UCL FACULTY OF LAWS

About UCL Laws

Interdisciplinary Activity in the UCL Law Faculty

Research and teaching in the Faculty of Laws concerns law in its widest sense, including the role of law in society and moral, political and other aspects of the law.  Many Faculty members adopt a range of different cross-disciplinary perspectives in their research, and engage across disciplines in their publications, collaborations with other scholars and participation at conferences.

Members of the Faculty

The following members of the Faculty, besides being lawyers, have degrees in other subjects which inform their research, teaching and writing:

  • Nigel BALMER (BSc in mathematics, PhD in sports science). Dr Balmer brings statistical expertise to his interdisciplinary research.
  • Ingrid BOCCARDI (Italian degree in Political Science and International Relations, MSc from Bruges in EU Political and Administrative Studies, Ph D in Law). Her interdisciplinary background enables Dr Boccardi to bring special perspectives to her teaching and research in EU law, particularly on migration issues. It is particularly helpful in Dr Boccardi’s teaching of EU law to non-lawyers on UCL’s European Political and Social Studies Programme, to which she makes substantial contributions.
  • Sylvie DELACROIX (PhD, Licences in law, Candidatures in philosophy) works on issues of jurisprudence, ethics and the law.
  • Alison DIDUCK (BA in psychology and sociology, MA in Gender studies) brings a theoretical and socio-legal perspective to both her research and her teaching.
  • Hazel GENN (BA in sociology, LLB and LLD). Professor Dame Hazel Genn QC has brought a sociological perspective to a wide range of studies of the public experience of law, dispute resolution processes and decision-making.
  • Elaine GENDERS (BSocSc, MPhil). Elaine Genders brings her expertise in theoretical criminology, ethnography, empirical methodology and the wider social sciences to her teaching and research.
  • Douglas GUILFOYLE (BA in history, LLB, LLM and PH.D.)  Dr Guilfoyle researches and teaches in public international law and public law.  His approach to teaching and research is strongly influenced by historical methodologies and perspectives.
  • Stephen GUEST (BA, PhD, both in Philosophy, BLItt, LLB).  Professor Guest brings law and philosophy together in all his teaching, research and writing.
  • Riz MOKAL (BSc in Mathematics, Statistics and Economics, LLB, BCL, PhD). Dr Mokal brings his expertise in economics, philosophy and law to bear on his teaching and research in corporate insolvency and property law and in jurisprudence.
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE (BA in philosophy, MPhil in criminology, CPE). Professor Pleasence works at the intersection of law and social science and has a particular interest in empirical research methods and social statistics.
  • Philip SCHOFIELD (BA, Ph D, both in history, LLM). Professor Schofield directs the Bentham Project (see below) and teaches on the LLB Jurisprudence and Legal Theory course and offers an LLM course on Jeremy Bentham and the Utilitarian Tradition.
  • Tim SWANSON (MA in Economics and Mathematics, J.D. in Law and Economics, Ph.D in Economics). Professor Swanson is a member of both the Economics Department and the Law Faculty and teaches and researches both law and economics.
  • Cheryl THOMAS (BA in Political Science, MPhil in Politics, DPhil in Law and Politics).  Professor Thomas brings expertise in the political science discipline of judicial studies to her research in legal decision-making judicial appointments and training, and the jury system.
  • Ralph WILDE (BSc (Econ.) International Relations, Diploma in European Human Rights Law, MA (Law), LLM, PhD). Dr Wilde researches in both international relations and international law, with a particular focus on international organisations, warfare, human rights, trusteeship and the civilizing mission, and peacekeeping.  He uses methods and approaches drawn from legal, political, feminist, post-colonial and critical theories.
Interdisciplinary Publications

Members of the Department frequently publish in areas that are interdisciplinary, often with colleagues from other disciplines. Examples of such publications include:

