A subclass of numerals which
includes one, 1, twenty, a hundred.
IIn English, case is illustrated
by the PERSONAL PRONOUNS, where different forms of the pronoun indicate
their grammatical relationship to the VERB. For example: (1) He is
a plumber, He has SUBJECTIVE case. (2) I saw him, him
has OBJECTIVE case.
A central adjective is one
that fulfils all the criteria for identifying adjectives. These criteria
are: being GRADABLE, having COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE forms, and appearing
in ATTRIBUTIVE or PREDICATIVE positions.
A subclass of DETERMINER which
includes DEFINITE and INDEFINITE ARTICLES as well as POSSESSIVE and DEMONSTRATIVE
pronouns. Central determiners occur after PREDETERMINERS and before POSTDETERMINERS.
A collective term for MANNER,
TIME, and PLACE ADVERBS.
A clause is a string of words
which expresses a proposition and typically consists of at least a SUBJECT
and a verb: David sings, Yesterday we visited Canterbury.
A SENTENCE contains one or more clauses. The sentence She retired early
because she was ill contains two clauses, a MATRIX clause, consisting
of the whole sentence, and a SUBORDINATE clause, because she was ill.
A special use of the PERSONAL
PRONOUN it which appears in CLEFT sentences: It was John
who broke the window.
A sentence which is split into
two clauses, placing emphasis on one part (the "focus"): It is her
kindness that I will remember. Here, the focus is her kindness.
Word classes are of two types:
OPEN-CLASS and closed-class. Closed-class items include AUXILIARIES, PREPOSITIONS,
CONJUNCTIONS, DETERMINERS and PRONOUNS. These classes consist of finite
sets of words which can be exhaustively listed, and they do not admit
One of the NICE PROPERTIES
of AUXILIARY VERBS. The DO AUXILIARY can replace the verb under
ELLIPSIS. John wants to go to the cinema, and so does
A noun which refers to a group of individual people or animals: population, herd, flock, committee.
A noun which refers to common,
everyday entities such as: cat, dog, sister, bucket,
The form of an adjective or an adverb at the middle point on a scale of comparison. Comparison is expressed using an -er ending or with more:
A type of subordinate clause which expresses comparison, and which is introduced by than or as:
A constituent of a phrase which is required to complete the meaning of the Head. In a review of the book, of the book is the Complement of the Head review. Similarly, in detectives examined the scene, the scene is the Complement of the Head examined.
A two- or three-word preposition:
along with, because of, due to.
A complex sentence contains
a main clause and at least one subordinate clause. For example, Your
dinner is cold because you were late. The subordinate clause is because
you were late.
A compound sentence contains
coordinated main clauses:
A type of subordinate clause
which expresses concession, usually introduced by although or though:
He bought me a lovely
gift, although he can't really afford it.
Another term for AGREEMENT.
A type of subordinate clause
which expresses a condition, typically introduced by if : I'll
be home early if I can get a taxi.
An element which undergoes COORDINATION. In the following examples, the conjoins are bracketed:
Conjunct adverbs connect two sentences and indicate a logical relationship between them:
Other conjunct adverbs include:
nevertheless, nonetheless, otherwise, in addition,
on the other hand
A CLOSED wordclass which includes
COORDINATING words such as and, but, and or, and SUBORDINATING
words such as because, if, and when.
A constituent is a word or
a group of words which acts syntactically as a unit. Constituents may
be words, phrases, or clauses.
Another term for OPEN-CLASS
words or LEXICAL words.
A type of CONJUNCTION which
connects elements of equal status. The most common coordinating conjunctions
are and and but. Also known as a COORDINATOR.
Coordination involves the syntactic linking of two or more elements of equal status:
Another term for COORDINATING
Copular (or linking) verbs link the Subject to the element that follows the them. This element says more about the Subject:
The most common copular verb is be.
A type of COMMON noun which
is countable. Count nouns can be SINGULAR (dog) or PLURAL (dogs).