International Centre For Lifecourse Studies In Society and Health
- Prospective Students
- Events & News
- Policy Seminars
- Summer School
- Staff Intranet
- Policy Seminar: Extending working life & health
- Podcast: Unemployment & Health
- Podcast: Teenage stress resilience
- Summer School: Aug 31 - Sept 4 Bamberg
- Blog: Child of our Time - Ethnicity, birthweight & growth
Events / News
- July 7: ICLS 31st Centre Day at UCL
- June 2: Policy seminar; Extending working life and health. Please contact us if you would like to be add to the mailing list.
- April 22: PhD workshop (UCL / Orebro and Helsinki Universities)
- April 21: Another packed program for the ICLS 30th Centre Day at UCL. We will also be welcoming visiting PhD students from Finland and Sweden.
- January 13: ICLS 29th Centre Day at UCL
- January 8: Congratulations to ICLS PhD students Hanna Creece (1st year) and Alison Sizer (2nd/3rd year)for winning the EPH Department's PhD poster competition.
- January 2: Professor Heather Joshi, ICLS Advisory Board chairperson, has been awarded the CBE in the New Year honours list. Professor Joshi founded the Millennium Cohort Study at IoE.
- November 11: Who wants to work forever? With state pension age increasing, people are retiring from work at older ages. Is this good or bad for your health? Is the choice between working longer or retiring poorer going to impact on your health? This UCL Lunch hour Lecture by Professor Tarani Chandola examines some of the evidence on this debate.It will also be available on You Tube a week after the lecture.
- November 10: Anne McMunn will be presenting ICLS work at the Public Health England funded Work, Health and Wellbeing Workshop, Manchester University. The aim of the workshop is to bring together those who contribute to, and benefit from work, health and well-being research, in order to share expertise, provide opportunities for collaborations and generate more results.
- October 7: ICLS 28th Centre Day at UCL
- September 18: ICLS has a vacancy for a Research Associate to work on Professor Sacker's project 'The impact of extending paid work later in life on health and wellbeing' using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing and Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study datasets.
- July 28: What explains the link between childhood circumstances and quality of life in older ages? See Morten Waharendorf's and David Blane's recent paper, available on Open Access, in the journal of Aging & Mental Health.
- July 12: An overview of the life course approach in epidemiology, its research application, and future challenges by Noriko Cable is now available on Open Access.
- July 1: ICLS 27th Centre Day at UCL
- June 25: The Cumberland Lodge Social Determinants of Health Conference Report is now available. Professor Yvonne Kelly presented finding on the picture of health inequalities amongst children. The report and conference slides are available from the Cumberland Lodge website.
- June 3: ICLS/ESRC seminar on Sleep & Health for policy makers will be held at UCL. Email us if you would like to be sent a programme.
- June 2: ICLS Professors Yvonne Kelly and Amanda Sacker contributed to a research paper on Media Use, Sports Participation, and Well-Being in Adolescence published in the American Journal of Public Health. Unsurprisingly more exercise and less screen based use is recommended to improve the well being of UK adolescents. The data used for these findings came from the youth panel (n = 4899) of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study, conducted in 2009. More information on the findings can be obtained from the ISER podcast published by Dr Cara Booker, the paper's first author.
- April 29: UK and international collaborators are invited to join ICLS members for the 26th Quarterly Centre Day at UCL.
- May 21: Research Associate in Lifecourse Epidemiology, - Ref:1412458. A research associate is required to work on the project: A picture of youth - inequalities in health from childhood to early adulthood, and other projects in the ICLS scientific programme. The appointment is available from 01/09/14 and is funded for 3 years in the first instance. Closing date: 21 May 2014
- March 31:Being less able to cope with everyday stressful situations in adolescence, is linked with a higher risk of stroke in men of working age, finds research based on the medical physical and psychological examinations of 237,879 men born between 1952 and 1956. This work was a collaboration between ICLS and and Örebro University Hospital in Sweden and is published in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.
- March 25: Research staff from ICLS will be visiting A level students at the UCL Academy, London NW3 to discuss research that bridges social and biological sciences.