  • Nigel BALMER, Pascoe PLEASENCE et al, ‘Worried sick: The Experience of Debt Problems and their Relationship with Health, Illness and Disability’ (2006) 5 (1) Social Policy and Society (Law, epidemiology, social policy)
  • Sean COYLE and Karen Morrow (of the Law Department, University of Leeds), The Philosophical Foundations of Environmental Law – Property, Rights and Nature, 2004 (law, environmental studies, philosophy, politics)
  • Sean, COYLE, ed. Jurisprudence or Legal Science, 2005 (law, social science, philosophy)
  • Sylvie DELACROIX, Legal norms and normativity: an essay in genealogy (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006) (law, philosophy, history)
  • Sylvie DELACROIX, “Montaigne’s inquiry into the sources of normativity”, The Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 16(2), 2003, 271-286.
  • Sylvie DELACROIX, “Schmitt’s critique of Kelsenian normativism”, Ratio Iuris, 18(1), 2005, 30-45
  • Alison DIDUCK, Family Law, Gender and the State, 2nd ed, 2006 (includes material in law, sociology, social policy, history, anthropology).
  • Michael FREEMAN, Introduction to Jurisprudence(Sweet and Maxwell, 2008) (philosophy, political theory, feminism, Marxism, postmodernism, critical race studies)
  • Michael FREEMAN, Domestic Violence (2008, Ashgate) (feminism, sociology, psychology, police studies, history)
  • Michael FREEMAN, Ethics of Public Health (2009, Ashgate) (epidemiology, bioethics, history, medicine, theories of globalization)
  • Hazel GENN, Twisting Arms: Court Linked and Court Referred Mediation Under Judicial Pressure (2007) (law, public policy, statistics)
  • Hazel GENN et al, Tribunals for Diverse Users (2006)  (law, public policy, statistics)
  • Hazel GENN, Paths to Justice: What People Do and Think About Going To Law (1999) (law, sociology, public [policy, statistics]
  • Hazel GENN, Personal Injury Compensation: how Much is Enough? (1994) (law, social science, public policy)
  • Hazel GENN, Hard Bargaining: Out of Court Settlement in Personal Injury Actions (1987) (law, sociology)
  • Stephen GUEST, Integrity, Equality and Justice (2005) Revue Internationale de Philosophie 19 (philosophy and law).
  • Stephen GUEST, ‘The Role of Equality in Legal Argument [2005] Acta Juridica 18 (philosophy and law).
  • Jane HOLDER, Environmental Assessment 2004.
  • Jane HOLDER and Maria LEE, Environmental Protection, Law and Policy: text and materials (Cambridge University Press 2007) (draws on a range of perspectives, including politics, philosophy and economics, for the study of environmental law and policy)
  • Myriam HUNTER-HENIN, Pour une Redéfinition du Statut Personnel, 2004 (Sociology and philosophy in relation to family law and biotechnology).
  • Valentine KORAH, Introductory Guide to EC Competition Law and Practice, 9th edn., 2007 (law, economics).
  • Valentine KORAH, Cases and Materials on EC Competition Law, 3rd edn September 2006, Hart Publishing (Law and Economics)
  • Valentine KORAH, Intellectual Property Rights and the EEC Competition Rules, Hart Publishing, 2006 (law and economics)
  • Valentine KORAH with Denis O’Sullivan, Distribution Agreements under the EC Competition Rules, 2002, Hart Publishing (law and economics)
  • Andrew LEWIS and Iris Cox, eds., Montesquieu’s Collectio Juris, two volumes, 2005 (law, history).
  • Riz MOKAL, Corporate Insolvency Law – Theory and Application, 2005 (law, philosophy, empirical and theoretical economics).
  • Colm O’CINNEIDE, Citizenship and Multiculturalism: Equality, Rights and Diversity in Contemporary Europe, in G. Titley (ed.) Resituating Culture. 2004.
  • Dawn OLIVER and Jeffrey JOWELL, eds., The Changing Constitution, 5th edn. 2004. (Law, politics, philosophy).
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE, ‘Trials and Tribulations: Experimental Methodologies in a Socio-Legal Setting’ (2008) 35 Journal of Law and Society (law, empirical methods, statistics)
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE, ‘Causes of Action : Civil Law and Social Justice,’ 2nd edition (2006) (law, public policy, social science, statistics)
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE, Nigel BALMER et al,  ‘The Health Cost of Civil Law Problems: Further Evidence of Links Between Civil Law Problems and Morbidity and the  Consequential Use of Health Services’ (2008) 5 (2) Journal of Empirical Legal studies (law, epidemiology, public policy)
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE, Nigel BALMER et al, ‘Civil Law Problems and Morbidility’ (2004) 58 (7) Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (law, epidemiology)
