MSSL Space Plasma Science Nuggets
- Discovery of the 'Travelling Magnetopause Erosion Region'
- Particle Distributions in the Magnetotail
- Calculating currents from four spacecraft
- What is the source of magnetotail flux-ropes?
- Structure and variability of the auroral acceleration region
- The influence of magnetospheric convection and magnetopause motion on Radiation Belt electrons
- Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts
- The detailed spatial structure of ﬁeld-aligned currents comprising the substorm current wedge
- New and improved analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefﬁcients
- Poleward Boundary Intensifications and Bursty Bulk Flows do not coherently drive the substorm current wedge
- Automated determination of auroral breakup during the substorm expansion phase using all-sky imager data
- High-time-resolution observations of an FTE using Cluster
- Detailed azimuthal structure of the substorm current wedge
- Waves in the ionosphere detected by ground GPS receiver network
- Inner magnetospheric onset preceding reconnection and tail dynamics during substorms: Can substorms initiate in two different regions?
- Increases in plasma sheet temperature with solar wind driving during substorm growth phases
- Origin of polar auroras revealed
- Solar Ejecta through the Heliosphere
- Near-Earth Cosmic Ray Decreases Associated with Remote Coronal Mass Ejections
- The Earth’s foreshock: simulations and in-situ satellite data
- The magnetospheric substorm at Mercury
- Transpolar arc observation after solar wind entry into the high latitude magnetosphere
- Influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric plasma waves
- Statistical characterisation of the growth and spatial scales of the substorm onset arc
- A physical explanation for the magnetic decrease ahead of dipolarization fronts
- Lightning as a Space Weather Hazard
- A New Technique for Determining Substorm Onsets and Phases from Indices of the Electrojet (SOPHIE)
- Student Sounding Rockets to train the next generation of space scientists
- ULF Waves above the Nightside Auroral Oval during Substorm Onset
- What effect do substorms have on the radiation belts?
- Substructures within a Dipolarization Front Revealed by High-temporal Resolution Cluster Observations
- Effects of ULF waves on the Earth’s radiation belts
Particle Distributions in the Magnetotail
17 August 2011
For the first time, Walsh et al. have examined, in detail, the particle distributions in the magnetotail to determine the average pitch angle distributions.
The magnetotail on the nightside of the Earth's magnetosphere is generally considered to be divided into four regions that have different plasma characteristics. The plasma sheet is found at the centre of the magnetotail and consists of hot plasma with a temperature of around 12 million degrees celsius. Outside the plasma sheet is a region called the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is a transition region between the plasma sheet and the north and south magnetotail lobes, which are comparatively empty, not containing much plasma at all.
It is generally thought that the ions and electrons that make up the plasma sheet are isotropic - there are equal numbers of ions and electrons moving in all directions. In a recent paper, however, Walsh et al. (2011) used data from one of the European Space Agency's four Cluster spacecraft to prove that, on average, while this is true for the ions, it is not true for the electrons. They looked at three months of proton and electron data measured when the spacecraft was located in the plasma sheet or the plasma sheet boundary layer and compared the fluxes of particles travelling perpendicular to the Earth's magnetic field with the fluxes of those particles travelling parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field. In an isotropic plasma these numbers should be the same. For the electrons they found that there were higher fluxes of particles travelling (anti)parallel to the magnetic field than perpendicular to it.
For more details see:
Walsh, AP and Owen, CJ and Fazakerley, AN and Forsyth, C and Dandouras, I (2011),
Average magnetotail electron and proton pitch angle distributions from Cluster PEACE and CIS observations. GEOPHYS RES LETT , 38, Article L06103, DOI:10.1029/2011GL046770.
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