- March 20: Anne McMunn will give a keynote address today on Parenting at the UCSIA international academic workshop on The Family Kaleidoscope: Evolving Partnerships and Parenting at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.
- March 11: Professor Yvonne Kelly commented on recent research, conducted by Leeds University and published in Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health,linking light drink during pregnancy to risk of babies being born preterm for BBC news.
- March 3: Watch again on UCL You Tube channel! 'A good start in life' lecture by Professor Yvonne Kelly or read the transcript.
- February 25 : 'A good start in life' - UCL Lunch hour Lecture. Be part of the audience to hear Professor Yvonne Kelly discuss how the more advantages a child has early in life, the better their health and development and their own socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. She will examine what factors during pregnancy and in the early years of life set children off on better life trajectories and discuss what would be needed if we are to move on from saying “every child deserves a good childhood” to seeing that "every child has a good childhood".
- February 24. Transcript and slides from the Active Transport and Health policy seminar held earlier this year are now available. Papers based on unpublished research will be made available on request.
- January 24: A transcript from the UCL Lunch time Lecture - Breast is best? Can breast feeding really increase one’s life chances? is now available to download or you can view the lecture again on You Tube.
- January 21 : ICLS 25th Centre Day at UCL
- January 7: The next NatCen/ESRC/ICLS policy seminar will be on the topic of Active Transport and Health (not December 3 as previously advertised).
- November 5: Watch Again. UCL Lunch Hour Lecture - Breast is best? (see below) is now available on You Tube.
- October 29: UCL Lunch Hour Lecture. Breast is best?. Speaker Professor Amanda Sacker. We all want to give our children a good start in life. Breastfeeding an infant is one of the many ways to do that. This talk will examine the latest evidence on the long-term benefits of breastfeeding and whether being breastfed can boost your chances of climbing up the social ladder. Amanda Sacker is a Professor of Lifecourse Studies at UCL and Director of ICLS. Her research interests include the development of social inequalities in health over the lifecourse and longitudinal methodology to study such phenomena.
- October 14: Irregular bedtimes linked to behavioral problems in children. ICLS researchers have found that children with irregular bedtimes are more likely to have behavioural difficulties. The study, led by Professor Yvonne Kelly analysed data from more than 10,000 children in the UK Millennium Cohort Study, found that irregular bedtimes could disrupt natural body rhythms and cause sleep deprivation, undermining brain maturation and the ability to regulate certain behaviours. Published today online by Pediatrics. UCL News Media Coverage: New York Times, Guardian, Reuters, Herald Scotland.
- October 1: ICLS 24th Centre Day.
- September 25 - October 9: Job Vacancy: ICLS is recruiting a part time Administrator to assist with the running of this friendly and busy research centre. See UCL Job Vacancies for full details.
- September 23 -25: ICLS members will present work at the Society for Longitudinal and Life course Studies conference on Growing Up and Growing Old: Health Transitions Throughout the Lifecourse held this year in the Netherlands.
- September 12: Dr Elizabeth Webb will be exploring 'Household dynamics: the reciprocal effects of parent and child characteristics' under the Child Development stream at this year Society for Social Medicine conference.
- September 2 - 6: The 3rd Longitudinal and Life Course Research Summer School for postgraduate research students and post-doctoral fellows will be held at Oxford University this year. Contact the organisers about vacancies post the application closing date.
- September 2: Childhood adversity linked to higher risk of early death. Traumatic childhood experiences are linked to an increased risk of early death, according to new research using data from the 1958 National Child Development Study. Researchers at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, in collaboration with the ESRC International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and Health at University College London, analysed information from more than 15,000 people. They found that men and women who had suffered adversity in childhood were more likely to die before age 50 than those who had not. Read the full article available on Open Access.
