LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Chiara Armeni
Other Teachers:
Professor Maria Lee
Intercollegiate teaching: No
Teaching Method: 10 x two hours seminar
Who may enrol: LLM students, Other UCL Masters students
Prerequisites: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core module for specialism: Environmental Law and Policy
Practice Assessment: 1,500 word practice essay
Assessment method for Masters students: 2-hour unseen written examination
Module Overview

Module summary

Climate change presents difficult social, environmental and legal challenges. The governance system applying to climate change is complex and multi-level. This module focuses on international and EU law and policy on climate change. It will examine the development of international climate change law and policy since 1989, paying particular attention to the rules, institutions and procedures established pursuant to the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, as well as post-Kyoto developments in climate change governance. It will explore the key EU governance approaches to climate change, especially the emissions trading system (and its interactions with the international regimes) and the difficult legal and policy decisions in different sectors, such as renewable energy.

Module syllabus

The international regime from UNFCCC to Durban and beyond – the Clean Development Mechanism - mechanisms of regulation – EU emissions trading – renewables in the EU – carbon capture and storage

Recommended materials

No single book – reading will be recommended.

Preliminary reading

Lavanya Rajamani, ‘The Climate Regime in Evolution’ (2011) CCLR 136
Joanne Scott, ‘The Multi-Level Governance of Climate Change’ in P. Craig and G. de Búrca(eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Other information: N/A
Prizes for this module: There are currently no prizes available for this module.


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now closed.

Information regarding applications for September 2015 will be updated on the website in September 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE : Updated 28 May 2014

The Home Office issued an update about the acceptance of ETS tests (including TOEFL). They have now confirmed that Higher Education students applying for a Tier 4 visa may use a TOEFL test taken after 17 April, if a Higher Education Institution is willing to use its academic discretion. For those students entering in September 2014, UCL will continue to accept the TOEFL even if it was taken after 17 April. However, if an applicant still needs to book a test then we recommend that they take an alternative test to TOEFL. Those who have already arranged to take a different test following the previous advice from the Home Office, we encourage you to go ahead with taking the alternative test.

The TOEFL test will continue to be accepted for 2014 entrants who have been asked to take an English language qualification as part of their offer condition, and do not need to apply for a visa to study in the UK.