Department for International Development Drivers of Urban Change
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Local Agenda 21

Cities are the generators of very significant environmental impacts – their concentration of people and activities in small geographical areas contribute to high levels of energy use, waste products, pollution, and ecological modification; while their complex processes of expansion and renovation of the built environment increase the pressure to find sustainable arrangements for future growth. Five clusters of innovative policies and practices contribute, together with their multiple interrelationships, to the ‘social dimension’ of urban development. They are :

environmental planning
env sustainability
health hazards & pollution

Expanding the notion of environmental planning & management, this cluster analyses the mainstreaming of environmental assessment into local municipal policies and programmes, linking environmental with poverty reduction and basic service provision, and developing sustainable cities.

Supporting sustainable cities and the notion of ecological footprint: this cluster includes new policy and programme initiatives in global-local linkages, economic- environmental trade-offs, priorities and strategies for ecological conservation, responsibilising the use of resources and minimising unsustainable consumption.

This cluster emphasises ways to combat environmental degradation and pollution hazard, including innovative technical, social and community-based responses to water, sanitation and waste disposal, industrial and urban energy pollution, together with public health protection and hazard reduction measures.

local agenda 21


The promotion of Local Agenda 21 includes innovative schemes for community natural resource conservation, community partnerships and co-operatives for greening local development programmes, recycling projects and urban agriculture practices, and the extension of local sustainability indicators and monitoring processes.

note: Click on any of the cluster headings to enter the individual clusters and access the pdf files

2003 Development Planning Unit | Sikandar Hasan | Anna Soave | Khanh Tran-Thanh || Tina Simon