Raymond Purdy   RAY PURDY
Honorary Senior Research Associate

contact details:
email: raymond.purdy@ucl.ac.uk

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Ray joined the Law Faculty in 2000 as a Senior Research Fellow in Law, and became an Honorary Senior Research Associate in 2014. He was Deputy Director of the Centre for Law and the Environment in the Law Faculty between 2005 and 2011. Before working at UCL he was a researcher at both Imperial College London and the University of Oxford.

Ray has eighteen years experience working on contracted research projects. The majority of his research projects have been focused in the area of environmental law. He also has a specialism in the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor and enforce laws. Ray is particularly interested in legal applications for satellites (particularly for environmental monitoring and enforcement), how this form of surveillance might influence regulatory compliance, and evidential and privacy implications. Ray has been undertaking research in this area for fifteen years and his work can be seen in the Satellites and the Law Website.

Ray also has a strong research interest in the legal implications of new technologies. He is currently working on a European Commission project which is funded under a FP7 ICT Work Programme: BEAMING (‘Being in Augmented Multi-Modal Naturally-Networked Gatherings’). BEAMING is the use of remote presence and augmented reality technologies, which also allow for physical contract through the internet. The Beaming consortium is composed of leading research and development groups and companies in eight European countries and Ray is the specialist lawyer on the project.

Ray has conducted national research projects for:

  • Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
  • Astrium
  • British National Space Centre (UK Space Agency)
  • Cabinet Office
  • Cambrensis Ltd
  • Committee on Radioactive Waste Management
  • Communities and Local Government
  • Countryside Council for Wales
  • Department of Transport, Local Government and the Regions
  • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Department for Trade and Industry
  • Entec UK Ltd
  • Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC)
  • National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection
  • RPS Group PLC
  • Scottish Environmental Protection Agency
  • Shell
  • Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research

He has conducted international research projects for:

  • European Commission (DG Environment, DG JRC, DG Telecommunications, EU-China Policy Dialogues Support Facility, FP 5 and 7)
  • European Space Agency
  • German Government
  • German State of Sachsen Anhalt
  • Hong Kong Government
  • Hugo Lepage Law Firm, Brussels
  • International Emissions Trading Association
  • Intergovemental Panel on Climate Change (expert reviewer)
  • International Energy Agency (expert reviewer)
  • Netherlands Government
  • Spanish Government
  • United Nations
  • University of Bremen
  • World Bank

Primary Research Interests:

  • Environmental law
  • Satellite imagery for environmental/legal monitoring
  • Climate change (CCS, CDM and verification of projects)
  • Transposition and enforcement of environmental legislation
  • Waste (particularly drafting and waste definitions; storage of radioactive waste; transboundary movement)
  • Environmental regulation and policy
  • New technologies and the law (Thermal imaging cameras, Radio frequency identification devices, pilotless drones, UAVs, ‘Beaming’ and presence technologies)

Editorial Responsibilities:
Ray was the Assistant Editor of the Journal of Environmental Law (Oxford University Press) between 1995-1999, and the Managing Editor of Climate Policy (Elsevier Press) from 2000-2004. In 2007, he was a guest editor for the Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law on a special issue on carbon capture and storage.



  • Evidence from Earth Observation Satellites. Emerging Legal Issues, December 2012, Brill / Martinus Nijhoff (Ed. With D. Leung) 498p.
  • Principles of European Environmental Law, 2004, Europa Law Publishing, Groningen (Ed. with R. Macrory & I. Havercroft) 256 p.

Book Chapters

  • The Impact of Satellite Technologies in the International Legal Sector: The Story So Far and Implications For the Future’, in Derecho Espacial, Vol. XVII, Plus Ultra Press, Argentina (forthcoming).
  • ‘Pulling the Threads Together and Moving Forward’ in R. Purdy and D. Leung (eds.), Evidence from Earth Observation Satellites. Emerging Legal Issues, December 2012, Brill / Martinus Nijhoff, pp399-424.
  • ‘Intellectual Property Rights and Problems in the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge: A Case Study of the Philippines in Legal Reforms’, Chapter 14, in Ninan, K.N. (ed) Conserving and Valuing Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity – Economics, Institutional and Social Challenges, pp 299–330, 2009, Earthscan (with T Swanson, and A.L Uy)
  • ‘Climate Change’, Oxford Companion to Law, 2008, Oxford University Press, UK.
  • ‘CCS - A Realistic Option for the UK’, The World Energy Book, Issue 3, 2006, Published by the Work Energy Council, London (with C Gough, S Shackley, J Klemeš, I Bulatov, C McLachlan, S Holloway, M Bentham, & T Cockerill).
  • ‘Geological Carbon Dioxide Storage and the Law’, Chapter 4, in Gough, C. & Shackley, S. (eds.) Capturing Carbon: The Prospects for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the UK, 2006, pp87-139, Ashgate.
  • ‘The Regulation and Control of Releases of Non-Indigenous Species in Great Britain’; in Fisahn, A & Winter, G (ed.) Die Aussetzung gebietsfremder Organismen - Recht und Praxis; 1999, Umwelt Bundes Amt, Germany (with R Macrory).
  • ‘The Regulation and Control of Genetically Modified Organisms in the United Kingdom’, in Winter, G (ed.) Die Prüfung der Freisstzung von gentechnisch veränderten Organismen; 1998, Umwelt Bundes Amt, Germany (with R Macrory).
  • ‘The Enforcement of EC Environmental Law Against Member States’, in Holder J (ed.) The Impact of EC Law in the UK, Wiley Press, 1997 (with R Macrory)

