LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Dr Danae Azaria
Other Teachers:
Professor Joanne Scott
Professor Piet Eeckhout
Dr Ben Milligan


Regional regulation of cross-border energy matters is increasing. This module focuses on the law concerning energy matters produced by the European Union (‘EU’) as well as the position of the EU in the context of international energy law. The course examines the regional aspects of international energy law, and illustrates the global aspects of EU law in relation to energy and natural resources. It takes a comprehensive approach to energy issues in Europe. First, it examines EU primary law and secondary legislation in relation to energy (competences, environmental law, renewables, market liberalisation, and the Security of Supply Regulation). Second, it touches on the avant-garde role of the EU in relation to energy matters, such as regulating economic activities at sea (offshore platforms, and spatial planning), investment protection under the Energy Charter Treaty and the place of the EU in that context, as well as the relationship of the EU with third states concerning energy security, including the treaties concluded with third states concerning pipelines carrying oil and gas to EU member states.

The course’s structure is based on a subject matter rationale. First, the development of EU law and institutions concerning energy are examined with a focus on energy trade and the environment. The competences of the EU in different areas are explored in order to determine how these affect energy issues in the EU. Specific energy sources and markets will be analysed: renewables and the gas and electricity markets. Second, security of supply and marine safety are discussed. Third, the legal questions about protection of investors in the energy sector under the Energy Charter Treaty to which the EU is a party along with its member states are examined, as well as the extension of EU law relating to energy matters into a treaty to which states in South-Eastern Europe are parties.


The module focuses on the legal issues under international energy law through the prism of regionalism, more particularly the EU. It examines both EU law concerning energy matters, such as trade, market liberalisation, and security of supply, as well the impact of EU law outside the EU, such as the practice of the EU concerning offshore platforms, and the impact of international obligations binding on the EU concerning energy matters focusing on investment protection, and the extension of the acquis communautaire to the Balkan region.

  1. Institutions, history of European law concerning energy and natural resources

  3. Competences of the European Union in relation to Energy, Environment and Common Commercial Policy
  4. Liberalisation of gas and electricity markets (unbundling, third party access, Trans-European Energy Networks)
  5. Renewables under EU law

  7. Activities at Sea: EU law on offshore platforms safety
  8. Spatial Planning
  9. Security of Supply: Gas Security of Supply Regulation and the Relationship of the EU with Third States
  10. Treaties with third states concerning the main pipeline routes carrying oil and gas to the EU

  12. The Energy Charter Treaty and the EU: intra-Union and inter-Union investment protection
  13. Extending the acquis communautaire: the Energy Community Treaty

Background Reading (optional):

Chapters 2, 4 and 6 in Martha M. Roggenkamp [et al.], Energy law in Europe: national, EU and international law and institutions (OUP: 2007)

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 10 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: N/A – This module will run for the first time in 2014/15
Who may enrol: LLM students, other UCL Masters students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Energy Law, European Union Law, International Law
Final Assessment: 3,000 word coursework essay
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on 1 optional practice essay


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now closed.

Information regarding applications for September 2015 will be updated on the website in September 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE : Updated 28 May 2014

The Home Office issued an update about the acceptance of ETS tests (including TOEFL). They have now confirmed that Higher Education students applying for a Tier 4 visa may use a TOEFL test taken after 17 April, if a Higher Education Institution is willing to use its academic discretion. For those students entering in September 2014, UCL will continue to accept the TOEFL even if it was taken after 17 April. However, if an applicant still needs to book a test then we recommend that they take an alternative test to TOEFL. Those who have already arranged to take a different test following the previous advice from the Home Office, we encourage you to go ahead with taking the alternative test.

The TOEFL test will continue to be accepted for 2014 entrants who have been asked to take an English language qualification as part of their offer condition, and do not need to apply for a visa to study in the UK.