Space Plasma Research at UCL/MSSL
We are active in a number of areas of Space Plasmas Research, driven by our current and future participation in international space science missions for which we have, or will provide instrument hardware. These include interests in the solar wind, and the terrestrial and planetary magnetospheres.
The solar wind is a stream of plasma that flows radially outwards from the Sun, carrying with it the solar magnetic field. It is a supersonic plasma that is shocked by its encounters with bodies throughout the solar system. The source of the solar wind and its evolution through the solar system are areas of active research within the Space Plasma Physics group at MSSL.
We are the principal investigator institute for the Solar Wind Analyser (SWA) suite of sensors which are selected for inclusion on ESA’s Solar Orbiter Mission. This mission, targeted for launch in January 2017, is a candidate to be the first component of ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Programme. As well as leading the international SWA consortium, preparations for this mission at UCL/MSSL include the scientific analysis of current space-based observations of the solar wind, which acts to inform the design and prototyping work for the SWA Electron Analyser System (SWA/EAS), which will be built at UCL/MSSL.
We work in close collaboration with the UCL/MSSL Solar Physics group in order to better our understanding between phenomena on the Sun and their propagation into the solar system.
We are engaged in the scientific study of the structures and dynamics of a number of regions found within and around the Earths magnetosphere, including the magnetospheric cusps, the magnetopause and the magnetotail. We are particularly interested in magnetic reconnection, and its manifestations at the magnetopause (for example through studies of Flux Transfer Events) and in the magnetotail (in particular the physics of magnetospheric substorm and related phenomena). In addition, recent work concentrates also on the auroral regions, and the physical processes which accelerate particles precipitating from the magnetosphere to the energies needed for auroral activation.
The principal tool we use for magnetospheric research is data from the ESA 4-spacecraft Cluster mission and China/ESA 2-spacecraft Double Star mission. UCL/MSSL is the Principal Investigator Institute for the Electron Spectrometer instrument (PEACE) flown on all 6 of these spacecraft. We also use data from the Polar, Interball, Geotail, ACE, Wind and THEMIS satellites.
Often in close collaboration with members of the UCL/MSSL Planetary Group, members of the Space Plasmas Group regularly participate in studies of the plasma environments (magnetospheres, ionospheres, plasma wakes, etc.) of other solar system bodies.
Our expertise in studying the plasma environment around the Earth and the abundance of data available allow us to study the similarities and differences between the different planetary systems throughout the solar system. Through these comparisons, we can further our understanding of the fundamental physics of plasmas.
We have presented the Cluster observations of a crater FTE on 12 February 2007, when the quartet was located in the low-latitude boundary layer, and widely separated on the magnetopause plane. The passage of the structure was sequentially observed by Cluster 2, 3, 4 and 1 respectively, analysed in detail. But what are flux transfer events, and why are they important within the magnetosphere? More...
Ozeke et al.  presented analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefﬁcients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefﬁcients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric ﬁeld power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic ﬁeld power from in situ measurements.
During the most dynamic auroral displays, known as substorm, electrical current is diverted from the magnetosphere through the ionosphere. The passage of this current through the upper atmosphere causes the gas to glow giving us the aurora. Since the 1970s it has been thought that this diverted current forms a "substorm current wedge" with upwards current on the duskward side and downward current on the dawnward side. More...
Automated determination of auroral breakup during the substorm expansion phase using all-sky imager data
MSSL researchers participated in the development of a novel method for quantitatively and routinely identifying auroral breakup following substorm onset using the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) all-sky imagers.
We present a comprehensive two-dimensional view of the ﬁeld-aligned currents (FACs) during the late growth and expansion phases for three isolated substorms utilizing in situ observations from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment and from ground-based magnetometer and optical instrumentation from the Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms ground-based arrays.
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