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Prof Clare Elwell

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Personal Profile

Name: Clare Elwell Email: c.elwell@ucl.ac.uk
Title: Prof Tel: 020 7679 0270
Department: Dept of Med Phys & Biomedical Eng Fax: 020 7679 0255
Position: Professor of Medical Physics Address: Medical Phys and Bioengineering, UCL, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower St, London, WC1E 6BT
Research Domain: Biomedical Imaging (Frontier Disciplines), Experimental Medicine, Neuroscience, Personalised Medicine Web Page: Personal Web Page

Profile

Research Description

The Near Infrared Spectroscopy Group in the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering at UCL has pioneered the development of a range of optical systems for the quantification of cerebral oxygenation, haemodynamics and metabolism. Biological tissue is relatively transparent to light in the near infrared region (700-1000nm) allowing absorption spectroscopy of substantial sections of tissue to determine the relative concentrations of oxy and deoxyhaemoglobin (HbO2 and HHb) and oxidised cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO). Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) systems can therefore be used to as continuous, regional, non invasive and portable monitors of the healthy and injured brain. Our work encompasses theoretical modelling of both light transport in tissue and cerebral physiology, instrument design and construction and the development of novel tissue-like phantoms for laboratory based testing. This work is in varying stages of clinical trials and is currently funded by a range of EPSRC, MRC and Wellcome Trust grants and industrial collaborations with Hamamatsu Photonics and Hitachi Medical Systems. Importantly we have a strong record of transferring laboratory-based research into the clinic. Our NIRS systems are currently being used to monitor adult brain injured patients on the Neurocritical Care Unit at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery where we are investigating their role as part of a multi modal monitoring strategy which includes invasive brain tissue oxygen tension, intracranial pressure and cerebral microdialysis measures. We are currently working on the development of a novel dual channel broadband frequency resolved spectrometer optimised specifically for the measurement of oxidised cytochrome c oxidase as a marker of cellular oxygen metabolism in the adult brain. In collaboration with Great Ormond Street Hospital we are also monitoring cerebral oxygenation in infants and children undergoing cardiothoracic procedures such as extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. NIRS can be used to measure the haemodynamic response to neuronal activity and as such the technique has found widespread use as a monitor of functional activation in both adults and infants. We have used a range of multi channel NIRS systems to characterise the haemodynamic status of the resting and activated brain. In collaboration with the Centre of Brain and Cognitive Development at Birkbeck College we are monitoring prefrontal activity in young infants during visual processing and are continuing to provide solutions for issues such as probe placement, motion artifact and multi channel signal analysis in neurodevelopment paradigms.


Research Activities

Development and application of novel optical methods for monitoring the injured brain

Development of novel optical systems for monitoring the healthy and injured brain

MEC - Imaging , Modelling and Image-Guided Interventions

Education Description

UCL Collaborators

Prof Jem Hebden; Dr Vivek Dua; Prof Robert Speller; Prof Xavier Golay; Prof Louis Lemieux; Prof Frank Smith; Dr Martin Smith; Prof Paul Beard; Prof David Gadian; Dr Nick Ovenden; Dr Ilias Tachtsidis

External Collaborators

Publications

    2014

    • Gunadi S, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Tachtsidis I (2014). Spatial sensitivity and penetration depth of three cerebral oxygenation monitors. Biomedical Optics Express, 5(9), 2896 - 2912. doi:10.1364/BOE.5.002896
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Papademetriou M, Everdell NL, Elwell CE, Darboe MK, Wegmuller R, Prentice AM, Moore SE (2014). Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess cognitive function in infants in rural Africa. Scientific Reports, 4, - . doi:10.1038/srep04740
    • Boas DA, Elwell CE, Ferrari M, Taga G (2014). Twenty years of functional near-infrared spectroscopy: introduction for the special issue. NEUROIMAGE, 85, 1 - 5. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.11.033

    2013

    • Highton D, Panovska-Griffiths J, Smith M, Elwell C (2013). Mathematical Modelling of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals and Intracranial Pressure in Brain-Injured Patients. , , 345 - 351. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7411-1_46
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Elwell CE, Charman T, Murphy D, Johnson MH (2013). Reduced neural sensitivity to social stimuli in infants at risk for autism. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 280(1758), - . doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.3026
    • Highton D, Panovska-Griffiths J, Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Banaji M, Elwell C, Smith M (2013). Modelling cerebrovascular reactivity: a novel near-infrared biomarker of cerebral autoregulation?. Adv Exp Med Biol, 765, 87 - 93. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4989-8_13
    • Kolyva C, Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Highton D, Smith M, Elwell CE (2013). Dependence on NIRS Source-Detector Spacing of Cytochrome c Oxidase Response to Hypoxia and Hypercapnia in the Adult Brain.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 789, 353 - 359. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7411-1_47
    • Kolyva C, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Kingston H, Dondorp AM, Mohanty S, Mishra S, Patnaik R, Maude RJ (2013). Oscillations in cerebral haemodynamics in patients with falciparum malaria. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 765, 101 - 107. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4989-8-15
    • Everdell NL, Airantzis D, Kolvya C, Suzuki T, Elwell CE (2013). A portable wireless near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy system for use on brain and muscle. Medical Engineering and Physics, , - .
    • Caicedo A, Van Huffel S, Papademetriou MD, Elwell CE, Tachtsidis I, Hoskote A, Elliott MJ (2013). Canonical correlation analysis in the study of cerebral and peripheral haemodynamics interrelations with systemic variables in neonates supported on ECMO. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 765, 23 - 29. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4989-8-4
    • Papademetriou M, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Elliott MJ, Hoskote A (2013). Wavelet cross-correlation to investigate regional variations in cerebral oxygenation in infants supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 765, 203 - 209. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-4989-8-28
    • Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Kolyva C, Highton D, Elwell C, Smith M (2013). Normobaric hyperoxia does not change optical scattering or pathlength but does increase oxidised cytochrome C oxidase concentration in patients with brain injury.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 765, 67 - 62.

