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Scarabs in the Middle Kingdom (about 2025-1700 BC) and Second Intermediate Period

The first true scarabs appear at the end of the First Intermediate Period.
They are all decorated with some kind of pattern. They never bear hieroglyphic inscriptions

With few exceptions Twelfth Dynasty scarabs do not bear hieroglyphic inscriptions that can be read as phrases, but often they have symmetrical arrangements of the hieroglyphs that can be used to write separate words, always associated with kingship and its amuletic power ('life', 'flourish', 'front' and similar). Intricate spiral motifs are also particularly common.

some scarabs from Koptos

At the end of the Twelfth Dynasty (about 1850 BC) scarabs with the names and titles of officials, kings and members of the royal family came into use; they are very common in the early to mid-13th Dynasty.

Inscribed scarabs of the late Middle Kingdom (late Twelfth-13th Dynasty) and the Second Intermediate Period
royal family
UC 11488 UC 11536 UC 11517

Most late Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period scarabs are still without hieroglyphic inscription; many of them seems to have been produced in Palestine (especially the examples with figures)
hieroglyphs as symbols
human figures
UC 11121
UC 60222
UC 61097
UC 60992
UC 60922

further reading | Names and signs. Remarks on hieroglyphs among Second Intermediate Period scarabs

scarabs or seal impressions found at

Buhen | Nubt


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