy, from the Indian voluntary organisation
Ekjut, evaluated how women’s groups affected neonatal mortality and maternal
depression in intervention areas as compared to areas where no participatory
groups were set up.
The groups were evaluated using a cluster-randomised controlled trial, which was funded by the Health Foundation, the UK Department for International Development, the Wellcome Trust and the UK Big Lottery Fund.
The groups were facilitated by women recruited in the local
area, non-healthcare professionals who tended to be married, with some
schooling, and a respected member of the community. The number of women taking
part in the groups increased from one in six women (17%) of childbearing age
in the first year to over a half (55%) in the third year.
The women worked through a ‘community action cycle’ involving
- identifying the problems associated with pregnancy, childbirth and care of newborns
- developing strategies to tackle these problems, such as improving hygiene, raising emergency funds and producing their own birthing kits
- working with local community leaders, teachers, politicians and others to implement these strategies, and
- evaluating their success.
The effects of the interventions were dramatic: by the second and third years of the trial, the neonatal mortality rate in the areas where the participatory women’s groups existed had fallen by 45%. These areas also saw a significant fall (57%) in moderate depression amongst mothers by the third year of the trial.
“What we were seeing was a change in behaviour towards better hygiene practices and improved care for newborns,” explained Professor Costello. “There was a move away from harmful practices such as giving birth in unclean environments and delaying breastfeeding. We saw significant improvements in areas such as basic hygiene by birth attendants, clean cord care and women responding earlier to care needs.”
The researchers believe that improved social capital – the access the group gave women to a wider support network of peers – was potentially the most valuable aspect of the groups and would have contributed towards the improved childbirth and childcare practices and the reduction in maternal depression. It may also explain why such groups have had much greater success than direct – even one-to-one – interventions with healthcare workers.
“Many of the women in these groups would have been relatively young, living in arranged marriages with only their mother-in-law or a very limited network of friends for support,” explained Dr Audrey Prost from UCL. “The groups empower the women to take preventive measures and to deal with problems more effectively when they arise. If you’ve been to a group and a problem arises, you’ve got a ready-made network that you can go to for help and support.”
“It was crucial that the women were allowed to think through the issues and implement their own strategies to tackle them, rather than us telling them what to do,” Dr Nirmala Nair of Ekjut said. “We believe that a trained facilitator who supports informed peer learning is more effective for lasting behaviour change than a traditional instructor/learner approach.”
The researchers estimate that the additional cost on introducing support to these groups per newborn life saved was around £600. However, this raises questions over who would pay for supporting these groups: federal or state government, non-governmental organisations, or a combination of the two.
Image: Women’s participatory group in Jharkhand, India, courtesy of Sudharak Olwe
The UCL Institute of Child Health, in partnership with Great Ormond Street Hospital, is the largest centre in Europe devoted to clinical and basic research and postgraduate teaching in children’s health.
The institute pursues an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to enhance the understanding, diagnosis, prevention of and therapy for childhood disease. Its work covers a broad range of paediatric issues, from molecular genetics to population health sciences.