Centre for Law and the Environment

Centre for Law and the Environment:
Satellites and the Law

General Publications and Media

Journal Articles
Purdy, R (2010) Using Earth Observation Technologies for Better Regulatory Compliance and Enforcement of Environmental Laws Journal of Environmental Law Volume 22 Number 1, pp59-87.
(This cannot be downloaded from this site. Please contact Ray directly)
Purdy, R (2006) Satellites: A New Era for Environmental Compliance, Journal for European Environmental and Planning Law, Volume 3 Number 5, pp406-413.

Purdy, R (2006) Satellites as a Legal Compliance Tool, Bulletin of the European Centre for Space Law, published by the Auspices of the European Space Agency, ECSL No 34, November

Purdy, R (2006) The heat is on, New Law Journal Volume 156, Issue 7225, p834.
Purdy, R (2006) Satellites: The next major tool in law enforcement? UCL Laws Newsletter, Autumn 2006
Purdy, R and Macrory, R (2003), Satellite Photographs: 21st Century Evidence? New Law Journal, March 7.
Purdy, R and Macrory R (2001), The Use of Satellite Images as Evidence in Environmental Actions in Great Britain, Droit et Ville, n° 51, June.
Purdy, R (1999), Legal and Privacy Issues of Spy in the Sky Satellites, Mountbatten Journal of Legal Studies, vol 3(1).
Contribution to books
Purdy, R ‘The Impact of Satellite Technologies in the International Legal Sector: The Story So Far and Implications For the Future’, Derecho Espacial, Vol. XVII (2010, Plus Ultra Press, Argentina).
(2010) Satellite Monitoring of Environmental Laws. Lessons to be learnt from Australia
London: Centre for Law and the Environment, University College London

Author: Ray Purdy
ISBN: 978-0-9560806-1-5

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Executive summary

Key recommendations


The study, ‘Smart Enforcement in Environmental Legal Systems: A Socio-Legal Analysis of Regulatory Satellite Monitoring in Australia,’ was funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (UK), during 2009 and 2010. This report is a direct output of this study and examines whether modern satellite technologies could provide a rigorous, legally reliable, and cost effective tool in inspection and compliance regimes in environmental regulatory systems. It considers these issues in the context of relevant experience and expertise in Australia, which is the only sustained comparative example where satellites have been used to monitor an environmental law. Satellite monitoring is used to monitor compliance with vegetation clearing legislation in Australia. This report seeks to demonstrate lessons learnt from this cutting-edge practice in Australia and to identify how best to build on this experience if satellite monitoring is to be used in new regulatory strategies.

(2010) Ray Purdy was a contributor to the ESPI Report - Current Legal Issues for Satellite Earth Observation
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(2006) Ray Purdy was a contributor to UNEP’s Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
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Purdy, R et al (2001), Applications of Earth Observation to the Legal Sector, BNSC publications.

Purdy, R et al (2001) APERTURE Project Final Report, European Commission.

Ray Purdy interview on Radio 4's Farming Today, 21 October 2008

Ray was interviewed on ABC Radio National – Australia’s biggest radio station, on Monday 23rd November. This interview was broadcast on the Bush Telegraph show. A recording of this interview can be downloaded here.


Ray was interviewed on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) radio show ‘the Country Hour’. This was aired on the 27th October 2009 in the State of South Australia, and again on the 2nd November in the State of Queensland. A recording of this interview can be downloaded here.
Harris R and R Browning (2005), Global monitoring: the challenges of access to data, UCL Press - Cavendish Publishing Ltd, London, ISBN 18594 1950X, 229pp.
Harris R (2002), Earth Observation Data Policy and Europe, A A Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands, ISBN 90 5809 258 5, 211pp, editor.
Harris R (1997), Earth Observation Data Policy, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, ISBN 0 471 97188 X, 155pp.
Harris R (1987), Satellite remote sensing: an introduction, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London ISBN 0 7102 0305 5, 220pp.
Journal Articles
Harris A, and Harris R (2006) The need for air space and outer space demarcation, Space Policy, 22, 3-7.
Harris, R and R Browning (2003) Global Monitoring for Environment and Security: data policy considerations, Space Policy 19(4), 265-276.
Harris R (2002) Earth observation and UK science policy, Space Policy 18, 205-213.
Harris R and Olby N (2001) Earth observation data archiving in the USA and Europe, Space Policy 17, 35-48.
Harris R and Krawec R (1993) Some current national and international Earth observation data policies, Space Policy 9(4), 273 285.
Harris R and Krawec R (1993) Earth observation data pricing policy, Space Policy 9(4), 299 318.
Book Chapters
Harris R (2003) Earth observation and principles on data, in Harrison C and J Holder (eds) Law and Geography. Current Legal Issues volume 5, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 539-555.
Conference Publications
Harris R (2005) Data policy challenges for remote sensing, Remote Sensing Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, conference proceedings.
Harris R (2005) Earth observation, data policy and society, in S Kurnaz, F Ince, S Ondasioglu and S Basturk (eds) Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technology RAST05, Istanbul, Turkey, IEEE, ISBN 0-7803-8977-8, 78-82.
Harris R (2003) International Charter Space and Major Disasters, Proceedings of the 12th Summer Course in Space Law and Policy, European Centre for Space Law, Paris, France, 549-552.
Harris R (1999) Earth observation data policy and Europe, From Data to Information, Remote Sensing Society, Reading, conference proceedings, 319-327.
Harris R (1999) The new ERS and Envisat data policies, From Data to Information, Remote Sensing Society, Reading, conference proceedings, 341-345.
Harris R (1993) Earth observation data policy and its importance for the operationalisation of remote sensing in Europe, Operationalisation of Remote Sensing, Enschede, The Netherlands, vol 1, 11 17.