    2012

    • Papademetriou MD, Tachtsidis I, Banaji M, Elliott MJ, Hoskote A, Elwell CE (2012). Optical topography to measure variations in regional cerebral oxygenation in an infant supported on veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1566-4_11
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Mercure E, Elwell CE, Johnson MH (2012). The emergence of cerebral specialization for the human voice over the first months of life.. Soc Neurosci, 7(3), 317 - 330. doi:10.1080/17470919.2011.614696
    • Coutts LV, Cooper CE, Elwell CE, Wilkins AJ (2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CEPHALALGIA, 32(8), 621 - 629. doi:10.1177/0333102412444474
    • Moroz T, Banaji M, Tisdall M, Cooper CE, Elwell CE, Tachtsidis I (2012). Development of a model to aid NIRS data interpretation: results from a hypercapnia study in healthy adults.. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1566-4_43
    • Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Kolyva C, Cooper CE, Smith M, Elwell CE (2012). Use of a hybrid optical spectrometer for the measurement of changes in oxidized cytochrome c oxidase concentration and tissue scattering during functional activation.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 737, 119 - 124. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1566-4_18
    • Kolyva, C , Tachtsidis, I , Ghosh A, Moroz, T , Cooper, CE , Smith, M , Elwell, CE (2012). Systematic investigation of changes in oxidized cerebral cytochrome c oxidase concentration during frontal lobe activation in healthy adults. Biomedical Optics Express, 3(10), 2550 - 2566.
    • Wittekind A, Cooper CE, Elwell CE, Leung TS, Beneke R (2012). Warm-up effects on muscle oxygenation, metabolism and sprint cycling performance.. Eur J Appl Physiol, 112(8), 3129 - 3139. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2262-z
    • Coutts LV, Cooper CE, Elwell CE, Wilkins AJ (2012). Time course of the haemodynamic response to visual stimulation in migraine, measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. CEPHALALGIA, 32(8), 621 - 629. doi:10.1177/0333102412444474
    • Jelfs B, Banaji M, Tachtsidis I, Cooper CE, Elwell CE (2012). Modelling noninvasively measured cerebral signals during a hypoxemia challenge: steps towards individualised modelling.. PLoS One, 7(6), e38297 - . doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038297
    • Papademetriou MD, Tachtsidis I, Elliot MJ, Hoskote A, Elwell CE (2012). Multichannel near infrared spectroscopy indicates regional variations in cerebral autoregulation in infants supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.. J Biomed Opt, 17(6), 067008 - . doi:10.1117/1.JBO.17.6.067008

    2011

    • Elwell CE, Boas DA, Cooper CE, Delpy D, Ferrari M, Quaresima V, Yodh AG (2011). Britton Chance 1913-2010 DEDICATION. PHILOS T R SOC A, 369(1955), 4380 - 4389. doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0313
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Everdell N, Elwell CE, Johnson MH (2011). Selective cortical mapping of biological motion processing in young infants.. J Cogn Neurosci, 23(9), 2521 - 2532. doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21598
    • Gao L, Elwell CE, Kohl-Bareis M, Gramer M, Cooper CE, Leung TS, Tachtsidis I (2011). Effects of assuming constant optical scattering on haemoglobin concentration measurements using NIRS during a Valsalva Manoeuvre..
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall MM, Pritchard C, Leung TS, Ghosh A, Elwell CE, Smith M (2011). Analysis of the Changes in the Oxidation of Brain Tissue Cytochrome c Oxidase in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients during Hypercapnoea: a Broadband NIRS Study..
    • Leff DR, Orihuela-Espina F, Elwell CE, Athanasiou T, Delpy DT, Darzi AW, Yang GZ (2011). Assessment of the cerebral cortex during motor task behaviours in adults: A systematic review of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies. NEUROIMAGE, 54(4), 2922 - 2936. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.058
    • Elwell CE, Kolyva C (2011). Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics PREFACE. PHILOS T R SOC A, 369(1955), 4355 - 4357. doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0303
    • Elwell CE, Cooper CE (2011). Making light work: illuminating the future of biomedical optics. PHILOS T R SOC A, 369(1955), 4358 - 4379. doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0302
    • Papademetriou MD, Tachtsidis I, Banaji M, Elliott MJ, Hoskote A, Elwell CE (2011). Regional cerebral oxygenation measured by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (optical topography) in an infant supported on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, 141(5), e31 - e33. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.01.026