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE, Nigel BALMER AND Vicky KEMP, Crime Social Exclusion and The Civil Society (2007) (law, criminology, public policy)
  • Philip RAWLINGS, Policing: A Short History (Willan, 2002) (history of criminal justice)
  • Catherine REDGWELL, Beyond the Carbon Economy: Energy Law in Transition (2008), edited with Don Zillman, Yinka Omorogbe and Lila Barrera-Hernandez (law, economics and politics)
  • Philippe SANDS Lawless World: America and the Making and Breaking of Global Rules, 2005 (law, international relations, politics).
  • Fiona SMITH Agriculture and the WTO: Towards a New Theory of International Agricultural Trade Regulation (2009) Edward Elgar (economics, law and philosophy)
  • Fiona SMITH “The Limitations of a Legal Approach to the Regulation of Cultural Diversity in the WTO: the problem of international agricultural trade” (2008) 3(1) Asian Journal of the WTO & International Health Law and Policy 51-80 (law, philosophy)
  • Fiona SMITH “Language, Law and Legitimacy in the Agreement on Agriculture: are we solving the right problem?” (2008)1 Indian Journal of International Economic Law 34-79 (law, philosophy).
  • Fiona SMITH “Thinking Outside the Green Box: Non-Trade Concerns in a Post-Doha Environment” (2007) 9 (2) Environmental Law Review 89-115 (law, philosophy).
  • Tim SWANSON and Goeschl Diffusion and Distribution: The impacts of technological enforcement on poor countriesin Maskus, K and Reichman, J., eds., International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under a Globalised Intellectual Property Regime, 2004 (law, economics).
  • Tim SWANSON, The Economics of Project Evaluation where Forced Migration is Involved, in Cernea, M., ed., Compensation for Displaced Peoples, 2005.
  • Cheryl THOMAS, Diversity and Fairness in the Jury System, 2007(law, psychology, political science, statistics)
  • Cheryl THOMAS, Judicial Diversity and the Appointment of Deputy District Judges, 2006(law, political science, statistics)
  • Ralph WILDE, International Territorial Administration: How Trusteeship and the Civilizing Mission Never Went Away (OUP, 2008) (law, international history, international relations, post-colonial studies)
  • Ralph WILDE and Matthew Craven (SOAS), Gerry Simpson (LSE) & Susan Marks (KCL). We are teachers of international law17(2) Leiden Journal of International Law 363 – 374, 2004 (law, critical theory, political science).
  • Ralph WILDE, Representing international territorial administration: a critique of some approaches,’ (2004) 15(1) European Journal of International Law. (law, history, international relations, political science, post colonial studies, critical theory).
Interdisciplinary Research Institutes and Centres
  • The Bentham Project. Members of the project are editing the voluminous works of Jeremy Bentham. Bentham’s work includes philosophy and political theory and those involved in the project include historians, legal theorists, philosophers and political scientists.
    Contact: Professor Philip Schofield.
  • Centre for Law and the Environment. The Centre provides a focal point for the Faculty’s rapidly expanding interests in the field of the environment and law. Its cross disciplinary research activity has included Satellites, Transponders, CO2 Sequestration.
    Contacts: Professor Richard Macrory, Ray Purdy,
  • Centre for Law and Governance in Europe. The interdisciplinary focus of the centre’s work is in the field of governance theory and practice, European social policy, regional development policy, agriculture and development policy.
    Contact: Professor Joanne Scott, Dr Diamond Ashiagbor,
  • Centre for Empirical Legal Studies. The emphasis in the work of the centre is on empirical research investigating the operation and effects of law within the context of the social, economic and political environment. The work of the centre is concerned with the role and function of law, the enforcement of law, compliance with law, resistance to law, the use and experience of law, the impact of law and the character of law itself.
    Contact: Professor Hazel Genn.
  • The Centre for Law & Economics works in four fields of interdisciplinary studies:  Corporate Governance, Regulation, Institutional Development, and Harmonisation.  It is led by Tim Swanson, Florian Wagner von Papp, Ioannis Lianos and Arad Reisberg.  The centre currently houses projects in the fields of environmental regulation and information management.  It has hosted workshops and seminars in fields of regulation and corporate governance.  It is linked to the Centre for Law & Economics on Environment and Development at Cambridge University.  Currently it hosts two EU projects:  “Information Instruments for Environmental Regulation”; and “Management of EU Agri-Biodiversity. 
