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Provincial Administration in the Middle Kingdom (about 2025-1700 BC) and Second Intermediate Period (about 1700-1550 BC)

The structures of the provincial administration at this period are not well documented throughout. At the beginning of the Middle Kingdom there are some high officials with the title Hry-tp aA n zpAt - Overlord of a nome. The title might indicate that the person ruled over a whole province. In the Twelfth Dynasty the title HAti-a (often in the combination with imy-ra Hmw-nTr or imy-ra Hwt-nTr) became the most important title for local chiefs. It is not certain if the change in title is combined with a change in responsibilities. It is often assumed that the Hry-tp aA n zpAt ruled over an area, while the HAti-a ruled over a town. Some officials with the title HAti-a are well-known for their impressive funerary monuments, mainly in Middle Egypt (see for example Qau). These officials had their own courts, in which titles very similar to the titles of the royal court appeared.

The impressive funerary monuments in the provinces disappear at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. It is not certain if this is connected with changes in the administration, with changes in burial customs, or with lack of resources.


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