- August 15: Disability United States, England and Continental Europe: Previous studies have demonstrated that older adults in the US are less healthy than their counterparts in European nations. But is this true regardless of socioeconomic position, and no matter how old people are? ICLS and colleagues from the University of Duesseldorf and the University of Lucerne have studied these questions by looking at levels of disability of nearly 50000 men and women aged 50 to 85 in 15 countries including the US, England and continental Europe. The authors found that American men and women had the highest levels of disability when compared to their European counterparts, with largest country-differences between age 50 to 65. For all countries and at all ages, disability levels were higher among adults with low wealth compared to those with high wealth, with largest wealth-related differences in the US Read the full article In PLOS One. Media Coverage: Le Figaro
- July 11: People who experience parental divorce during childhood have higher levels of an inflammatory marker in the blood which is known to predict future health, according to new research published in Psychoneuroendocrinology by Dr Rebecca Lacey, former ICLS research student. See: UCL News
- July 9: Going to bed at different times every night throughout early childhood seems to curb children’s brain power, finds a large, long term study published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health (JECH). In the paper Time for bed: associations with cognitive performance in 7-year-old children by authors Yvonne Kelly, John Kelly, Amanda Sacker data on bedtimes and cognitive test (z-scores) for reading, maths and spatial abilities for 11, 178 7-year-old children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study were examined. Media Coverage: UCL News, Centre for Longitudinal Studies ; The Age ; Bloomberg ; BBC News Online
- June 25: Breastfeeding not only boosts children’s chances of climbing the social ladder, but it also reduces the chances of downwards mobility, suggests a large study published online in the Archives of Disease in Childhood. The paper - Breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility:what are the mechanisms? by A Sacker,Y Kelly,M Iacovou,N Cable,M Bartley is available on Open Access. Media Coverage: UCL News, Independent, Daily Mail, Telegraph, Scotsman
- June 18: ICLS 23rd Centre Day.
- June - In Press: Parental separation in childhood and adult inflammation: the importance of material and psychosocial pathways. Authors: Rebecca E Lacey,UCL, Meena Kumari,UCL Anne McMunn,UCL. Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology
- June - In Press:Time for Bed – associations with cognitive performance in 7 year old children: a longitudinal population based study. Authors: Yvonne Kelly, UCL;Journal:Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.
- April 23: ICLS 22nd Centre Day - Programme.
- April 17: Light drinking during pregnancy is not linked to adverse behavioural or cognitive outcomes in childhood, suggests a ICLS research paper published today in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.This study collated data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a national study of infants born in the UK between 2000-2002, to assess whether light drinking (up to two units of alcohol per week) in pregnancy was linked to unfavourable developmental outcomes in 7-year-old children. Professor Yvonne Kelly, ICLS Deputy Director at UCLand co-author of the study said:“There appears to be no increased risk of negative impacts of light drinking in pregnancy on behavioural or cognitive development in 7-year-old children.“We need to understand more about how children’s environments influence their behavioural and intellectual development. While we have followed these children for the first seven years of their lives, further research is needed to detect whether any adverse effects of low levels of alcohol consumption in pregnancy emerge later in childhood.” Full BJOG Press Release.
- April 8 - May 1: Applications invited for the ICLS post of Research Associate in Lifecourse Epidemiology. Go to the UCL jobs vacancies website for an application form quoting Ref:1321478.
- March 13: Unemployment Recession and Health Policy Seminar. This seminar will look at health effects of the transition from secure to insecure employment, long term effects of parental and youth unemployment, and potential resilience to unemployment. This policy seminar is open to those from the governmental and third sectors involved in policy making. The seminar will be chaired by Richard Bartholomew, Chief Research Officer, Children, Young People and Families Directorate, Department for Education. Full details are available from the ICLS Policy Seminar pages.
- February 15: The 21st Centre Day and the 1st Centre Day of the ICLS phase 2 will consist of presentations from the five projects scheduled to commence in 2013, followed by briefings of the management and running of the second phase of ICLS.
- November 6: ICLS is releasing (ESRC Press Release) a plain English guide to their research demonstrating how ‘Life gets under your skin’ as part of the ESRC Festival of Social Science in November 2012. The booklet demonstrates how social policy related to family life, education, employment and welfare can have beneficial effects for the overall health of individuals. It also shows how multi disciplinary, longitudinal research can deliver findings valuable to the individual, society and the economy. Copies of the publication can be downloaded from this site from Tuesday 6 November 2012.
