LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 30 credits (12 ECTS)
Module Convenor: Dr Melis Özdel Other Teachers: N/A


English law enjoys a long-standing predominance in the international shipping market, as it is frequently chosen by the parties to govern their contracts of carriage. A vast amount of goods is carried around the world under contracts of carriage governed by English law. This module offers an in-depth study of the two main forms of contract of carriage, namely charterparties and bills of lading.

The aims of the module, in essence, are:

  • to ensure a thorough understanding of the key aspects of the English law of carriage of goods by sea and their practical implications in light of the commonly used standard form charterparties and bills of lading;
  • to give students the ability to examine the ways in which this field of law interlinks and operates with other areas of commercial law, such as international trade and commercial conflict of laws and jurisdiction;
  • to develop students’ ability to navigate through real life legal problems by covering various key issues ranging from contract formation to remedies; and
  • to raise awareness of the major mandatory sea carriage regimes, as well as the recent discussions and attempts to bring uniformity in this area.


The module topics include:

  • Introduction to the law of carriage of goods by sea
  • Voyage Charters
    Time Charters
  • Discharge of charter: Performance, frustration and breach
  • Functions of bills of lading and other shipping documents
  • Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 and Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992
  • The Hague-Visby Rules
  • The Hague Rules, the Hamburg Rules and the Rotterdam Rules
  • The governing law and jurisdiction under contracts of carriage.

Background Reading (optional):

  • Wilson J.F. (2010) Carriage of goods by sea (7th edition) (Harlow: Longman), Part I
  • Cooke J. et al (2007), Voyage Charters (3rd edition) (Informa), Chapter 1
  • Coghlin T. et al (2008), Time Charters (6th edition) (Informa), Chapter 1

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 20 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: Yes (8)
Previous module enrolments: Medium – 16-50 students
Who may enrol: LLM students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: International Commercial Law, Maritime Law
Final Assessment: 3-hour unseen written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on one practice essay per term

This page was last updated on 31 July, 2014


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now closed.

Information regarding applications for September 2015 will be updated on the website in September 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE : Updated 28 May 2014

The Home Office issued an update about the acceptance of ETS tests (including TOEFL). They have now confirmed that Higher Education students applying for a Tier 4 visa may use a TOEFL test taken after 17 April, if a Higher Education Institution is willing to use its academic discretion. For those students entering in September 2014, UCL will continue to accept the TOEFL even if it was taken after 17 April. However, if an applicant still needs to book a test then we recommend that they take an alternative test to TOEFL. Those who have already arranged to take a different test following the previous advice from the Home Office, we encourage you to go ahead with taking the alternative test.

The TOEFL test will continue to be accepted for 2014 entrants who have been asked to take an English language qualification as part of their offer condition, and do not need to apply for a visa to study in the UK.