Journal Articles

  • ‘Beam me up Scotty’, New Law Journal (2012) 5 October, vol. 162(7532), cover and pp1260-1261.
  • ‘Attitudes of UK and Australian farmers towards monitoring activity with satellite technologies: Lessons to be learnt’, Space Policy 27 (2011) pp202-212.
  • ‘Using Earth Observation Technologies for Better Regulatory Compliance and Enforcement of Environmental Laws’, Journal of Environmental Law 22:1 (2010), pp59-87.
  • 'Governance Reform of the Clean Development Mechanism After Poznan', Carbon and Climate Law Review (2009), Vol. 3(1), pp5-15.
  • An integrated assessment of carbon dioxide capture and storage in the UK, 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Trondheim, Norway, 2008, Elsevier Science Ltd and Curran Associates, (with C Gough, S Shackley, J Klemeš, I Bulatov, C McLachlan, S Holloway, M Bentham, & T Cockerill).
  • 'Carbon Capture and Storage: Developments under European Union and International Law', Journal for European Environmental and Planning Law (2007, Volume 4(5), pp353-366 (with I Havercroft)
  • 'Satellites: A New Era for Environmental Compliance', Journal for European Environmental and Planning Law (2006), Vol 3(5), pp406-413.
  • 'The Legal Implications of Carbon Capture and Storage under the Seas', Sustainable Development Law and Policy, Fall Issue (2006), pp22-26.
  • 'The heat is on', New Law Journal, May 19 (2006) pp834-837.
  • 'Satellite Photographs: 21st Century Evidence', New Law Journal, March 7 (2003) (with R. Macrory) cover and pp337-338.
  • 'The Use of Satellite Images as Evidence in Environmental Actions in Great Britain'; Droit Et Ville, n° 51, June 2001 (with R. Macrory) pp72-88.
  • 'Legal and Privacy Issues of Spy in the Sky Satellites'; Mountbatten Journal of Legal Studies (1999), vol 3(1), pp63-79.

Newspaper Articles

  • Cause for Concern: Procedures for the release of genetically modified organisms need closer scrutiny; Financial Times, August 14, 1998 (with M Hession).

Book Reviews

  • Review of: Surveillance and Intelligence Law Handbook, Victoria Williams, New Law Journal, Vol. 156 No. 7236, Friday 4th August 2006, p1231.
  • Review of: A Consumers Guide to GM Food: From Green Genes to Red Herrings, Alan McHughen, Journal of Environmental Law (2000), 12(3), pp408-410.
  • Review of: Law and Human Genetics – Regulating a Revolution, Eds R. Brownsword, WR Cornish, M Llewellyn, Journal of Environmental Law 12(2) (2000), pp249-250.

Published Reports and Refereed Working Papers

  • Scoping Report on the Legal Impacts of BEAMING Presence Technologies; Centre for Law and the Environment Publication, July 2011.
  • Satellite Monitoring of Environmental Laws. Lessons to be Learnt from Australia; Centre for Law and the Environment Publication, November 2010.
  • Manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of Multilateral Environmental Agreements, UNEP, 2006 (contributor).
  • Geological Carbon Sequestration: Critical Legal Issues, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper No.45, 2004 (with R Macrory).
  • Applications of Earth Observation to the Legal Sector, BNSC (with C Ainsworth, M Anderson, R Cleverly, D Ong, & P Miquet)
  • The Impact of the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 and the Town and Country Planning (Permitted Development) Order 1995 on the Delivery of Integrated Transport and Other Planning Policy Objectives, DLTR (with W Sheate and Baker Associates).


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