MSSL Space Plasma Science Nuggets
- Discovery of the 'Travelling Magnetopause Erosion Region'
- Particle Distributions in the Magnetotail
- Calculating currents from four spacecraft
- What is the source of magnetotail flux-ropes?
- Structure and variability of the auroral acceleration region
- The influence of magnetospheric convection and magnetopause motion on Radiation Belt electrons
- Discovery of the action of a geophysical synchrotron in the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts
- The detailed spatial structure of ﬁeld-aligned currents comprising the substorm current wedge
- New and improved analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefﬁcients
- Poleward Boundary Intensifications and Bursty Bulk Flows do not coherently drive the substorm current wedge
- Automated determination of auroral breakup during the substorm expansion phase using all-sky imager data
- High-time-resolution observations of an FTE using Cluster
- Detailed azimuthal structure of the substorm current wedge
- Waves in the ionosphere detected by ground GPS receiver network
- Inner magnetospheric onset preceding reconnection and tail dynamics during substorms: Can substorms initiate in two different regions?
- Increases in plasma sheet temperature with solar wind driving during substorm growth phases
- Origin of polar auroras revealed
- Solar Ejecta through the Heliosphere
- Near-Earth Cosmic Ray Decreases Associated with Remote Coronal Mass Ejections
- The Earth’s foreshock: simulations and in-situ satellite data
- The magnetospheric substorm at Mercury
- Transpolar arc observation after solar wind entry into the high latitude magnetosphere
- Influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric plasma waves
- Statistical characterisation of the growth and spatial scales of the substorm onset arc
- A physical explanation for the magnetic decrease ahead of dipolarization fronts
- Lightning as a Space Weather Hazard
- A New Technique for Determining Substorm Onsets and Phases from Indices of the Electrojet (SOPHIE)
- Student Sounding Rockets to train the next generation of space scientists
- ULF Waves above the Nightside Auroral Oval during Substorm Onset
Structure and variability of the auroral acceleration region
5 February 2013
Bright auroral arc appear when charged particles from the magnetosphere are accelerated into the upper atmosphere. Collisions between charged particles and neutrals excite the electrons in the neutral particles which then de-excite by emitting auroral light. Particles, in particular electrons, are accelerated out of the magnetosphere and into the atmosphere by magnetic-field-aligned electric potential drops in a region known as the auroral acceleration region (AAR). In a recent paper, Forsyth et al.  investigated the temporal variability and spatial structure in one such region.
In their study, Forsyth et al. used data from the Cluster spacecraft as they passed through an auroral acceleration region at altitudes between 4000 and 7000 km altitude. Using two spacecraft that were on the same magnetic field lines but separated by 1500 km, Forsyth et al. determined that up to 500 V of the potential drop along the magnetic field was located between the two spacecraft and that the majority of the remainder of the potential drop was concentrated below the lower spacecraft. Forsyth et al. were also able to use observations from a third Cluster spacecraft that passed through the AAR some three minutes prior to the two conjugate spacecraft to infer that the variation in the potential drop along the magnetic field was also concentrated at low altitudes.
These observations are the first such observations, allowing the determination of the instantaneous vertical structure of the AAR to be determined and showing that the potential drop tends to be variable at low altitude. As other such observations become available (see Forsyth & Fazakerley, 2012), we will be able to gain a greater understanding of the processes that control the aurora and their link to the wider protective magnetospheric system.
Forsyth et al. , Temporal evolution and electric potential structure of the auroral acceleration region from multispacecraft measurements, J. Geophys. Res, 117 (A12), doi:10.1029/2012JA017655
Forsyth & Fazakerley , Multispacecraft observations of auroral acceleration by Cluster, in Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 197, 261–270,doi:10.1029/2011GM001166
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