- November 7: ESRC Festival of Scoial Science. 'What a life; social circumstances and health'. This half day event for lower sixth-form students will explore how social organisation effects human biology and why this is important for health. Through presentations and electronic voting different phases of the Lifecourse will be explored. For more information Email: icls[AT] ucl.ac.uk or visit the ESRC Festival website.
- October 22 - 23: ICLS mid term conference. Goodenough College, London
- July 2 - 3: Sequence Analysis Training by Dr Brendan Halpin, University of Limerick. Contact us for more information.
- May 2: NatCen/ESRC/ICLS Wellbeing Policy Seminar. Four short papers, shedding light on the role that well-being can play in the process of intervention development and implementation. The two session will be chaired by Richard Bartholomew, Chief Research Officer, Children, Young People and Families Directorate, Department for Education.
- April 16: Innovative Data Collection Methods in Ageing Studies , UCL The final seminar in a series of 4 on the methodological challenges facing ageing cohort studies. See http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/ageingcohort/ for full details of all 4 seminars.
- March 8: Public Lecture - Having it all - dispelling the myths about work and motherhood by Dr Anne McMunn. We hear a lot about the stresses of juggling motherhood with paid work, and the subsequent harm this might cause children. However, this UCL Lunch time lecture (LtL) to mark International Women’s Day discusses evidence from UK cohort studies following generations of men and women which suggests that working mothers not only end up healthier in mid-life, but that their daughters may also end up happier too. This public lecture will also be webcasted for those unable to make the date or attend the Central London location.
- February 27: 1 - 2pm. Public Lecture for UCL Diversity Month: Is it worse to be young now than in the swinging 60s? Professor Mel Bartley, Director of UCL's International Centre For Lifecourse Studies and Lidia Panico, Postdoctoral Fellow, LSE Gender Institute and UCL Research Student Cruciform Building, Lecture Theatre 2, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT.
- February 16 : The extended lifespan. Is it in our best interests? Darwin Lecture Theatre (B40), Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT Time: 6-7.30pm. This public discussion will draw out the various impacts of an extended lifespan. It is noted that the life span of someone born in 2011 could easily be 100 years in some societies, yet below 40 years in others. As our life expectancy grows, how will we cope with continual degradation of our dexterity, eyesight or mental capacity? Is such degradation inevitability? How reduced can our functional performance become before we have to contend with life-changing impacts? How will our health system cope? How will an ageing population erode tax revenues and how will future generations be affected? As we live longer, will we live with disease and disability for longer? Ageing is not only about the extending of lifespan at the ‘older end’. The increased ageing of relatively small groups, such as people with Downs syndrome and cerebral palsy, who in the past had relatively short lifespans, but are now living longer – possibly beyond the lifespan of their parent-carers. How should these groups, who are often not included in the ‘ageing debate’, be integrated into wider society? Register for this event. Speakers include Mel Bartley, Professor of Medical Sociology, UCL Epidemiology and Public Health. Director, ESRC Centre for Life Course Studies in Society and Health, Malcolm Grant, Provost, UCL. Chair, NHS Commissioning Board, Sally Greengross, Chief Executive, International Longevity Centre-UK. Chair, All-Party Parliamentary Groups: Dementia, Corporate Social Responsibility, Intergenerational Futures and Continence Care.
- January 19: UCL Research Department of Epidemiology & Public Health PhD Open Day. Discuss possible opportunities (2013) with Professor Mel Bartley, ICLS Director and Dr Anne McMunn, Graduate Tutor and ICLS project leader.
- January: Noriko Cable, ICLS member and editor of SSM Newsletter has been elected as one of two new members of the Society of Socail Medince (SSM) Committee. Her term of office is from January 2012 to December 2014.
- December 6: NatCen/ICLS/ESRC Early Childhood Health & Development Policy Seminar for government, business and third sector organisations.
- October 28 The Methodological Challenges of Cognitive Ageing, Nunn Hall, Institute of Education, London. One of a series of four seminars on methodological challenges facing ageing cohort studies which conclude with an International Conference. for details on the seminar series please see http://www.methods.manchester.ac.uk/ageingcohort/
- September 13: Giving free bus passes to the elderly may help ward off obesity, indicates ICLS research published online in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. For more information contact Dr Elizabeth Webb.
