Glass: stained (or 'luster-painted") glass
To the colour, which was painted on the glass were added silver or copper. With the firing the colour fused in a chemical reaction to the glass. With different temperatures of firing different effects were achieved. High temperatures, for example, produced dark colours. The technique was developed in Roman Egypt (in the third century AD) when silver and copper alloys were used as substitute for gold. The heating of pigments with silver dates back to the sixth or seventh century AD.
Until the twelfth century AD, stained glass was only produced in Egypt and Syria: most of the examples surviving from this period are from Egypt. Only later was the technique also used in other countries, including medieval Europe.
Carboni 2001: 51-53
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