LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor: Professor Maria Lee Other Teachers: N/A


This module examines in detail a number of areas of substantive environmental law, studying the different approaches to environmental governance at EU level. Substantive environmental problems addressed include water protection, waste management, and nature protection. Regulatory instruments examined include environmental and strategic environmental assessment, licensing and economic instruments, and environmental liability.

By the end of the module, students will be able to engage in critical analysis of a number of areas of substantive environmental law, and a number of instruments of regulation. They will be able to identify key themes and techniques in EC environmental law, many of which have significance beyond that jurisdiction.


Areas covered will include:

  • Experts, public participation and decision-making
  • The polluter pays principle (and environmental liability)
  • Water pollution law
  • Waste law
  • Nature conservation law
  • Environmental assessment
  • Access to justice in the EU
  • Climate change in the EU

Background Reading (optional):

Maria Lee, EU Environmental law, governance and decision-making (Hart publishing, 2014)

Some knowledge of basic EU law and structures will be helpful. Anybody without a background in EU law is advised to establish a grounding by looking at one of the general texts available, for example:

Paul Craig & Grainne de Búrca, EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (Oxford University Press, 2011)

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 10 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: Small – less than 15 students
Who may enrol: LLM students, other UCL Masters students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Environmental Law and Policy, European Union Law
Final Assessment: 2-hour unseen written examination
Practice Assessment: One x 1500 word practice essay, plus personal feedback

This page was last updated on 8 July, 2014


The application process for the 2014-15 academic session, for entry in September 2014, is now closed.

Information regarding applications for September 2015 will be updated on the website in September 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE : Updated 28 May 2014

The Home Office issued an update about the acceptance of ETS tests (including TOEFL). They have now confirmed that Higher Education students applying for a Tier 4 visa may use a TOEFL test taken after 17 April, if a Higher Education Institution is willing to use its academic discretion. For those students entering in September 2014, UCL will continue to accept the TOEFL even if it was taken after 17 April. However, if an applicant still needs to book a test then we recommend that they take an alternative test to TOEFL. Those who have already arranged to take a different test following the previous advice from the Home Office, we encourage you to go ahead with taking the alternative test.

The TOEFL test will continue to be accepted for 2014 entrants who have been asked to take an English language qualification as part of their offer condition, and do not need to apply for a visa to study in the UK.