Events this week
Monday, 10 March, 1pm, Bloomsbury
EXTERNAL SPEAKERS SERIES
Speaker: Professor Stacey Efstathiou (Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge)
Title: Herpes simplex virus-1 latent phase transcription - a strategy for virus survival in the nervous system.
Host:Professor Judy Breuer (email host)
Venue: Pearson (North East Entrance) LT, Pearson Bldg
Thursday, 13 March, 12 midday, Royal Free
INSTITUTE OF IMMUNITY AND TRANSPLANATION SERIES
Speaker: Professor Siamon Gordon (University of Oxford)
Title: Macrophages, from Metchnikoff to Medicine.
Host: Professor David Sansom/Dr Clare Bennett (email host)
Venue: LT2, Royal Free
Thursday, 13 March, 5pm, Bloomsbury
Speaker: Jeremy Scott-Joynt, Head of Compliance Investigations, Europe at Standard Chartered Bank
Title: Fool me once, twice, forever: why we fall for cons, scams and frauds – and how we sometimes inflict them on ourselves.
Organiser: Karen Rumsey (email organiser)
Venue: Wilkins Haldane Room
More details of these and other I&I events in Seminars & events.
Division of Infection & Immunity
Studies in Canine Cancer Show Mammalian Cell Survival Instincts
by Dr David Wiseman, SLMS Research Co-ordinator
In a new paper published in Science on 24 January, Dr Ariberto Fassati and Professor Robin Weiss described the fascinating origins of a transmissible dog cancer. This genetic study has important implications for our understanding of mammalian cell genetics and function. The cancer is also an important model for the study of anti-cancer immunity.
Dr Fassati explained:
"In 2006 we demonstrated the clonal origin of the canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), showing that this cancer is transmitted as a cellular parasite throughout the world. Most dogs affected by this tumour do not die from the disease because it tends to regress spontaneously in 6-9 months. This is partly because the cancer cells enter a ‘sleeping’ state (senescence) and also because the dog’s immune system is able to attack the tumour. Thus CTVT is a very interesting model for the study of cancer regression and anti-tumour immunity.
"In this paper led by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in collaboration with UCL and other Institutions, two CTVT genomes, collected from dogs in South America and Australia have been sequenced. Sequencing revealed that the CTVT genome has an abnormal number of chromosomes, is profoundly rearranged, but also highly stable. Approximately two million mutations have been found and 646 genes have been completely lost. Using molecular clock analysis, the origin of CTVT was dated to 11,000 years ago, from a Husky dog breed.
"This paper demonstrates that the mammalian cell genome has an unexpected degree of plasticity and adaptability. CTVT cells, despite their profound genomic disruption have been able to survive for more than 11,000 years. The results suggest the existence of core functions in the mammalian genome, which may be sufficient for cell survival in the face of strong evolutionary pressure and which may also be critical for survival of cancer cells more broadly".
Authors: Murchison L, Wedge DC, Alexandrov LB, Fu B, Martinocorena I, Ning Z, Tubio JM, Werner EI, Allen J, Barbouza De Nardi A, Donelan EM, Marino G, Fassati A, Campbell PJ, Yang F, Burt A, Weiss RA, Stratton MR.
Title: Transmissible dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of ancient cell lineage.
Ref: Science. PMID: 24458646
Note on image: The Alaskan Malamute has all of the features that our founder dog was likely to have had: a short, straight or wavy agouti or solid black coat; probably medium or large size; having a pointy snout and prick ears; carrying alleles that may have allowed adaptation to both carnivorous and starch-rich diets; tempermentally, relatively low tendencies towards aggression, excitability and obsessive behaviours.
Page last modified on 28 jan 14 11:01 by Karen Rumsey