List of Emperors and the Dates of Their Reigns 

PERTINAX TO MARCIAN

Note that the database name shows how the prince is listed in the imperial college. Where no database name is given but only the phrase 'no laws', this means that no laws survive which contain (or would theoretically have contained) that emperor's name. Regnal numbers are only allocated where more than one emperor with that name issued laws, and this is how they can be identified in the 'issuer (actual)' field in the database tables. Homonymous (but usually junior) rulers who appear in the titulature but did not actually issue laws of their own are listed with 'no laws' against their name. Thus no numeration is used for the Decii, since only Trajan Decius actually issued any laws.

 

Familiar
Name

Database
Name

Accession
Caesar

Accession
Augustus

Died
Deposed
Abdicated

Pertinax

Pertinax

31 Dec. 192

28 Mar. 193

Didius Julianus

no laws

28 Mar. 193

1 June 193

Septimius Severus

Seuerus I

1 June 193

4 Feb. 211

Caracalla

Antoninus I

195

28 Jan. 198

Apr. 217

Geta

Geta

28 Jan. 198

Oct./Nov. 210

26 Dec. 211

Macrinus

no laws

Apr. 217

June 218

Diadumenian

no laws

June 218

Elagabalus

Antoninus II

May 218

12 Mar. 222

Severus Alexander

Alexander

26 June 221

Mar. 222

mid-Mar. 235

Maximinus Thrax

Maximinus I

mid-Mar. 235

early June 238

Maximus

Maximus I

Jan./Apr. 236

 

early June 238

Balbinus

Balbinus

late Apr. 238

early Aug. 238

Pupienus

Maximus II

late Apr. 238

early Aug. 238

Gordian I

no laws

2 half Mar. 238

late Apr. 238

Gordian II

no laws

2 half Mar. 238

late Apr. 238

Gordian III

Gordianus

late Apr. 238

early Aug. 238

Jan./Feb. 244

Philip Arabs

Philippus

Feb./Mar. 244

Sep. 249

Philip Junior

Philippus (no laws)

mid-Aug. 244

July 247

Sep. 249

Trajan Decius

Decius

Sep. 249

early June 251

Herrenius Etruscus

Decius (no laws)

early Sep. 250

May/June 251

June 251

Hostilian

Quintus

early Sep. 250

June 251

July 251

Gallus

Gallus

early June 251

July/Aug. 253

Volusianus

Volusianus

June 251

July/Aug. 251

July/Aug. 253

Aemilian

Aemilianus

late July 253

mid-Sep. 253

Valerian

Valerianus

mid-Sep. 253

June 260

Gallienus

Gallienus

mid-Sep. 253

early Sep. 268

Valerian Junior

Valerianus (no laws)

Sep. 256

summer 258

Saloninus

Valerianus (no laws)

June/July 258

autumn 260

Claudius Gothicus

Claudius II

early Sep. 268

mid-Aug. 270

Quintillus

no laws

late Aug. 270

mid-Sep. 270

Aurelian

Aurelianus

2 half Aug. 270

Sep./Dec. 275

Tacitus

no laws

Sep./Dec. 275

June 276

Florian

no laws

June 276

Aug. 276

Probus

Probus

June 276

Sep./Dec. 282

Carus

Carus

Sep./Dec. 282

July 283

Carinus

Carinus

Sep./Dec. 282

spring 283

Apr. 285

Numerian

Numerianus

Sep./Dec. 282

July 283

Nov. 284

Diocletian

Diocletianus

20 Nov. 284

1 May 305

Maximian

Maximianus I

early summ.285

1 Apr. 286

1 May 305

Constantius Chlorus

Constantius I

1 Mar. 293

1 May 305

25 July 306

Galerius

Maximianus II

1 Mar. 293

1 May 305

c.1 May 311

Severus

Seuerus II

1 May 305

July 306

spring 307

Maximinus

Maximinus II

1 May 305

May 310

July 313

Constantine

Constantinus I

July 306

May 310

22 May 337

Licinius

Licinius

11 Nov. 308

19 Sep. 324

Licinius C

Licinius (no laws)

1 Mar. 317

Sep. 324

Crispus

Crispus

1 Mar. 317

May 326

Constantine II

Constantinus II

1 Mar. 317

9 Sep. 337

spring 340

Constantius II

Constantius II

8 Nov. 324

9 Sep. 337

3 Nov. 361

Constans

Constans

25 Dec. 333

9 Sep. 337

Jan. 350

Dalmatius

Dalmatius

18 Sep. 335

Aug./Sep. 337

Constantius Gallus

Constantius C

15 Mar. 351

354

Julian

Iulianus

6 Nov. 355

Nov. 361

26 June 363

Jovian

Iouianus

27 June 363

17 Feb. 364

Valentinian I

Valentinianus I

26 Feb. 364

17 Nov. 375

Valens

Valens

28 Mar. 364

9 Aug. 378

Gratian

Gratianus

24 Aug. 367

25 Aug. 383

Valentinian II

Valentinianus II

22 Nov. 375

15 May 392

Theodosius I

Theodosius I

19 Jan. 379

17 Jan. 395

Magnus Maximus

Maximus III

recog. by ThI

384

spring 388

Arcadius

Arcadius

19 Jan. 383

1 May 408

Honorius

Honorius

23 Jan. 393

15 Aug. 423

Eugenius

Eugenius

usurper

22 Aug. 392

6 Sep. 394

Theodosius II

Theodosius II

10 Jan. 402

28 July 450

Constantine III

no laws

usurper

407

411

Constantius III

Constantius III

8 Feb. 421

2 Sep. 421

John

no laws

usurper

20 Nov. 423

spring 425

Valentinian III

Valentinianus III

23 Oct. 424

23 Oct. 425

16 Mar. 455

Marcian

Marcianus

25 Aug. 450

27 Jan. 457

Pulcheria

Pulcheria

4 July 414

July 453

Sources:

T.D. Barnes, The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine (Cambridge, Mass. and London 1982)

T.D. Barnes, Athanasius and Constantius (Cambridge, Mass. and London 1993)

A.R. Birley, The African Emperor: Septimius Severus (London; 2nd ed. 1988)

D. Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle : Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie (2nd edition; Darmstadt, 1996)

M. Peachin, Roman Imperial Titulature and Chronology A.D. 235-284 (Studia Amstelodamensia ad Epigraphicam, Ius Antiquum et Papyrologicam Pertinentia 29; Amsterdam 1990)

A.H.M. Jones, J. Martindale, and J. Morris, Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire I (Cambridge, 1971), II (Cambridge, 1980)

O. Seeck, Regesten der Kaiser und Päpste für die Jahre 311 bis 476 n.Chr. Vorarbeit zu einer Prosopographie der christlichen Kaiserzeit (Stuttgart 1919)


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