LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 30 credits (12 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Chiara Armeni
Other Teachers:
Professor Maria Lee
Professor Joanne Scott


Climate change raises significant social, environmental and legal challenges. The governance system applying to climate change is complex and multi-level. This course focuses on international and EU law and policy on climate change, touching also on the UK as an example of a domestic system. It will examine the development of international climate change law and policy since 1989, paying particular attention to the rules, institutions and procedures established pursuant to the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, as well as post-Kyoto developments in climate change governance. It will explore the key EU governance approaches to climate change, especially the emissions trading system (and its interactions with the international regimes) and the difficult legal and policy decisions in different sectors, such as renewable energy and energy efficiency.


  1. The international regime from UNFCCC to Durban and beyond including mitigation, adaptation and financing
  2. EU climate change law including emissions trading, burden-sharing, renewable energy and energy efficiency.
  3. New technologies for climate change including geo-engineering and carbon capture and storage.
  4. Climate change and international trade including subsidies, taxes/charges and product standards
  5. Climate change and developing countries including climate justice and sustainable development.

Background Reading (optional):

Maria Lee, EU Environmental Law, Governance and Decision-Making (Hart Publishing, 2014), Ch 6

Lavanya Rajamani, ‘The Climate Regime in Evolution’ (2011) CCLR 136

Joanne Scott, ‘The Multi-Level Governance of Climate Change’ in P. Craig and G. de Búrca(eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.
Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 20 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: N/A – This module will run for the first time in 2014/15
Who may enrol: LLM students, other UCL Masters students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Environmental Law and Policy, Energy Law
Final Assessment: Unseen 3-hour written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on one optional 1500 word essay per term and group presentations in class.


The application process for the 2015-16 academic session is now open.

Please note, for the 2015-16 intake, we are not accepting the TOEFL test. If you have an English condition to meet, you must take one of the alternative tests listed here instead.