    2010

    • Highton D, Elwell C, Smith M (2010). Noninvasive cerebral oximetry: is there light at the end of the tunnel?. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol, 23(5), 576 - 581.
    • Binzoni T, Cooper CE, Wittekind AL, Beneke R, Elwell CE, De Ville DV, Leung TS (2010). A new method to measure local oxygen consumption in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy. PHYSIOL MEAS, 31(9), 1257 - 1269. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/31/9/014
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Elwell CE (2010). Illuminating the developing brain: The past, present and future of functional near infrared spectroscopy. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV R, 34(3), 269 - 284. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.07.008
    • Tachtsidis I, Gao L, Leung TS, Kohl-Bareis M, Cooper CE, Elwell CE (2010). A hybrid multi-distance phase and broadband spatially resolved spectrometer and algorithm for resolving absolute concentrations of chromophores in the near-infrared light spectrum.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 662, 169 - 175. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1241-1_24
    • Blasi A, Phillips D, Lloyd-Fox S, Koh PH, Elwell CE (2010). Automatic Detection of Motion Artifacts in Infant Functional Optical Topography Studies. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1241-1_40
    • Papademetriou MD, Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Elliott MJ, Hoskote A, Elwell CE (2010). Cerebral and Peripheral Tissue Oxygenation in Children Supported on ECMO for Cardio-Respiratory Failure. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1241-1_64
    • Tachtsidis I, Koh PH, Stubbs C, Elwell CE (2010). Functional optical topography analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) methodology with and without physiological confounds.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 662, 237 - 243.
    • Banaji M, Mallet A, Elwell CE, Nicholls P, Tachtsidis I, Smith M, Cooper CE (2010). Modelling of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and NIRS detection of cytochrome oxidase redox state. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 662, 285 - 291.
    • Leung TS, Wittekind A, Binzoni T, Beneke R, Cooper CE, Elwell CE (2010). Muscle Oxygen Saturation Measured Using "Cyclic NIR Signals" During Exercise. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1241-1_26
    • Gunadi S, Powell S, Elwell CE, Leung TS (2010). Optimization of the acousto-optic signal detection in cylindrical geometry. doi:10.1117/12.842175

    2009

    • Tachtsidis I, Pritchard C, Tisdall MM, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Smith M (2009). Hypercapnea does not consistently increase the oxidation of cytochrome c oxidase in traumatic brain injury.
    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Tisdall MM, Pritchard C, Smith M, Elwell CE (2009). Reply to 'Comment on "Estimating a modified Grubb's exponent in healthy human brains with near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler"'. PHYSIOL MEAS, 30(10), L13 - L14. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/30/10/L02
    • Lloyd-Fox S, Blasi A, Volein A, Everdell N, Elwell CE, Johnson MH (2009). Social Perception in Infancy: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study. CHILD DEV, 80(4), 986 - 999. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01312.x
    • Koh PH, Elwell CE, Delpy DT (2009). DEVELOPMENT OF ADYNAMIC TEST PHANTOM FOR OPTICAL TOPOGRAPHY. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85998-9_22
    • Tisdall MM, Taylor C, Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Smith M (2009). The effect on cerebral tissue oxygenation index of changes in the concentrations of inspired oxygen and end-tidal carbon dioxide in healthy adult volunteers.. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 109(3), 906 - 913. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e3181aedcdc
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Chopra A, Koh PH, Reid CB, Elwell CE (2009). False positives in functional near infrared topography. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 645, 307 - 314. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85998-9_46
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall MM, Leung TS, Pritchard C, Cooper CE, Smith M, Elwell CE (2009). Relationship between brain tissue haemodynamics, oxygenation and metabolism in the healthy human adult brain during hyperoxia and hypercapnia.
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall MM, Leung TS, Pritchard C, Cooper CE, Smith M, Elwell CE (2009). Relationship between brain tissue haemodynamics, oxygenation and metabolism in the healthy human adult brain during hyperoxia and hypercapnea. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 645, 315 - 320.
    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Tisdall MM, Pritchard C, Smith M, Elwell CE (2009). Estimating a modified Grubb’s exponent in healthy human brains with near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler. Physiological Measurement, 30(1), 1 - 12. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/30/1/001

    2008

    • Banaji M, Mallet A, Elwell CE, Nicholls P, Cooper CE (2008). A Model of Brain Circulation and Metabolism: NIRS Signal Changes during Physiological Challenges. PLOS COMPUT BIOL, 4(11), - . doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000212
    • Tisdall MM, Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Smith M (2008). Increase in cerebral aerobic metabolism by normobaric hyperoxia after traumatic brain injury.. Journal of Neurosurgery, 109(3), 424 - 432. doi:10.3171/JNS/2008/109/9/0424
    • Tisdall MM, Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Smith M (2008). Changes in the attenuation of near infrared spectra by the healthy adult brain during hypoxaemia cannot be accounted for solely by changes in the concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 614, 217 - 225.
    • Tachtsidis I, Gramer M, Leung T, Tahir B, Bareis-Kohl M, Cooper C, Elwell C (2008). A hybrid multi-distance phase and broadband spatially resolved algorithm for resolving absolute concentrations of chromophores in the near infrared light spectrum: results from studies in dynamic phantoms.
    • Leff DR, Elwell CE, Orihuela-Espina F, Atallah L, Delpy DT, Darzi AW, Yang GZ (2008). Changes in prefrontal cortical behaviour depend upon familiarity on a bimanual co-ordination task: an fNIRS study. Neuroimage, 39(2), 805 - 813. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.09.032
    • Leung T, Tachtsidis I, Cooper C, Tisdall M, Pritchard C, Smith M, Elwell C (2008). Investigating cross-talk in cytochrome c oxidase concentration quantification using near infrared spectroscopy in a two-layered model.
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Delpy DT, Smith M, Elwell CE (2008). Measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation in young healthy volunteers during acetazolamide provocation: a transcranial Doppler and near-infrared spectroscopy investigation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 614, 389 - 396.
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Delpy DT, Smith M, Elwell CE (2008). Measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation in young healthy volunteers during acetazolomide provocation: a transcranial Doppler and near infrared spectroscopy investigation. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74911-2_43
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung T, Devoto L, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2008). Measurement of frontal lobe functional activation and related systemic effects: a near infrared spectroscopy investigation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 614, 397 - 403. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74911-2_44
    • Leung TS, Tisdall MM, Tachtsidis I, Smith M, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2008). Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation calculated using low frequency haemoglobin oscillations measured by near infrared spectroscopy in adult ventilated patients.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 614, 235 - 244.
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Tisdall MM, Devendra P, Smith M, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2008). Investigation of frontal cortex, motor cortex and systemic haemodynamic changes during anagram solving.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 614, 21 - 28.

