LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 30 credits (12 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Chiara Armeni
Other Teachers:
Professor Maria Lee
Professor Joanne Scott


Climate change raises significant social, environmental and legal challenges. The governance system applying to climate change is complex and multi-level. This course focuses on international and EU law and policy on climate change, touching also on the UK as an example of a domestic system. It will examine the development of international climate change law and policy since 1989, paying particular attention to the rules, institutions and procedures established pursuant to the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, as well as post-Kyoto developments in climate change governance. It will explore the key EU governance approaches to climate change, especially the emissions trading system (and its interactions with the international regimes) and the difficult legal and policy decisions in different sectors, such as renewable energy and energy efficiency.


  1. The international regime from UNFCCC to Durban and beyond including mitigation, adaptation and financing
  2. EU climate change law including emissions trading, burden-sharing, renewable energy and energy efficiency.
  3. New technologies for climate change including geo-engineering and carbon capture and storage.
  4. Climate change and international trade including subsidies, taxes/charges and product standards
  5. Climate change and developing countries including climate justice and sustainable development.

Background Reading (optional):

Maria Lee, EU Environmental Law, Governance and Decision-Making (Hart Publishing, 2014), Ch 6

Lavanya Rajamani, ‘The Climate Regime in Evolution’ (2011) CCLR 136

Joanne Scott, ‘The Multi-Level Governance of Climate Change’ in P. Craig and G. de Búrca(eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.
Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 20 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: N/A – This module will run for the first time in 2014/15
Who may enrol: LLM students, other UCL Masters students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Environmental Law and Policy, Energy Law
Final Assessment: Unseen 3-hour written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on one optional 1500 word essay per term and group presentations in class.


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now closed.

Information regarding applications for September 2015 will be updated on the website in September 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE : Updated 28 May 2014

The Home Office issued an update about the acceptance of ETS tests (including TOEFL). They have now confirmed that Higher Education students applying for a Tier 4 visa may use a TOEFL test taken after 17 April, if a Higher Education Institution is willing to use its academic discretion. For those students entering in September 2014, UCL will continue to accept the TOEFL even if it was taken after 17 April. However, if an applicant still needs to book a test then we recommend that they take an alternative test to TOEFL. Those who have already arranged to take a different test following the previous advice from the Home Office, we encourage you to go ahead with taking the alternative test.

The TOEFL test will continue to be accepted for 2014 entrants who have been asked to take an English language qualification as part of their offer condition, and do not need to apply for a visa to study in the UK.