    Contact: Professor Tim Swanson.
  • The Jevons Institute for Competition Law and Economics aims through external events, research projects, teaching and publications to stimulate research and debate concerning the application of competition law and industry regulation to the marketplace; and promote interaction among academic scholars in law and economics, policymakers and enforcement officials, the judiciary, practitioners and business leaders.
    Contact: Lisa Penfold.
  • The WTO Scholars' Forum based at UCL and University of Cambridge is an interdisciplinary group of World Trade Organization practitioners, academics and policy makers based in the fields of law, economics, international relations and international economic law. 
    Contact: Dr Fiona Smith.
  • UCL Institute for Human Genetics and Health. Hazel GENN is a member of senior management team of this new Institute. It s an innovative interdisciplinary collaboration between UCL laboratory scientists, clinicians, lawyer and social scientists. The research of the Institute will focus on the key challenges needing to be tackled over the next decade in human genetics as related to health - understanding the role that genetic variation plays in the causes of common disease, and understanding social and legal responses to the benefits and risks of advances in genetic knowledge - both real and assumed. Recognising that in the future researchers will need greater interdisciplinary skills, the Institute has established a unique training programme to equip doctoral students with understanding and skills that cross the traditional natural science/social science boundary.
    Contact: Professor Hazel Genn.
Major Funded Interdisciplinary Research Projects
  • Hazel GENN is leading the Nuffield Inquiry into Empirical Research in Law. This is an investigation into future capacity to conduct interdisciplinary research on law and legal processes.
  • Hazel GENN, Cheryl THOMAS and Nigel BALMER are engaged on the Tribunal Decision-Making Research Programme, a major empirical study of tribunal decision making being funded by the Nuffield Foundation.
  • Richard MACRORY, Ray PURDY and the Centre for Environmental Law: Satellite Monitoring and Environmental Law (on the Enforcement of Environmental Regulation, collaborating with the UCL Geography Department (law, geography, regulation).
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE and Nigel BALMER are contributing to the Australian National Needs Survey, a large-scale survey of the public experience of law in Australia.
  • Philip SCHOFIELD and members of The Bentham Project team: editing the works of Jeremy Bentham. The team includes members with degrees in political philosophy, English literature, history, classics and modern history. William Twining, Andrew Lewis, Stephen Guest of the Law Department are members of the Bentham Committee. Andrew Lewis and Bill Butler are editors respectively of volumes on judicial evidence and international law. The project is funded by grants from the AHRC, ESRC, Wellcome Trust and the British Academy.
  • Joanne SCOTT and the Centre for Law and Governance in Europe: Framework 6 Project: New Modes of Governance (EC funded, involves lawyers, political scientists, economists, sociologists and practitioners). 
  • Tim SWANSON is engaged on a number of large scale interdisciplinary research projects including (1) the AquaStress Project, an interdisciplinary and empirical analysis of water management problems, focusing on collective action problems in Tunisia and water demand management in Portugal; (2) RefGov, exploring how legal governance issues (financial markets, IPR etc) contribute to growth and development across countries, using large scale panel data; (3) ExioPol, which involves empirical analysis of the interaction between biodiversity reserves and agricultural production systems in the EU, focusing on a case study of Natura2000 reserves in the UK; (4) POPP, an empirical analysis of economic instruments in environmental regulation, focusing on the role of eco-labelling in informing consumers.
  • Cheryl THOMAS, and the Centre for Empirical Legal Studies.  Conducting a major empirical research project on Jury Decision-Making.  This is an investigation into whether a fair trial in the Crown Court depends on the ethnic composition of the jury or the defendant, the part of the country where the trial is held or media coverage of trials. This research is funded by the Ministry of Justice.
Current Legal Issues