    2007

    • Tisdall MM, Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Smith M (2007). Near-infrared spectroscopic quantification of changes in the concentration of oxidized cytochrome c oxidase in the healthy human brain during hypoxemia. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 12(2), 024002 - 7. doi:10.1117/1.2718541
    • Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Leung TS, Cooper CE, Delpy DT, Smith M, Elwell CE (2007). Investigation of in vivo measurement of cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase redox changes using near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Physiological Measurement, 28(2), 199 - 211. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/2/008
    • Laufer JG, Delpy DT, Elwell CE, Beard PC (2007). Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 52, 141 - 168. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/1/010
    • Koh PH, Glaser DE, Flandin G, Butterworth B, Maki A, Delpy D, Elwell CE (2007). Functional Optical Signal Analysis (fOSA): A Software Tool for NIRS Data Processing Incorporating Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM).. Journal of Biomedical Optics, in press(12), 6 - .
    • Leung T, Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Smith M, Delpy D, Elwell , C E (2007). Measuring cerebral blood flow using indocyanine green with near-infrared spectroscopy in the adult human head - Theory and Modelling. Applied Optics, 46(10), 1604 - 1614.
    • Blasi A, Fox S, Everdell N, Volein A, Tucker L, Csibra G, Gibson A, Hebden J, Johnson M, Elwell C (2007). Depth dependent changes in cerebral haemodynamics during face perception in infants. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 52, 6849 - 6864.
    • Rowley AB, Payne SJ, Tachtsidis I, Ebden MJ, Whiteley JP, Gavaghan DJ, Tarassenko L, Smith M, Elwell CE, Delpy DT (2007). Synchronization between arterial blood pressure and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin concentration investigated by wavelet cross-correlation. Physiological Measurement, 28(2), 161 - 173. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/28/2/005
    • Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Leung T, Elwell CE, Smith M (2007). Changes in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measured by near infrared spectroscopy do not only reflect changes in oxygenation..
    • Koh PH, Glaser DE, Flandin G, Kiebel S, Butterworth B, Maki A, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2007). Functional optical signal analysis: a software tool for near-infrared spectroscopy data processing incorporating statistical parametric mapping. J BIOMED OPT, 12(6), - . doi:10.1117/1.2804092
    • Smith M, Leung T, Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE (2007). Measurement of cerebral oxygen extraction fraction using near infrared spectroscopy in healthy adult volunteers..
    • Leung T, Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Smith M, Delpy D, Elwell C (2007). Theoretical investigation of measuring cerebral blood flow in the adult human head using bolus Indocyanine Green injection and near-infrared spectroscopy. Applied Optics, 46(10), 1604 - 1614. doi:10.1364/AO.46.001604

