The FONEMA (Fast Omni-directional Non-scanning Energy Mass Analyser) was a package of instruments included on the Mars 96 orbiter payload to study the solar wind interaction with Mars. MSSL was the PI institute for FONEMA in collaboration with MFFUK (Czech Republic), who supplied the high voltage units and the EGSE, CESR (France) and STIL (Ireland), who provided the DPU, IKI (Russia) and OKB (Kirghizia).
FONEMA would have studied the structure, dynamics and origin of the plasma population of near-Mars space by measurements of three dimensional distribution functions of hot ions with a high time resolution in the energy range from 20 eV to 8 keV. The instrument consists of 36 Thomson parabola energy mass analysers which make measurements within their own solid angle determined by a pair of hyperbolic electrostatic mirrors and a focussing particle collimator system. Within each analyser parallel electrostatic and magnetic fields deflect the incoming ions to produce parabolic images on an MCP/Wedge Strip anode imaging system. Encoding electronics then produce energy spectra for 4 different mass groups from which the onboard software within the Data Processing Unit (DPU) will produce full distributions.
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