Since 1997 the Faculty of Laws has organised an annual interdisciplinary colloquium held over two days. The proceedings are published by Oxford University Press as volumes in the Current Legal Issues series (1998–continuing).  Professor Michael FREEMAN organizes the colloquia and is General Editor of Current Legal Issues.

  • LAW AND SCIENCE (pub. 1998, with participation by Professor Lewis Wolpert, Anatomy)
  • LAW AND LITERATURE (pub. 1999. with participation by Professor John Sutherland, English
  • LAW AND MEDICINE, pub. 2000
  • LAW AND RELIGION, pub. 2001
  • LAW AND GEOGRAPHY (pub. 2003, jointly organised with Dept of Geography)
  • LAW AND HISTORY (pub. 2003, with participation by Professor David d’Avray, History)
  • LAW AND SOCIOLOGY, pub. 2004
  • LAW AND POPULAR CULTURE, pub. 2005
  • LAW AND PSYCHOLOGY (jointly held with the Department of Psychology at Birkbeck College) (pub. 2006)
  • LAW AND PHILOSOPHY (pub 2007)
  • LAW AND BIOETHICS (pub 2008)
  • LAW AND ANTHROPOLOGY (jointly held with the UCL Department of Anthropology) (pub expected 2009)
  • LAW AND NEUROSCIENCE
Interdisciplinary Public Advisory and Consultancy Work
  • Elaine GENDERS. Independent Advisor to the Home Office on the Therapeutic Regime at Her Majesty’s Prison, Dovegate.
  • Hazel GENN. Member of the Committee on Standards in Public Life. Special Adviser to the House of Commons Constitutional Affairs Committee on Aspects of Legal Aid Provision. Served as chair of the Main Panel J for the Research Assessment Exercise 2008. This Panel guided the work of six sub panels: Law, Sociology, Anthropology, Political Science and International Relations, Development Studies, Social Work and Social Policy and Administration.
  • Jeffrey JOWELL. Member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution; Member of The Office of Rail Regulation; Member of The Council of Europe’s Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission)
  • Philippe SANDS, Special Advisor to the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, on their inquiry into Science and International Agreements.
  • Cheryl THOMAS: Expert Jury Consultant to Her Majesty’s Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate in the Official Review of the Jubilee Line Case ordered by the Attorney General. Special Consultant to the French Institut des Hautes Etudes sur la Justice in the Official Review of Training for the French Judiciary.
  • Catherine REDGWELL, member of the Geoengineering Climate Working Group of The Royal Society.
  • Pascoe PLEASENCE is an adviser to the New Zealand Legal Services Agency, a consultant to the Law and Justice Foundation of New South Wales, has acted as an adviser to National Legal Aid and Victoria Legal Aid in Australia, as well as various branches of the United Kingdom government.
  • Professor Joanne SCOTT is a member of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.
  • Tim SWANSON leads two EU projects on law and economics related to environmental regulation, one on the use of information-based instruments (PoPP) and one on biodiversity in agriculture (ExioPol).  He also leads an ADB sponsored project on the management of China’s economic growth process over the long-term.  This project has advised the Chinese Academy of Sciences on international experiences relevant to China’s choice of development and regulatory options.  In China, Tim Swanson also holds a position on the Steering Committee of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development, and advises the Chinese government on management of its environment.  Most recently, he has advised a consortium of international agencies (UNEP, IUCN, World Bank) on the creation of a “Green Development Mechanism” under the auspices of the Convention on Biodiversity
  • Professor Maria LEE is a member of the London Sustainable Development Commission and the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution.
  • Dr Ralph WILDE acting as a consultant for the EU-funded Negotiation Support Unit providing advice to the Palestinian Liberation Organization on options for the future of Jerusalem in a final Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement.
TEACHING

