LLM Programme

The taught modules offered on the LLM programme vary from year to year. Please check the full list of taught modules list for details of modules running in specific academic years. We make every effort to ensure that every module will be offered, but modules are subject to change and cancellation. You are therefore advised to check this site regularly for further updates throughout the year preceding entry to the LLM programme.

Credit value: 15 credits (6 ECTS)
Module Convenor:
Professor Richard Macrory
Other Teachers:
Professor Macrory will be joined from time to time by visiting specialists, details to be confirmed.


This module examines the core structures of environmental governance and different approaches to the regulation of environmental protection. These are challenges which are common to many jurisdictions, but the module will focus on the United Kingdom as a model for examination - a jurisdiction with a developed system of environmental governance and regulation, but one that is having to adapt in the face of fresh demands, not least devolution.

The core aim of this module is to equip participants with an appreciation of key issues that shape the development of contemporary environmental law. Students will acquire critical facilities in the evaluation of substantive rules and different regulatory approaches.


  1. Core strands in development of environmental law and Government structures and Policy development in the environment
  2. Integrated Prevention and Pollution Control
  3. Climate change and Emissions Trading
  4. Land use-planning and Environmental assessment
  5. Environmental Liability
  6. Water pollution and water management
  7. Habitat Protection
  8. Access to information, participation, and access to justice
  9. Enforcement of environmental law and design of environmental sanctions
  10. Role of specialist environmental courts/tribunals

Background Reading (optional):

Macrory (2010) Regulation, Enforcement and Governance in Environmental Law (Hart Publishing paperback) pulls together his core writings on environmental law, many of which deal with issues considered on this course. It also includes a selection of case-commentaries originally published in ENDS Report covering some of the most important environmental law cases over the last decade.

Holder and Lee, Environmental Protection, Law and Policy (Cambridge University Press, 2007) provides useful material relevant to many of the classes. One of the most accessible and thorough accounts of UK environmental law is Bell and McGillivray, Ball and Bell on Environmental Law (OUP 7th ed.).

Macrory R (2002) Regulating in a Risky Environment in Current Legal Problems 2001, 619-648 reprinted in Macrory (2010) Regulation, Enforcement and Governance in Environmental Law 155-180

Module reading lists and other module materials will be provided via online module pages, once students have made their module selections upon enrolment in September.

Delivery and enrolment
Lectures/Seminars: 10 x 2-hour seminars
Tutorials: None
Previous module enrolments: Small – less than 15 students
Who may enrol: LLM students
Prerequisities: None
Barred module combinations: None
Core Module for LLM specialism: Environmental Law and Policy
Final Assessment: 2-hour unseen written examination
Practice Assessment: Opportunity for feedback on a practice exam question

This page was last updated on 19 September, 2014


The application process for the 2015-16 academic session is now open.

Please note, for the 2015-16 intake, we are not accepting the TOEFL test. If you have an English condition to meet, you must take one of the alternative tests listed here instead.