LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Professor Richard Macrory

Other Teachers:
Professor Jane Holder
Mr Chris Clarke, Visiting Fellow
Dr Ludwig Kramer, Visiting Professor

Intercollegiate teaching: No
Teaching Method: 10 x two-hour seminars
Who may enrol: LLM students
Prerequisites: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core module for specialism: Environmental Law and Policy, European Union Law
Practice Assessment: To be confirmed
Assessment method for LLM students: 2-hour unseen written examination
Module Overview

Module summary

This module examines in detail a number of areas of substantive environmental law, studying the different techniques of regulation used at EU level. Substantive environmental problems addressed include water protection, waste management, and nature protection. Regulatory instruments examined include environmental and strategic environmental assessment, licensing and economic instruments, and environmental liability. The distinctive role of the European Commission in the enforcement of EU environmental law will be considered.

By the end of the module, students will be able to engage in critical analysis of a number of areas of substantive environmental law, and a number of instruments of regulation. They will be able to identify key themes and techniques in EC environmental law, many of which have significance beyond that jurisdiction.

Module syllabus

1.Water Protection Law
2. Regulation of Waste
3. Environmental Assessment
4. Strategic environmental assessment
5. Biodiversity and Conservation
6. The Environmental Liability Directive
7. Industrial emissions control
8. Carbon Capture and Storage Directive
9. Enforcement of environmental law
10. Public participation and access to justice - the EU dimension to the Convention

Recommended materials

No single text covers the entire module, and you will refer closely to a range of materials for individual sessions.

Richard Macrory (ed) Reflections on 30 years of EU Environmental Law: A High Level of Protection? (Europa, 2006) provides an important 'stock taking' exercise in areas of EU environmental law with contributions from some of Europe’s leading legal specialists.

The basic EU environmental law textbooks which deal with the substance of EU environmental law comprehensively are:

Jan Jans and Hans Vedder, European Environmental Law (Europa Law Publishing, 2011).

Ludwig Krämer, EU Environmental Law (Sweet and Maxwell, 2011) All are available in the library.

Preliminary reading

Howarth W (2006) The Progression towards Ecological Standards Journal of Environmental Law 18(1) 3-35

Some knowledge of basic EU law and structures will be helpful. Anybody without a background in EU law is advised to establish a grounding by looking at one of the general texts available. Paul Craig & Grainne de Búrca, EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials (Oxford University Press, 2007) and Damien Chalmers et al, European Union Law (Cambridge University Press, 2006) would both be useful.

Other information

Students are expected to prepare for each class and to be prepared to contribute to class discussion.

Prizes for this module: There are currently no prizes available for this module.


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now open.

Please refer to the How to apply section for information on the application process.