Much of the teaching in our undergraduate and postgraduate courses includes economic, historical, political, philosophical, psychological, social and other perspectives and interpretations of the state of the law. Members of other departments in UCL take part in the teaching of some of our law courses, and we take part in teaching in other departments.  Examples are as follows:

LLB Courses

  • Corporate Insolvency Law: Draws on moral philosophy to examine what are and ought to be the ends of this branch of the law, and employs the tools of economic analysis to determine what are and ought to be the means for achieving those ends.
  • Employment Law: Incorporates material from the fields of philosophy, sociology, social policy, industrial relations and economics.
  • Environment, Planning and Development:  Incorporates material from environmental policy, philosophy and economics into the study of law relating to environmental protection.
  • Evidence: Deals with the psychology of proof and the political theory that underlies the law of evidence.
  • Family Law: Includes perspectives from psychology, sociology, social policy, women’s and childhood studies, and history.
  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory: Members of UCL’s Bentham Project and the Philosophy Department teach on this course with members of the Law Department. The students consider historical and philosophical aspects of legal theory, and study classic texts of political philosophy.
  • Law and Ethics: considers the intersection between law and ethics.
  • Property Law 1 and 2: Students on these courses are introduced to the philosophical (moral and political) theories that underlie the subject. They are also encouraged to engage in the economic analysis of various parts of the relevant doctrine.
  • Public International Law: Draws on material from international relations, philosophy, political science, gender studies, post colonial studies and political theory.
  • Public Law 1 and 2: Considers the democratic and political aspects of the UK’s constitutional arrangements.
  • Theoretical Criminology: Informed by sociological, historical, literary and cultural studies and by anthropology.
  • Medicine, Ethics and Law:  Concerned with the interaction between law and science and law and bioethics, a new growth area permeated by debate and controversy.
  • History of English Law, Roman law: Approach the understanding of law through historical method.
  • Crime and Criminal Justice Research Paper: Encourages students to undertake research to address any question of their choice in the field of crime and criminal justice. It introduces students to the problematics of research design and to a variety of empirical research methods, including issues of quantitative and qualitative analysis.

LLM and other Masters’ courses

  • Children and Their Rights: engages with disciplines of history, philosophy, education, psychology etc.
  • EC Competition Law: Includes material on the economic theories of competition as well as the law; economists take part in the teaching.
  • Environmental Protection Law and Policy: Teaches environmental philosophy and environmental economics and incorporates materials from those disciplines and from geography and politics.
  • Family, Law and Society:  Engages with sociological material on the family, intimacy, friendship and childhood, and with history, social policy and social theory.
  • Jeremy Bentham and the Utilitarian Tradition: Taught by Professor Philip Schofield, an historian, and members of the Bentham Project staff.   Brings together legal and political materials.
  • Jurisprudence and Legal Theory: Primarily concerned with legal philosophy and the intellectual history of legal theory.
  • International & European Protection of Equality Rights: Draws upon material from philosophy, political science, gender studies, sociology, social policy, industrial relations and economics.
  • International Energy Law: includes examination of the interaction of law and science, economics and politics.
  • Law and Regulation (MSc, MA): Taught by members of the Faculty of Laws to students registered in the Department of Political Science.  Covers legal and economic aspects of regulation.
  • Law, State and Gender: Includes coverage of sociology, history, social policy and social theory
  • The Law and Economics of Regulated Markets, Networks and Industries:  Covers both legal and economic analyses of regulation.
  • Public International Law: Courses offered in this area, which include Foreign Relations Law, International Criminal Law, International Environmental Law, International Energy Law, War Law and WTO Law, commonly cover material from economics, international relations, philosophy, political science and political theory as well as law.
  • Theoretical and Comparative Criminal Law: Deals with the history of the criminal law and the philosophical theories that underpin different regimes of criminal law.
  • The Role of Economics in Competition Law and Practice: Largely informed by economics and an economist and lawyers teach on the course.
  • Public Law: The LLM courses in Judicial Review and Administrative Law, and United Kingdom Constitution in Transition, incorporate materials from the disciplines of political science and public administration, democratic theory and philosophy.
  • Prison Studies: Includes perspectives from social policy, sociological theory, prison ecology and feminist theory.
  • Law in the Real World: An Introduction to How Law Works: Taught by members of Law Faculty and Economics and Psychology Departments. Explores law from the perspective of other social science disciplines.
  • Law and Economics: UCL has one of the broadest programmes in Law & Economics available in the EU.  There are now five specialist courses in law & economics of the LLM, and it is possible to take a Specialism in Law & Economics.  The courses are: Economic Analysis of Law; Law & Economics of Institutions; Law & Economics of Regulated Markets; Law & Economics of Regulated Industries; Economics of Competition Law.