    2006

    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Velayuthan P, Oliver C, Henty JR, Jones H, Smith M, Elwell CE, Delpy DT (2006). Investigation of oxygen saturation derived from cardiac pulsations measured on the adult head using NIR spectroscopy.. Adv Exp Med Biol, 578, 209 - 215. doi:10.1007/0-387-29540-2_34
    • Leung T, Tachtsidis I, Tisdall M, Smith M, Delpy D, Elwell CE (2006). Measurement of cerebral blood flow with indocyanine green and NIRS, before and after the administration of acetazolamide..
    • Wong FY, Austin T, Henty J, Elwell CE, Walker AM, Meek JH, Wyatt JS (2006). Preterm infants on inotropes have different cerebral oxygen metabolism measured by near infrared spectroscopy. EARLY HUM DEV, 82(9), 635 - 636.
    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Smith M, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2006). Measurement of the absolute optical properties and cerebral blood volume of the adult human head with hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy.. Phys Med Biol, 51(3), 703 - 717. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/3/015
    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Smith M, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2006). Measurement of the absolute optical properties and cerebral blood volume of the adult human head with hybrid differential and spatially resolved spectroscopy. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 51(3), 703 - 717. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/51/3/015
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung T, Tisdall M, Smith M, Delpy D, Elwell CE (2006). Cerebral blood flow assessment with indocyanine green bolus transit detection by near infrared spectroscopy before and after acetazolamide challenge in humans.
    • Koh P, Elwell C, Delpy D (2006). Functional Optical Signal Analysis (fOSA): a software tool for NIRS data processing..
    • Leung T, Tachtsidis I, Velaynthan P, Oliver C, Henty J, Jones H, Smith M, Elwell C, Delpy D (2006). Investigation of oxygen saturation dervied from cardiac pulsations measured on the adult head using NIR spectroscopy.
    • Leung TS, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Delpy DT, Tisdall M, Smith M, Arridge S (2006). Modelling of indocyanine green bolus with a finite element model of the adult human head and the Fick principle.
    • Griffin M, Prior D, Cooper C, Wilkins A, Elwell C (2006). Near infrared spectroscopy as a non invasive assessment of cortical abnormality in migraine?.
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung TS, Oliver C, Henty JR, Jones H, Smith M, Delpy DT, Elwell CE (2006). Quantification of adult cerebral blood volume using the NIRS tissue oxygenation index. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 578, 237 - 243.
    • Blasi A, Everdell N, Fox S, Tucker L, Volein A C, G H, J J, M E, C (2006). Near infrared topography with depth information for the detection of face perception in infants.
    • Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Leung T, Elwell CE, Smith M (2006). Non-invasive measurement of changes in cerebral mitochondrial oxygenation in human volunteers..
    • Leff D, Koh P, Aggarwal R, Leong J, Deligianni F, Elwell C, Delpy D, Darzi A, Yang G (2006). Optical mapping of the frontal cortex during a surgical knot-tying task, a feasibility study. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4091, 140 - 147.
    • Laufer J, Elwell , C , Delpy , D , Beard , P (2006). Spatially resolved blood oxygenation measurements using time resolved photo-acoustic spectroscopy.
    • Laufer J, Elwell C, Delpy D, Beard P (2006). Spatially resolved measurements of blood oxygen saturation in a tissue phantom using photoacoustic spectroscopy.
    • Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Elwell C, Smith M (2006). Changes in concentration of oxidised cytochrome oxidase measured using both broadband and four wavelength near infrared spectroscopy reflect changes in oxygen delivery during hypoxaemia in healthy volunteers.
    • Hunt K, Tachtsidis I, Bleasdale-Barr K, Elwell C, Mathias C, Smith M (2006). Changes in cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics during postural blood pressure changes in patients with autonomic failure. Physiological Measurement, 27(9), 777 - 785.

    2005

    • Laufer J, Elwell CE, Delpy DT, Beard PC (2005). In vitro measurements of absolute blood oxygen saturation using pulsed photoacoustic near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy: accuracy and resolution. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 50, 4409 - 4428. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/50/18/011
    • Leung TS, Elwell CE, Delpy DT (2005). Estimation of cerebral oxy- and deoxy-haemoglobin concentration changes in a layered adult head model using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 50, 5783 - 5798. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/50/24/002
    • Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Smith M (2005). Non-invasive monitoring of carbon dioxide reactivity: spatially resolved spectroscopy near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler. doi:10.1017/S0265021505001365
    • Tachtsidis I, Jones H, Oliver C, Delpy D, Smith M, Elwell CE (2005). Investigation of the changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation measured with near infrared spectroscopy in response to moderate hypercapnia. doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9591524.0193
    • Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Leung T, Bleasdale-Barr K, Hunt K, Toms N, Smith M, Mathias C, Delpy D (2005). Rate of change in cerebral oxygenation and blood pressure in response to passive changes in posture: a comparison between pure autonomic failure patients and controls. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 566, 187 - 193.
    • Elwell CE, Henty J, Leung T, Austin T, Meek J, Delpy D, Wyatt J (2005). Regional measurements of CMRO2 in neonates undergoing intensive care using near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Austin T, Leung T, Wong F, Elwell CE, Henty J, Meek JH, Wyatt JS (2005). Relationship between cerebral oxygen delivery, cerebral metabolic rate and the mean cerebral oxygen saturation in preterm infants.
    • Tisdall M, Tachtsidis I, Bleasdale-Barr K, Mathias C, Delpy D, Elwell CE, Smith M (2005). Investigation of the cerebral haemoglobin and cytochrome signals using near infrared spectroscopy during head up tilt in patients with orthostatic hypotension.
    • Leung TS, Elwell CE, Delpy DT (2005). Optimal determination of detector placement in cerebral NIR spectroscopy of neonates using chemometric techniques.

    2004

    • Smith M, Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Leung T, Delpy D (2004). Posture dependence of spontaneous oscillations in cerebral haemodynamics.
    • Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Leung TS, Lee CW, Smith M, Delpy DT (2004). Investigation of cerebral haemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy in young healthy volunteers reveals posture-dependent spontaneous oscillations.. Physiol Meas, 25(2), 437 - 445.
    • Leung TS, Narendra A, Elwell CE, Delpy DT, Costeloe K (2004). A new method for the measurement of cerebral blood volume and total circulating blood volume using near infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy and indocyanine green: application and validation in neonates. Pediatric Research, 55(1), 134 - 141.
    • Tachtsidis I, Cooper C, McGown A, Makker H, Delpy D, Elwell C (2004). Changes in total haemoglobin volume and cytochrome oxidase redox state during deep apnoeas in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.
    • Csibra G, Henty J, Volein A, Elwell C, Tucker L, Meel J, Johnson M (2004). Near infrared spectroscopy reveals neural activation during face perception in infants and adults. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 2, 85 - 89.
    • Laufer J, Elwell C, Delpy D, Beard P (2004). Pulsed near-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy of blood.
    • Austin T, Henry J, Meek JH, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (2004). Mean cerebral oxygen saturation increases with gestational age in preterm infants.
    • Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Leung TS, Lee CW, Smith M, Delpy DT (2004). Investigation of cerebral haemodynamics by near-infrared spectroscopy in young healthy volunteers reveals posture- dependent spontaneous oscillations. Physiological Measurement, 25(2), 437 - 445. doi:10.1088/0967-3334/25/2/003
    • Tachtsidis I, Leung T, Oliver C, Jones H, Elwell CE, Smith M (2004). Non invasive measurement of absolute cerebral blood volume in adults using a tissue oxygen index.

