Residence near the pyramid or pyramid near the residence ?
The kings' tombs of the First Dynasty are at Abydos; while the residence or main administrative/cultural centre of the country was already at Memphis. In the Second Dynasty some kings' tombs were built at Saqqara, the cemetery of the administrative centre Memphis. However, some kings of that period were still buried at Abydos. King Djoser and Sekhemkhet built their tomb complexes again at Saqqara. King Khaba sited his tomb complex at Zawiyet el-Aryan. From the Fourth Dynasty on, there are attested 'pyramid towns', the settlements for workmen and officials involved with the cult at the pyramid. Some scholars believe that the pyramid city was at this time also the residence/capital of the king/country. The administrative centre of the Twelfth Dynasty was Itjawy, near Lisht; only two kings built their pyramid complexes there.
Many pyramids are built directly near a quarry. Stone of better quality was quarried at Turah and brought by ship to the building place. At Aswan granite was quarried, used for select surfaces, such as the internal chambers and lowest external casing of the pyramid of Menkaura at Gizeh.
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