LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor: Professor Joanne Scott Other Teachers: Professor Piet Eeckhout


This class will examine WTO law and trade linkages in the WTO, exemplifying the doctrine and policy issues through an extended case study on trade and environment. The course will include an introduction to the Dispute Settlement understanding of the WTO, to the structure of the WTO Agreement, to the basic principles that underpin WTO law and to the relationship between WTO law and public international law more generally. Students will be expected to read widely in the secondary literature dealing with international trade in order to evaluate current arrangements and policies, and to think constructively about possibilities for reform.


  1. Introduction
  2. The Dispute Settlement Understanding and the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment
  3. Principles of WTO Law: Most Favoured Nation and National Treatment
  4. Exceptions in WTO Law I
  5. Exceptions in WTO Law II
  6. Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
  7. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade I
  8. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade II
  9. Subsidies in the Trade and Environment Debate
  10. Multilateral Environmental Agreements in the WTO

Background Reading (optional):

  • Michael J. Trebilcock: ‘Understanding Trade Law’ (2011) Edward Elgar.
  • Andrew Lang: ‘World Trade Law After Neoliberalism: re-imagining the Global Economic Order” (2011) OUP
  • S. Lester et al, Word Trade Law 2nd ed. (Hart, 2012)’
  • Trebicock & Howse, The Regulation of International Trade (4th ed., Routledge, 2012), chapter 17.

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 10 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: N/A – This module will run for the first time in 2014/15
Who may enrol: LLM students
Prerequisities: None. No prior knowledge of economics or economic theory is required.
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Environmental Law and Policy, International Law
Final Assessment: 2-hour unseen written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on 1 optional practice essay

This page was last updated on 3 September, 2014


The application process for the 2015-16 academic session is now open.

Please note, for the 2015-16 intake, we are not accepting the TOEFL test. If you have an English condition to meet, you must take one of the alternative tests listed here instead.