    2003

    • McGown AD, Makker H, Elwell C, Al Rawi PG, Valipour A, Spiro SG (2003). Measurement of changes in cytochrome oxidase redox state during obstructive sleep apnea using near-infrared spectroscopy. Sleep, 26(6), 710 - 716.
    • Leung T, Elwell C, Tachtsidis I, Henty J, Delpy D (2003). Measurement of the optical properties of the adult human head with spatially resolved spectroscopy and changes in posture.
    • Leung TS, Elwell CE, Tachtsidis I, Henty J, Delpy DT (2003). Measurement of the optical properties of the adult human head with spatially resolved spectroscopy and changes of posture. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 540, 13 - 18.
    • Leung T, Elwell C, Henty J, Delpy D (2003). Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation.
    • Tachtsidis I, Elwell CE, Lee CW, Leung TS, Smith M, Delpy D (2003). Spectral characteristics of spontaneous oscillations in cerebral haemodynamics are posture dependent. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 540, 31 - 36.
    • Austin T, Henty J, Elwell CE, Wyatt J (2003). Mean cerebral saturation is an index of neonatal cerebral blood flow.
    • Austin T, Henty J, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (2003). Mean cerebral saturation is an index of neonatal cerebral blood flow.
    • Mcleod AD, Igielman F, Elwell C, Cope M, Smith M (2003). Measuring cerebral oxygenation during normobaric hyperoxia: A comparison of tissue microprobes, near-infrared spectroscopy, and jugular venous oximetry in head injury. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 97(3), 851 - 856.
    • Leung TS, Elwell CE, Henty J, Delpy DT (2003). Simultaneous measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation over the adult frontal and motor cortex during rest and functional activation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 510, 385 - 389.

    2002

    • Gora F, Shinde S, Elwell CE, Goldstone JC, Cope M, Delpy DT, Smith M (2002). Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study. J NEUROSURG ANESTH, 14(3), 218 - 222.
    • Gora F, Shinde S, Elwell CE, Goldstone JC, Cope M, Delpy DT, Smith M (2002). Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green: A pilot study. Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, 14(3), 218 - 222.
    • Hunt K, Tachtsidis I, Bleasdale-Barr K, Thoms N, Henty J, Elwell CE, Mathias C, Smith M (2002). Changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation during postural hypotension in patients with autonomic failure..
    • Bleasdale-Barr K, Tachtsidis I, Hunt K, Thoms N, Henty J, Elwell CE, Delpy D, Smith M, Mathias C (2002). Changes in cerebral oxygen saturation on postural change in patients with autonomic failure and orthostatic hypotension and controls..
    • Thavasothy M, Broadhead M, Elwell CE, Peters M, Smith M (2002). A Comparison of Cerebral Oxygenation as Measured by the NIRO 300 and the INVOS 5100 Near Infrared Spectrometers. Anaesthesia, 57(10), 999 - 1006.

    2000

    • Lovell A, Marshall A, Elwell CE, Smith M, Goldstone J (2000). Changes in cerebral blood volume with changes in position in awake anaesthetized subjects. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 90(2), 372 - 376.
    • Lee TY, Gora F, Elwell CE, Smith M, Springett R, Gharavi J, Goldstone J, Delpy DT (2000). Proceedings of the Inter-Institute Workshop on In Vivo Optical Imaging at the NIH, ed.A.H.Gandjbakhche.
    • Elwell CE (2000). A day in the Life of a Research Medical Physicist. The Biochemist, 22(2), 41 - 42.

    1999

    • Owen-Reece H, Smith M, Elwell CE, Goldstone JC (1999). Near infrared spectroscopy. BRIT J ANAESTH, 82(3), 418 - 426.
    • Owen-Reece H, Smith M, Elwell CE, Goldstone JC (1999). Near infrared spectroscopy. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 82(3), 418 - 426.
    • Meek J, Noone M, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (1999). Visually evoked haemodynamic responses in infants with cerebral pathology. PEDIATR RES, 45(6), 909 - 909.
    • Meek JH, Elwell CE, McCormick DC, Edwards AD, Townsend JP, Stewart AL, Wyatt JS (1999). Abnormal cerebral haemodynamics in perinatally asphyxiated neonates related to outcome. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 81(2), F110 - F115.
    • Lovell A, Owen-Reece H, Elwell CE, Smith M, Goldstone J (1999). Continuous measurement of cerebral oxygenation by near infrared spectroscopy during induction of anesthesia.. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 88(3), 554 - 558.
    • Meek JH, Tyszczuk L, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (1999). Low cerebral blood flow is a risk factor for severe intraventricular haemorrhage. Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 81(1), F15 - F18.
    • Gora F, Smith M, Elwell CE, Goldstone J (1999). Measurement of cerebral blood flow in adults using near infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green.
    • Elwell CE, Springett R, Hillman E, Delpy D (1999). Oscillations in cerebral haemodynamics - implications for functional activation studies.

