LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Chiara Armeni
Other Teachers:
Professor Maria Lee
Intercollegiate teaching: No
Teaching Method: 10 x two hours seminar
Who may enrol: LLM students, Other UCL Masters students
Prerequisites: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core module for specialism: Environmental Law and Policy
Practice Assessment: 1,500 word practice essay
Assessment method for Masters students: 2-hour unseen written examination
Module Overview

Module summary

Climate change presents difficult social, environmental and legal challenges. The governance system applying to climate change is complex and multi-level. This module focuses on international and EU law and policy on climate change. It will examine the development of international climate change law and policy since 1989, paying particular attention to the rules, institutions and procedures established pursuant to the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol, as well as post-Kyoto developments in climate change governance. It will explore the key EU governance approaches to climate change, especially the emissions trading system (and its interactions with the international regimes) and the difficult legal and policy decisions in different sectors, such as renewable energy.

Module syllabus

The international regime from UNFCCC to Durban and beyond – the Clean Development Mechanism - mechanisms of regulation – EU emissions trading – renewables in the EU – carbon capture and storage

Recommended materials

No single book – reading will be recommended.

Preliminary reading

Lavanya Rajamani, ‘The Climate Regime in Evolution’ (2011) CCLR 136
Joanne Scott, ‘The Multi-Level Governance of Climate Change’ in P. Craig and G. de Búrca(eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Other information: N/A
Prizes for this module: There are currently no prizes available for this module.


The application process for the 2015-16 academic session is now open.

Please note, for the 2015-16 intake, we are not accepting the TOEFL test. If you have an English condition to meet, you must take one of the alternative tests listed here instead.