MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health
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Dr Pat Tookey sits on the Steering Group for Positively UK’s From Pregnancy to Baby
and Beyond project, which trains women living with HIV as mentor
mothers to provide peer support for pregnant women newly diagnosed with HIV,
or planning pregnancy.
Published: Dec 9, 2013 1:52:38 PM
Published: Nov 29, 2013 11:51:38 AM
The study, published 30 September, was commissioned by the Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership and is part of the Child Health Reviews - UK (CHR-UK) project led by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health and based at our Centre.
Key findings are:
Published: Oct 3, 2013 4:41:09 PM
Two papers from the Centre’s HIV group have been selected for inclusion in the August issue of HIV , which highlights important new findings in HIV science. More...
Published: Sep 9, 2013 3:45:53 PM
Half of all UK seven year-olds are sedentary for between six and seven waking hours per day and half are not doing the recommended daily minimum of one hour of moderate to vigorous physical activity, according to the latest findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.
The research, led by academics at UCL and published in the journal BMJ Open, shows that girls, children of Indian ethnic origin and those living in Northern Ireland are least active.
The authors base their findings on a representative population sample of almost 7,000 UK primary school children who are all part of the Millennium Cohort Study.
The duration and intensity of children's daily physical activity levels were captured for a full week between May 2008 and August 2009, using a device called an accelerometer, worn on an elasticated belt. The children only took this off when they bathed or went to bed.
UK guidelines on physical activity levels across the life course were revised in 2011. These recommend that children engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least one hour every day, and that they spend less time sitting down, although no maximum duration has been specified for this.
The analysis showed that on average, across the entire sample, children achieved 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day, and that they took an average of 10,299 steps.
But the accelerometer readings also showed that half the children were sedentary for six hours or more every day and that half of them didn't achieve the daily recommended minimum level of exercise.
Girls fared worse than boys in terms of of total physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity and in the number of steps they took each day. They were also more sedentary and less likely to meet the minimum daily exercise recommendations than the boys. Just 38% of girls achieved this, compared with almost two thirds of boys (63%).
"We don't have any biological explanation for the different levels of activity in boys and girls," says Carol Dezateux, Professor of Paediatric Epidemiology at the UCL Institute of Child Health and senior author on the study. "At this age, there aren't significant differences in how children are put together physically, so we have to look at opportunity and social expectation.
"What we need to see is a positive attitude to offering choice, diversity of opportunity, a wide range of activities and inclusiveness for all children - especially girls."
Children of Indian ethnic origin spent least time engaged in moderate to vigorous exercise and took fewest steps each day, while only one in three (33%) of children of Bangladeshi origin met the recommendations.
Among the four UK countries, children in Northern Ireland were least active with just 43% managing 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day, while children in Scotland (52.5%) were most likely to achieve the minimum daily recommended duration of more intense activity.
Around 52% of English children managed 60 minutes each day but there were some regional differences, with children living in the North West (58%) most likely and those in the Midlands (46%) the least likely to meet the guidelines.
In an accompanying podcast, senior author Professor Carol Dezateux describes the gender differences in exercise levels as "striking" and calls for policies to promote more exercise in girls including ballgames, playground games and dancing.
The authors refer back to the promise of the London 2012 Olympic Games, which was to inspire a generation to take part in sport.
"The results of our study provide a useful baseline and strongly suggest that contemporary UK children are insufficiently active, implying that effort is needed to boost (physical activity) among young people to the level appropriate for good health," they write.
This is likely to require population wide interventions, they say, including policies to make it easier for children to walk to school, in a bid to increase physical activity and curb the amount of time they are sedentary. More...
Published: Aug 23, 2013 3:36:42 PM
European Collaborative Study
European Collaborative Study (ECS) on HIV-infected pregnant women and their children
The European Collaborative Study (ECS) on HIV-infected pregnant women
and their children was originally set up in 1985 to estimate the rate
of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, to identify risk factors
for transmission and to elucidate the natural history of vertically
acquired HIV infection.