    1998

    • Meek J, Firbank M, Elwell C, Atkinson J, Braddick O, Wyatt J (1998). Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants. Pediatric Research, 43(6), pp.840 - 843.
    • Firbank M, Elwell CE, Cooper CE, Delpy DT (1998). Experimental and theoretical comparison of NIR spectroscopy measurements of cerebral hemoglobin changes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(5), 1915 - 1921.
    • Smith M, Lovell A, Elwell CE, Goldstone J (1998). Changes in cerebral blood volume measured by near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Tyszczuk L, Meek JH, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (1998). Cerebral blood flow is independent of mean arterial blood pressure in preterm infants undergoing intensive care. Pediatrics, 102, 337 - 341.
    • Meek JH, Tyszczuk L, Elwell CE, Wyatt JS (1998). Cerebral blood flow increases over the first three days of life in extremely preterm neonates. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 78, F33 - F37.
    • Meek JH, Firbank M, Elwell CE, Atkinson J, Braddick O, Wyatt JS (1998). Regional hemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.. Pediatr Res, 43(6), 840 - 843. doi:10.1203/00006450-199806000-00019

    1997

    • Lovell A, Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Smith M, Goldstone J (1997). Comparison of the immediate effects of induction of anaesthesia with etomidate, propofol and thiopentone on cerebral haemodynamics.
    • Lovell A, Marshall A, Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Goldstone J, Smith M (1997). Changes in cerebral blood volume with change in posture measured by near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Lovell AT, Owen-Reece H, Elwell CE, Smith M, Goldstone JC (1997). Continuous measurement of cerebral oxygenation by NIRS during induction of anaesthesia.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 428, 213 - 218.
    • Owen-Reece H, Smith M, Elwell C, Lovell A, Goldstone J (1997). Jugular venus bulb oxygen saturation compared with cerebral saturation measured by near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Elwell C, Matcher M, Tyszczuk L, Meek J, Delpy D (1997). Measurement of cerebral venous saturation in adults using near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Cooper C, Sharpe M, Elwell CE, Springett R, Penrice J, Tyszczuk L, Amess PN, Wyatt JS, Quaresima V, Delpy DT (1997). The cytochrome oxidase redox state in vivo.
    • Lovell AT, Owen-Reece H, Elwell CE, Smith M, Goldstone JC (1997). Predicting oscillation in arterial saturation from cardiorespiratory variables. Implications for the measurement of cerebral blood flow with NIRS during anaesthesia.. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 428, 629 - 638.
    • Elwell C, Cope M, Delpy D (1997). An analytical method for determining cerebrovascular transit time using near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Lovell A, Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Smith M, Goldstone J (1997). Oscillations in arterial saturation: implications for the measurement of cerebral blood flow with near infrared spectroscopy..

    1996

    • Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Wyatt J, Delpy D (1996). THe effects of scalp ischaemia on measurement of cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy. Physiological Measurement, 17(4), 279 - 286.
    • Owen-Reece H, Smith M, Elwell C, Goldstone J, Delpy D (1996). Near-infrared spectroscopy and cerebral haemodynamics. Critical Care Medicine, 24(8), 1424 - 1424.
    • Cooper C, Elwell C, Meek J, Matcher S, Wyatt J, Cope M, Delpy D (1996). The noninvasive measurement of absolute cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration and mean optical pathlength in the neonatal brain by second derivative near infrared spectroscopy. Pediatric Research, 39(1), 32 - 38.
    • OwenReece H, Elwell CE, Harkness W, Goldstone J, Delpy DT, Wyatt JS, Smith M (1996). Use of near infrared spectroscopy to estimate cerebral blood flow in conscious and anaesthetized adult subjects. BRIT J ANAESTH, 76(1), 43 - 48.
    • Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Harkness W, Goldstone J, Delpy D, Wyatt J, Smith M (1996). Use of near infrared spectroscopy to estimate cerebral blood flow in conscious and anaesthetised adult subjects. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 76(1), 43 - 48.
    • Duncan A, Meek J, Clemence M, Elwell C, Fallon P, Tyszczuk L, Cope M, Delpy D (1996). Measurement of cranial optical pathlength as a function of age using phase resolved near infrared spectroscopy. Pediatric Research, 39(5), 889 - 894.
    • Elwell C, Owen-Reece H, Wyatt J, Cope M, Reynolds E, Delpy D (1996). Influence of respiration and changes in expiratory pressure on cerebral haemoglobin concentration measured by near infrared spectroscopy.. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 16(2), 353 - 357.
    • OwenReece H, Smith M, Elwell CE, Goldstone JC, Delpy DT (1996). Untitled. CRIT CARE MED, 24(8), 1424 - 1424.

