Emergence and Evolution of Solar Magnetic Fields
Helicity: Twist and Writhe
Certain dynamo models can generate magnetic helicity of one sign on large-scales, writhe, and the opposite sign on small scales, twist.
Asgari-Targhi & Berger, GAFD, 103, 69-87, 2009.. View full-size photo here.
Most Twist Indicators lost in Emergence
Significant details of a magnetic field's twist are lost when it emerges through the solar surface, with only weak twist being distinguishable.
Murray et al., Astron. & Astrophys., 479, 567-577, 2008.. View full-size photo here.
Moat Flows subject to Sunspot's Penumbra
Moat flows are only present at locations around sunspots where the penumbral field is perpendicular to the umbra's border.
Vargas Dominguez et al., Astrophys. J., 679, 900, 2008.. View full-size photo here.
Reversals in Magnetic Signatures during Flares
Eroneous reversals can be generated in photospheric magnetic data during flares as a result of non-thermal electron acceleration.
Zhao, Wang, Matthews et al., Research in Astron. Astrophys., 9, 812-828, 2009.. View full-size photo here.
Reconnection can generate Wave Signatures
A series of reversals in the input and output fields during reconnection is termed 'oscillatory' and produces periodic heating and swaying jets.
Murray et al., Astron. & Astrophys., 494, 329-337, 2009.. View full-size photo here.
Interchange Reconnection at Work
Reconnection between active regions and coronal holes interchanges positions of closed and open field, hence 'interchange' reconnection.
Baker et al., Astron. Nachr., 328, 773, 2007.. View full-size photo here.