- August 22: Job Vacancy: Research Assistant/Associate in Social Statistics. The Centre for Multilevel Modelling at the University of Bristol is seeking to appoint an applied statistician to work on a new ESRC-funded project, Longitudinal Effects, Multilevel Modelling and Applications (LEMMA 3). LEMMA 3 is one of six Nodes of the National Centre for Research Methods (NCRM). The LEMMA 3 Node will focus on methods for the analysis of longitudinal data. See http://www.bris.ac.uk/boris/jobs/feeds/ads?ID=100571
- July 22: Working mothers and the effects on children.
Parents struggling to combine paid work with bringing up their children now have some positive news. A recent ICLS study on maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK shows that there are no significant detrimental effects on a child’s social or emotional development if their mothers work during their early years. For more information. See J Epidemiol Community Health 2011;jech.2010.109553Published Online First: 10 January 2011 doi:10.1136/jech.2010.109553 or contact the author Dr Anne McMunn.
- July 7: Adult education and heart disease. Students who leave school without any qualifications can expect to suffer from poorer health and greater risk of heart disease than those with some qualifications, according to research. However, the ICLS study 'Is adult education associated with reduced coronary heart disease risk?' suggests if people return to education later on in life, they may be able to reduce the health gap with their more educated peers. For more information please contact Professor Tarani Chandola, Manchester University.
- June 13: New ICLS research published in Archives of Disease in Childhood shows that the children of the poorest families are 7 to 8 times more likely to exhibit serious social and emotional problems than their wealthy peers. The research also shows that the gap in children’s verbal (speaking/vocabulary) skills widens by 50% between the ages of three and five, the two age groups being looked at by the research team. For more information contact Professor Yvonne Kelly.
- June 7: NatCen/ICLS/ESRC Work-Life Balance Policy Seminar
- May: Breastfeeding and children’s behaviour: Professors Kelly and Sacker investigated a relationship between breastfeeding and children’s behaviour, using Millennium Cohort Study, along with researchers from Oxford and York University. Their finding, showing a long term association between exclusive breastfeeding and children’s well-adjusted behaviour, is published in the Archives of Disease in Childhood (doi:10.1136/adc.2010.201970). See also BBC News Health Online
- April 20: Applicaiton Deadline: 2 ESRC PhD Studentships in Life Course Epidemiology.
- July 4 - 8: Longitudinal and Life Course Research Summer School Antwerp, Belgium. Supporting Organisations: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, European Association of Population Studies, ESRC International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and Health, Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, Anwerp. * This course is NOW FULL - Please leave your details with the course organisers if you would like to be notified about the next LLCR Summer School.
- March - Studentships in quantitive methods and social science available at ISER, University of Essex and University of Bristol. Apply NOW!
- February 15: Transcripts of the presentations given at the NatCen /ICLS / ESRC policy seminar Unemployment, Recession and Health held on 7 December 2010 are now available. See ICLS Occasional Papers 5.1 - 5.5
- December 7, 2 - 4pm. NatCen/ICLS/ESRC public policy seminar. Unemployment, Recession and Health. Programme and Abstract available. Chair: Richard Bartholomew, Chief Research OfficerChildren, Young People and Families Directorate, Department for Education.
- October 29, 9-10:30am: A new British Academy report, 'Stress at Work', written by our Centre member, Professor Chandola presented at the British Academy, British Academy, 10 Carlton Terrace, London SW1Y 5AH.
- October 13 - 15 :The 5th Conference of Epidemiological Longitudinal Studies in Europe, Paphos, Cyprus. ICLS members presented their work. For further detail, please visit here.
- October 4: ICLS organised a Grantsmanship seminar, lectured by Dr. Jacob Sweiry at the Haldane room, UCL. Catch up with his talk from here.
- September 22 -24: Society for Longitudinal & Lifecourse Studies International Conference. Venue: Clare College, Cambridge. Keynote addresses by Karl Ulrich Mayer (Yale University), Carol Dezateux (Institute of Child Health, UCL), and Bren Neal (University of Leeds). ICLS members presented their work.
