The BASE form of an
ADJECTIVE on a scale of comparison, for example, big, in contrast
with the COMPARATIVE bigger and the SUPERLATIVE biggest.
Abstract nouns include love,
optimism, truth, freedom, belief, hope
and communism. They refer to non-concrete entities.
A value of VOICE for a VERB,
the other value being PASSIVE.
A type of ADVERB which offers
a choice between two or more items, e.g. You either leave or
An open word class which expresses
an attribute. The attribute is expressed either by an ATTRIBUTIVE adjective
(a red car) or by a PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE (my car
A phrase headed by an adjective
(e.g. proud, good, happy). The Head may be premodified (very
good). Certain Heads may be postmodified (proud of you),
or can be pre- and postmodified (very proud of you).
This is an optional constituent
in a clause or in a phrase. In a clause, it usually describes how,
when or where something happened (John ran quickly,
David retired when he was sixty, We met him in the
An open word class which includes
happily, slowly, quietly, now, and very.
Adverbs can modify an adjective (e.g. very big), another
adverb (e.g. very quietly) or a verb (e.g. John walked
A phrase headed by an adverb
(e.g. quietly, carefully). In an adverb phrase, the Head
word can be premodified as (e.g. too quietly, quite
carefully). It can be postmodified (e.g. carefully enough).
An adverb phrase can also consist of a Head which is both premodified
and postmodified (e.g. very luckily for us).
The entity which performs the
action described by a VERB (John kicked the ball). The agent
may be missing in a PASSIVE construction (cf. The ball was kicked).
In a typical passive construction,
the AGENT occurs in the by-phrase: The ball was kicked
by John. In an agentless passive, the by-phrase is missing:
The ball was kicked.
This usually refers to Subject-verb
agreement, and denotes the fact that a verb ending agrees with the number
of the Subject (the dog barks / the dogs bark). Agreement
applies only to PRESENT TENSE verbs. It is also known as concord.
A type of interrogative sentence
in which two or more alternatives are presented, e.g. Should I telephone
or send an email?
Anticipatory it occupies
the Subject position and "anticipates" a Subject that has been
postponed. For example, It's true that she has finished
with Mike. In this example the Subject is It, which substitutes
for the extraposed clause that she has finished with Mike. Cf.
the version with extraposition That she has finished with Mike is true.
Aspect refers to the way an
action denoted by a verb should be viewed with respect to time.
Asyndetic coordination involves
two or more CONJOINS which are not linked by a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION.
For example: Slowly, carefully, the thief crept towards
An ADJECTIVE is attributive
if it occurs before the noun which it modifies (a delicious
taste, an entertaining film)
An auxiliary verb (or HELPING
VERB) occurs with a MAIN VERB. Examples: (1) Sue has made a
chocolate cake (2) Kate is talking to her boss (3) I
do not like beans (4) The cat was chased by the blackbird
(5) You must eat your beans