Since its inception, the aims and objectives of the study have been extended, with results adding to our understanding of and methodological expertise in the epidemiology of MTCT and paediatric HIV infection and an increased understanding of the mechanisms of MTCT.
In 2000 the ECS was extended to Ukraine, which has the most rapidly
accelerating HIV epidemic world-wide.
The Ukraine ECS network now involves seven sites, with around 30% of all diagnosed HIV-positive women delivering annually included. A sub-study of the ECS was established in 2007, with the aim of obtaining longitudinal information on childbearing HIV-infected women after delivery in order to investigate the impact of treatment, coinfection and exposure to abbreviated antenatal PMTCT prophylaxis on prognostic markers of HIV disease progression.
Principal investigator: Claire Thorne
ECS Coordinating Centres
ECS Coordinating Centre
MRC Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, UCL Institute of Child Health, University College London, UK.
Dr Claire Thorne,
ECS Eastern Europe Coordinating Centre
Perinatal Prevention of AIDS Initiative, Odessa, Ukraine.
Study coordinator: Dr Ruslan Malyuta;
Medical coordinator: Dr Igor Semenenko;
Senior data manager: Tatyana Pilipenko
The ECS collaborators are paediatricians, obstetricians and other professionals working with HIV-infected pregnant women and their children (please see a recent publication for a complete list).
ECS Collaborating Centres
The ECS works in collaboration with a number of clinical centres in 10 European countries:
- Hospital St Pierre, Brussels;
- Université Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels
- Hvidore Hospital
- University of Padua
- University of Genova
- Hospital L.Sacco, Milan
- IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste
- UNINA-Federico II, Naples
- Azienda Osp S. Anna, Turin
- Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam
- Karolinska University Hospital
- Medical University of Warsaw
- Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh
- Imperial College, London
- Fundacio Clinic, Barcelona
- Hospital del Mar, Barcelona
- Hospital La Fe, Valencia
- Odessa Regional Hospital
- Odessa Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Crimea Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Donetsk Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Mariupol Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Kiev City Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Micolaiev Centre for HIV/AIDS
- Krivoy Rog Centre for HIV/AIDS
The ECS has previously received funding from the European Union Sixth Framework Programme (grant agreement PENTA/ECS 018865) and from the Medical Research Council.
The study is currently receiving funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under EuroCoord grant agreement n° 260694.
Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-positive Childbearing Women: Claire Thorne’s Wellcome Trust Research Career Development Fellowship supports this study.
Recent publications of the ECS and the Ukraine Cohort Study of HIV-positive Childbearing Women
- Early antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected infants, 1996-2008: treatment response and duration of first-line regimens AIDS 2011
- Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among pregnant women using injecting drugs in Ukraine, 2000-2010 Addiction 2011 [epub ahead of print]
- Use of Zidovudine-sparing HAART in pregnant HIV-infected women in Europe: 2000-2009 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2011
- Insufficient antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy: missed opportunities for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Europe. Antiviral Therapy 2011
- Treatment and disease progression in a birth cohort of vertically HIV-1 infected children in Ukraine. BMC Pediatrics 2010
- Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV positive women: results from a Ukrainian birth cohort. AIDS Care 2010
- Previous reproductive history and postnatal family planning among HIV-infected women in Ukraine. Human Reproduction 2010
- Mode of delivery in HIV-infected pregnant women and prevention of mother-to-child transmission: changing practices in Western Europe.
HIV Medicine 2010( Top 10 most downloaded papers published in HIV Medicine in 2010)
- Factors associated with HIV RNA levels in pregnant women on non-suppressive HAART at conception. Antiviral Therapy 2010
- Progress in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in Ukraine: results from a birth cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases 2009
Recent publications from cohort collaborations
- Risk of triple class virological failure in children with HIV: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2011
- Antiretroviral therapy and preterm delivery - a pooled analysis of data from the United States and Europe. BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010
- Triple-class virologic failure in HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy for up to 10 years. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010
Page last modified on 16 oct 11 18:29