Sentence Patterns from a Functional Perspective
| In order to summarise
what we have learned, we will now look at some typical sentence patterns
from a functional perspective. We will then conclude this section by looking
at some untypical patterns, on the next page.
As we've seen, the Subject is usually (but not always) the first element in a sentence, and it is followed by the verb:
In this pattern, the verb is not followed by any Object, and we refer to this as an intransitive verb. If the verb is monotransitive, it takes a Direct Object, which follows the verb:
In the ditransitive pattern, the verb is followed by an Indirect Object and a Direct Object, in that order:
Adjuncts are syntactically peripheral to the rest of the sentence. They may occur at the beginning and at the end of a sentence, and they may occur in all three of the patterns above:
Pattern 4 is essentially a conflation of the other three, with Adjuncts added. We have bracketed the Adjuncts to show that they are optional. Strictly speaking, Objects are also optional, since they are only required by monotransitive and ditransitive verbs, as in the examples  and  above.
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