- September 6 - 8: - Society for Social Medicine, Belfast. ICLS members and students presented their work. You can see the title of our presentation from this link.
- August 4 - 7: 11th International Congress of Behavioral Medicine, Washington DC, USA. ICLS members and students are presenting their work. You can see the title of our presentation from this link.
- June 25: 2 - 4pm - NatCen / ICLS Policy Seminar: Education, education, education: A life course perspective. Chair: Richard Bartholomew, Director of Social Research DCSF. Four short policy relevant presentations will examine education, showing new results from the research of the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) and the ESRC International Centre for Life Course Studies in Society and Health (ICLS). The presentations work backwards across the life course, from adult education and health inequalities, to the years of formal schooling - specifically the urban /rural divide and young people’s disengagement - to school readiness among young children. How should the policy and research communities respond? Transcripts available. See Ocassional Papers 4.1 - 4.1
- April 30 ( 10:00 - 17:00) . Biomarkers in social science research. Venue: Institute for Fiscal Studies, 7 Ridgmount Street, London WC1E 7AE The purpose of this one-day workshop is to exchange ideas on the utility of biomarkers in social science research, and to discuss priorities for future data collection. Speakers include: Professor Melanie Bartley, ICLS
- March 8 - Age and Employment Conference 2010 (TAEN and the Social MarketFoundation): Who's hurting and what's helping? Tackling unemployment after the recession. Speakers include: Steve Webb MP, Liberal Democrat Work and PensionsLord David Freud, Shadow Minister for Welfare Reform, Rt Hon Yvette Cooper MP, Secretary of State for Work and Pensions. Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
- The Centre for Longitudinal Studies International Conference 2010. Understanding ageing: Health, wealth and wellbeing at fifty and beyond. Dates: 14th to 16th April 2010. St Catherine’s College, University of OxfordBOOKING NOW OPEN – EARLY BIRD DISCOUNT AVAILABLE . For further information and to book a place please visit the conference website .
- Neville Butler Memorial Lecture 2010. Speaker: Professor Sir Michael Rutter 'The power and potential of longitudinal research'. Wednesday 31 March 2010. 5pm - 6:45pm followed by reception. Free to attend. Elvin Hall, Institute of Education, University of London, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL.
- NEW COURSE: Lifecourse development: theories and methods 22-25 March 2010
- December 2- Transitions, choices, and health at older ages: life course analyses of longitudinal data. An upcoming policy seminar chaired by Prof. David Blane, held at the Haldane room, UCL from 1:00pm to 4:00pm.
- November 17 - Recession and the Public Health What is the evidence? A lunchtime seminar provided by Prof. Bartley, held at the Darwin Lecture Theater, UCL from 1:15pm to 1:55pm. No booking required. Free to public. If you missed, you can catch it up from here.
- Sept - BMJ has published Prof. Bartley's letter: Not just down to individuals
- May - Longitudinal and Life Course Studies has just published its first issue. View the Table of Contents and then log into the website to read the papers and other items of interest.
- April - New Journal from Longview: Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (LLLS)
- February 26 - Listen again: BBC Radio 4 - Thinking Aloud Impact of recession on Health Inequalities. Laurie Taylor was joined by Mel Bartley, UCL Professor of Medical Sociology and Andrew Oswald, Professor of Economics at Warwick University to discuss the personal and psychological consequences of unemployment in the light of the current global recession.
- February 26 - ESRC Global Financial Crisis Public Seminar Series. Recession - Health and Happiness Speakers: Professor Mel Bartley, Director ICLS, Professor Andrew Oswald, Warwick University, and Professor Lord Richard Layard, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE. Chaired by Evan Davis presentor, BBC Radio 's Today Programme.
Page last modified on 15 may 15 11:08 by Patricia Crowley
The International Centre for Lifecourse Studies in Society and
Health (ICLS) is funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council
(ESRC) RES-596-28-0001 (2008 - 2012) ES/J019119/1 (2013 - 2017). ICLS is a multidisciplinary research centre, directed by Professor Amanda Sacker, that supports research at UCL, University of Manchester, University of East London, University of Essex and Örebro University Hospital Sweden.