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Cosmetic materials

Malachite (Cu2(CO3)(OH)2):

A green hydrous copper carbonate mineral. It occurs both in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and in Sinai. In predynastic burials lumps of ore have been found beside palettes and grinding pebbles, presumably for grinding into powder to be used as green eye-paint

Naqada tomb 624

(Aston/Harrell/Shaw 2000: 43-44)

Galena (PbS):

Galena is a mineral consisting of lead sulphide. Galena is often found in Naqada and Early Dynastic tombs. It has a grey-black metallic hue. Sources are known along the coast of the Red Sea, but also inland in the Eastern Desert region and in the area of Aswan. Ancient working at one source, Gebel Zeit on the Red Sea, is confirmed by the presence of a shrine with votive offerings and monuments.

(Regner 1996: 26)

Pyrolusite (MnO2):

Pyrolusite is a steel grey to black mineral, which was ground in predynastic Egypt for use as eye paint. In the Middle Kingdom (about 2025-1700 BC) it was used for tomb paintings and in the New Kingdom (about 1550-1069 BC) for the decoration of pottery. It is very common in Egypt

(Regner 1996: 26)


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