    1995

    • COOPER CE, ELWELL CE, MEEK JH, MATCHER SJ, PENRICE J, TYSZCZUK L, AMESS P, WYATT JS, DELPY D (1995). NONINVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF ABSOLUTE DEOXY-HEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION IN THE NEONATAL BRAIN. PEDIATR RES, 38(3), 429 - 429.
    • Elwell C (1995). A Practical Users Guide to Near Infrared Spectroscopy.
    • Matcher S, Elwell C, Cooper C, Cope M, Delpy D (1995). Performance comparison of several published tissue near infrared spectroscopy algorithms. Analytical Biochemistry, 227(1), 54 - 68.
    • Duncan A, Meek J, Clemence M, Elwell C, Tyszczuk L, Cope M, Delpy D (1995). Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 40(2), 295 - 304.
    • Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Smith M, Delpy D, Wyatt J, Harkness W (1995). Effect of extracerebral tissue on non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood flow by near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Meek JH, Elwell CE, Khan MJ, Romaya J, Wyatt JS, Delpy DT, Zeki S (1995). Regional changes in cerebral haemodynamics as a result of a visual stimulus measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 261, 351 - 356. doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0158
    • MEEK JH, ELWELL CE, OSMUND E, REYNOLDS EOR, WYATT JS (1995). EFFECT OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH-RETARDATION ON POSTNATAL CEREBRAL HEMODYNAMICS. PEDIATR RES, 38(3), 443 - 443.

    1994

    • de Blasi R, Alviggi I, Cope M, Elwell C, Ferrari M (1994). Noninvasive measurement of forearm consumption during exercise by near infrared spectroscopy.
    • Elwell C, Cope M, Edwards A, Wyatt J, Delpy D, Reynolds E (1994). Quantification of adult cerebral haemodynamics by near infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77(6), 2753 - 2760.
    • Elwell CC, M K, D O-R, H C, C R, E D, D (1994). An automated system for the measurement of the response of cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension using near infrared spectroscopy.
    • OWENREECE H, ELWELL CE, SMITH M, DELPY DT, WYATT JS, GOLDSTONE J (1994). USE OF NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO ESTIMATE CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW IN CONSCIOUS SUBJECTS AND DURING GENERAL-ANESTHESIA. BRIT J ANAESTH, 73(2), P267 - P267.
    • Owen-Reece H, Elwell C, Fallon P, Goldstone J, Smith M (1994). Near infrared oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy. Anaesthesia, 49(12), 1102 - 1103.
    • MEEK JH, ELWELL CE, KHAN AJ, ROMAYA J, WYATT JS, DELPY DT, ZEKI S (1994). CHANGES IN OCCIPITAL HEMODYNAMICS DUE TO A VISUAL STIMULUS DETECTED BY NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. J PHYSIOL-LONDON, 479P, P83 - P83.
    • OWENREECE H, ELWELL CE, FALLON P, GOLDSTONE J, SMITH M (1994). NEAR-INFRARED OXIMETRY AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. ANAESTHESIA, 49(12), 1102 - 1103.
    • Elwell C, Owen-Reece H, Cope M, Edwards A, Wyatt J, Reynolds E, Delpy D (1994). Measurement of changes in cerebral haemodynamics during inspiration and expiration using near infrared spectroscopy.

    1993

    • Elwell C, Owen-Reece H, Cope M, Wyatt J, Edwards A, Delpy D, Reynolds E (1993). Measurement of adult cerebral haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy. Acta Neurochirurgica Suppl, 59, 74 - 80.
    • Essenpreis M, Cope M, Elwell C, Arridge S, van der Zee P, Delpy D (1993). Wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor and the log slope in time-resolved tissue spectroscopy.
    • Edwards A, Richardson C, van DZP, Elwell C, Wyatt J (1993). Measurement of haemoglobin flow using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Journal of Applied Physiology, 75(4), 1884 - 1889.
    • ESSENPREIS M, ELWELL CE, COPE M, VANDERZEE P, ARRIDGE SR, DELPY DT (1993). SPECTRAL DEPENDENCE OF TEMPORAL POINT SPREAD FUNCTIONS IN HUMAN TISSUES. APPL OPTICS, 32(4), 418 - 425.
    • de BR, Cope M, Elwell C, Safoue F, Ferrari M (1993). Noninvasive measurement of human forearm oxygen consumption by near infrared spectroscopy. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 67(1), 20 - 25.
    • Essenpreis M, Elwell C, Arridge S, van DZP, Delpy D (1993). Spectral dependence of temporal point spread functions in human tissue. Applied Optics, 32(4), 418 - 425.

    1992

    • Edwards AD, McCormick DC, Roth SC, Elwell CE, Peebles DM, Cope M, Wyatt JS, Delpy DT, Reynolds EO (1992). Cerebral hemodynamic effects of treatment with modified natural surfactant investigated by near infrared spectroscopy. Pediatric Research, 32(2), 532 - 536.
    • Elwell CE, Cope M, Edwards A, Wyatt J, Reynolds E, Delpy D (1992). Measurement of cerebral blood flow in adult humans using near infrared spectroscopy.

    • Kolyva C, Ghosh A, Tachtsidis I, Highton D, Cooper CE, Smith M, Elwell CE (). Cytochrome c Oxidase Response to Changes in Cerebral Oxygen Delivery in the Adult Brain Shows Higher Brain-Specificity than Haemoglobin. NeuroImage, (0), - . doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.070
    • Blasi A, Koh P, Lloyd-Fox S, Shimada S, Elwell CE (). Comparison of parametric and non-parametric data analysis packanges for near infrared spectroscopy functional activation studies.