the end of your dissertation you must add a bibliography of all works
that you have cited. Do not list works which you have consulted but not
referred to explicitly. The bibliography must be in alphabetical order
of authors’ or editors’ surnames. Individual entries should follow the
same format as the first reference in your notes, except that the
author’s surname is listed first and the forename (or initials) second.
You should not include page numbers or page references in the
bibliography except for articles, where you must cite the page range,
i.e. the first and last page number of the whole article, separated by a
There are several styles for bibliographical entries and, as for footnotes, you should consult your dissertation supervisor, who will recommend the most appropriate for your dissertation. Again, as for footnotes, a simple and safe trick is to follow the style used in a recent book or article published by a reputable scholarly press, for example, Oxford University Press or Cambridge University Press. (Downloadable sample pages.)
The following are some examples, using the generic style described under footnotes with the necessary modifications mentioned above:
- Brou, Louis, O.S.B., ‘Les chants en langue grecque dans les liturgies latines’, Sacris erudiri, 1 (1948), pp. 251-286.
- Castiglioni, Arturo, ‘The School of Ferrara and the Controversy on Pliny’, in E. Ashworth Underwood (ed.), Science, Medicine and History, 2 vols, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953, vol. 1, pp. 243-281.
- Flynn, Frederick E., Wealth and Money in the Economic Thought of St Thomas. Notre Dame, Ind.: Notre Dame Press, 1942.
- McCulloch, Florence, Medieval Latin and French Bestiaries. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1962.
well–written dissertation requires clear and consistent documentation.
In addition to direct quotations, all information and ideas that are not
your own should be footnoted. If you do not acknowledge your sources,
you run the risk of committing plagiarism. Plagiarism – the theft of
someone’s intellectual property – is a serious offence and will be dealt
with harshly; see the College regulations
concerning this matter. Take care when taking notes from a book, noting
down page numbers so that you can retrace your steps when you reread
your work, check that you have reported information accurately and check
that you have not inadvertently copied -- plagiarized -- someone else's
ideas or words.
Footnotes should tell readers
where you have found each bit of information reported in your text. And
they should provide the details that a reader will need if they want to
consult for themselves the primary or secondary source that you have
used. Citation styles in footnotes vary and you should consult your
supervisor about the form appropriate to your topic. A simple and safe
trick is to follow the style used in a recent book or article published
by a reputable scholarly press, for example, Oxford University Press or
Cambridge University Press. (Downloadable
sample page.) Below is a generic style for footnote references that you
may find suitable for your purposes. Note, please, that the style of
citation in footnotes and bibliography are not the same. For
bibliography entries, see the MARS Bibliography page
the author’s first name, surname, title in italics, place of
publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers; e.g.
Frederick E. Flynn, Wealth and Money in the Economic Thought of St Thomas (Notre Dame Press: Notre Dame, Ind., 1942), p. 124.
Florence McCulloch, Medieval Latin and French Bestiaries (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1962), pp. 23–28.
Give the author’s first name, surname, article title within single quotation marks, journal title in italics, volume number of the journal, year of the journal number in brackets, and page number(s); e.g.
Louis Brou, O.S.B., ‘Les chants en langue grecque dans les liturgies latines’, Sacris erudiri, 1 (1948), p. 254.
Articles in collections of essays
Give the author’s first name, surname, article title within single quotation marks, followed by ‘in’ and then the editor's first name, surname, followed by "ed." in brackets, the title of the collection in italics, the number of volumes if more than one, the place of publication, the publisher and date (the last three in brackets), the number of the volume if more than one and the page number(s); e.g.
Arturo Castiglioni, ‘The School of Ferrara and the Controversy on Pliny’, in E. Ashworth Underwood (ed.), Science, Medicine and History, 2 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953), vol. 1, pp. 269–271.
Manuscripts and archival
The simple rule of thumb for
manuscripts and archival materials is to give the name of the author,
title of the work, then 'MS' followed by the name of the city or town in
which the material is to be found, the library or archive name, the
manuscript or archival document number, the page or pages of the work
that you are citing, and finally, if possible, a date in Roman numerals
preceded by 's.'. E.g.,
Cecco di Ascoli, Liber
acerbae vitae vel aetatis: MS London, British Library, Add. 21163,
fols 72ra-81va (s. XIV).
There are, however, often complications and you should ask you dissertation tutor or one of the MARS course tutors who deals with manuscripts or archival materials for advice. If you are citing documents of this kind, the chances are that you have already learned the tricks of the trade in Medieval Manuscripts and Documents, Renaissance Texts: Resources and Research Techniques, or one of the other courses that deal extensively with manuscripts and archival documents.
Unpublished materials other than manuscripts and archival documents
Occasionally, you may need to cite material distributed in class without publication information or you may want to refer to points made in lectures. Or a reputable scholar, who has agreed that you can quote their words, may have given you the information by email, word-of-mouth, etc. In these circumstancs, be as accurate as possible. For example:
John Clarke, ‘Astrolabes’, photocopy of course handout distributed in Dr Clarke’s lecture, ‘Medieval navigation’, held on 12 November 2006, p. 2.
David Jones, Lecture class on ‘Rhyme patterns in early French verse’, held on 12 December 2001.
Dr Angela Smith kindly gave me this information in an email of 21 October, 2007.
You must cite information that you take from an online resource. Provide information which will ensure that the reader can trace what you are referring; and include the date on which you consulted the website. For example:
"For discussion and an on–line critical edition of Maurolico’s unpublished Dialoghi tre della cosmographia (1536), ed. G. Cioffarelli, at the website Il progetto Maurolico, ed. D. Napolitani, from which my citations are taken, see H. Barthélemy and V. Gavagna, ‘Problemata Mechanica’, at the same website (consulted 3 Oct. 2004)."
Do not give http: addresses, which frequently change.
You should cite books, articles, websites, etc, fully on the first occasion that you refer to them; thereafter you should use abbreviated titles. For example, referring to items mentioned above:
Flynn, Wealth and Money, p. 65.
Brou. ‘Les chants’, p. 34.
Maurolico, Dialoghi, ch. 3, section 4.
Put quotations of two lines or less between quotation marks. Put quotations longer than two lines in a 'block paragraph'. In both cases you should add a footnote, after the quotation mark or at the end of the block quotation as appropriate, indicating your source, the page number and other details.
When quoting from a foreign-language source, it is permissible to quote the original only, but better practice to give a translation in the text, including the original in the corresponding footnote, after the source you cite. E.g.:
Therefore you should know that there are two ways to fight: one is: with the laws, the other: with force. The former is more appropriate for man, the latter for beasts: but, since the first is often inadequate, it is in order to have recourse to the latter.
21 Machiavelli, Il principe, cap. 18, p. 87: "Dovete adunque sapere come sono dua generazioni di combattere: l'uno con le leggi, l'altro con la forza: quel primo è proprio dello uomo, quel secondo delle bestie: ma, perché el primo molte volte non basta, conviene ricorrere al secondo."
This is for prose. For verse, it is good practice to put the original in the text and the translation in the footnote.
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