LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 30 credits (12 ECTS)
Module Convenor: Dr Melis Özdel Other Teachers: Dr Alessandro Spano


The selling and purchasing of goods across territorial borders is an ancient yet sophisticated commercial activity. International trade involves interlocking contracts, including letters of credit and contracts of sale, carriage and insurance, all of which concern the minds of traders whilst performing this activity for profit. In pursuit of certainty and predictability in their affairs, traders around the world typically refer to English law in their sale contracts as the governing law. This module offers a study of the rights and obligations of buyers and sellers under contracts for the international sale of goods, focusing particularly on the English Sale of Goods Act 1979. Students can study this course whether or not they have previous experience of international trade law.


The module topics include:

  1. Introduction to the law of international trade: The workings of international trade, the key concepts, the regulatory framework and Incoterms 2010
  2. Passing of risk and property
  3. CIF and FOB sales
  4. Functions and significance of bills of lading and other shipping documents
  5. Multimodal transportation and multimodal transport documents
  6. Payment methods, letters of credit and UCP600
  7. Frustration and force majeure
  8. Remedies for breach of the sale contract
  9. The Vienna Convention on International Sale of Goods 1980
  10. The governing law and jurisdiction in the international sale of goods

NB: this module does not cover questions of trade between nation states (e.g. matters relating to the World Trade Organisation)

Background Reading (optional):

  • Debattista C., (2008) Bills of Lading in Export Trade (3rd edition) (Tottel Publishing), Chapter 1
  • Lorenzon F. et al (2012) Sassoon: CIF and FOB Contracts (5th edition) (Sweet & Maxwell), Chapter 1
  • Bridge M., (2010) Benjamin's Sale Goods (8th edition) (Sweet & Maxwell), Chapter 1

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 20 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: Yes (6)
Previous module enrolments: Large – 51-100 students
Who may enrol: LLM students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: International Banking and Finance Law, International Commercial Law, Maritime Law, Energy Law
Final Assessment: 3-hour unseen written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on one practice essay per term

This page was last updated on 31 July, 2014


The application process for the 2015-16 academic session is now open.

Please note, for the 2015-16 intake, we are not accepting the TOEFL test. If you have an English condition to meet, you must take one of the alternative tests listed here instead.