• Author(s): Dr Holly Smith
  • Title: Relationships between Teaching and Research
  • Subject: HE - Education
  • Keywords: UKOER, UKPSF, OMAC, CPD4HE, research-teaching relationship, research-led, research-based, research-informed, research-oriented teaching, scholarship of teaching, higher education
  • Language(s): English
  • Material type(s): Text
  • File format(s): ZIP, HTML, PDF, DOC
  • File size: Various
  • Publish Date: 31 October 2011
  • Licence: CC-BY-NC-SA


Annotated Bibliography

Boyer, E. L. (1990). Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

The famous Carnegie Foundation Report which sets out Boyer's paradigm of scholarship: the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application and the scholarship of teaching. A lively field or movement has grown up using the term "scholarship of teaching" which is very relevant to consideration of the relationship between research and teaching.

Boyer, E. (1994). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for a New Century. In Universities in the twenty-first century: A lecture series. London: National Commission on Education, pp 110-132.

This is the verbatim text of a lecture by Boyer which puts his 'scholarships' approach from the Carnegie Foundation Report in the context of the history of higher education in the USA. A record of the comments of other professors are also included, with Boyer's responses, which captures the flavour of the discussion at the time.

Brew, A. (2003). Teaching and Research: New relationships and their implications for inquiry-based teaching and learning in higher education. Higher Education Research & Development, 22 (1), 3-18.

This paper starts from the position that teaching and research should be in close alignment, and sets out two alternative models for the relationship between teaching and research. She contrasts the 'old model' of academics doing research as knowledge generation and teaching as knowledge transmission with her idealistic 'new model'. The 'new model' draws on ideas of situated practice from Lave & Wenger (1993), and on scholarship from Boyer (1990) and approaches to teaching from Prosser & Trigwell (1999) as well as her own previously published conceptualisations of research. The 'new model' is student focused and concentrates on conceptual change, knowledge is constructed and students are legitimate peripheral participants in academic communities of practice. Brew argues that a re-conceptualisation of higher education is required to implement her 'new model'.

Colbeck, C. L. (1998). Merging in a seamless blend: How faculty integrate teaching and research. The Journal of Higher Education, 69 (6), 647-671.

This interesting paper reports a small scale empirical study which throws light on how teaching and research are related in different ways in different disciplines. It is useful in thinking about how you can make more of your work efficient in terms of research and teaching at the same time.

Griffiths R. (2004). Knowledge production and the research-teaching nexus: the case of the built environment disciplines. Studies in Higher Education, 29 (6), 709-726.

This paper criticises the generic nature of some debate about the research teaching nexus. Reporting the results of the HEFCE funded LINK project to discover and disseminate productive links between teaching and research the paper considers knowledge production in different disciplines. Griffiths' conception of the different possible research teaching relationships provided the conceptual model of which Healey (2005) subsequently developed into the quadrant model. Knowledge production and research-teaching relationships are explored in depth in the applied, vocational discipline of the built environment.

Hattie, J. & Marsh, H. W. (1996). The relationship between research and teaching: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66 (4), 507-542.

This is the famous meta-analysis of 58 studies from 1949-1992 that examined the relationship between quantifiable performance in teaching and research. The authors first set out various lines of argument for why relationship between teaching and research should be positive/negative/no relationship and then use the meta-analysis to examine them.

A negative relationship is expected due to:

  1. Scarcity as time, energy and commitment are limited individuals must choose which to invest in.
  2. Differential personality, as teaching and research require different characteristics.
  3. Divergent rewards, as there are different expectations and obligations because of the different reward systems.

A positive relationship is expected due to:

  1. Conventional Wisdom
  2. 'G' model, that abilities underlying both are the same

A zero relationship is expected due to:

  1. Different enterprise
  2. Unrelated personality
  3. Bureaucratic funding, independent funding of each will lead to increased quality.

The meta-analysis found a very small positive correlation, the weighted average was r=0.06, with an average effect size of 0.11. Also found negative correlations with year of publications so that more recent studies reported the lowest relationships.

Jenkins, A. & Healey, M. (2005). Institutional Strategies to Link Teaching and Research. York: The Higher Education Academy.


Mick Healey and Alan Jenkins have written many scholarly articles about the research teaching relationship, but the HEA has also produced monographs which set out their ideas, and which are freely and publicly available. This one is focused on the institutional level; on how universities can support research-based inquiry-based learning. There are many practical examples from universities around the world.

Jenkins, A., Healey, M. & Zetter, R. (2007). Linking teaching and research in disciplines and departments. York: The Higher Education Academy


Mick Healey and Alan Jenkins have written many scholarly articles about the research teaching relationship, but the HEA has also produced monographs which set out their ideas, and which are freely and publicly available. This concisely summarises research evidence and conceptual models on the research teaching relationship. It takes the disciplinary researcher as the focus and, acknowledging that the relationship between teaching and research is different in different disciplines, and it sets out international case studies in a range of different disciplines.

Healey, M. & Jenkins, A. (2009). Developing undergraduate research and inquiry. York: The Higher Education Academy.


Mick Healey and Alan Jenkins have written many scholarly articles about the research teaching relationship, but the HEA has also produced monographs which set out their ideas, and which are freely and publicly available. This argues that all undergraduates should experience learning through, and about, research and inquiry by being assessed in ways that come as close as possible to the experience of academic staff carrying out disciplinary research. It also compares approaches in different countries and contains many case studies from a range of disciplines.

Karagiannis, S. N. (2009). The Conflicts Between Science Research and Teaching in Higher Education: An Academic’s Perspective. International journal on teaching and learning in higher education, 21 (1), 75-83.

The author draws on her experience of research and teaching as a Senior Research Fellow to suggest six steps to link these two often separate parts of the work of the academic. She also provides a useful summary of the literature on teaching/research and outlines recent developments.

Meyer, J & Land, R. (2003). Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising within the Disciplines. ETL Occasional Report.


Threshold concepts have proved their value by being widely taken up by academics as a concept many feel to be intuitively true. The idea is that there are ‘threshold concepts’ which are so central that it isn’t possible for a student to make progress in a discipline without mastering them, but that they can be difficult and counter intuitive. Much work on the threshold concepts in various disciplines has followed and the ideas have been further developed by the authors in later publications.

Robertson, J. (2007). Beyond the ‘research/teaching nexus’: Exploring the complexity of academic experience. Studies in Higher Education, 32 (5), 541-556.

This paper is good for a recent perspective that cites most relevant previous work on the relationship between teaching and research. It reports an empirical study designed in response to Hattie & Marsh (1996) and involved interviewing 24 academics in different disciplines at the University of Canterbury NZ. Robertson concludes that the relationship between teaching and research is strongly influenced by the way that knowledge is structured in the discipline. A taxonomy of academics' experience of the research teaching relationship is presented.

Rowland, S. (2006). The Enquiring University: Compliance and contestation in higher education. London: SRHE & Open University Press.

Having identified a number of fractures in academic life, including that between research and teaching, in chapter 8 "Enquiry and the reintegration of teaching and research" Rowland sets out his vision of how an

sets out how an intellectual love of one's subject can bring together teaching and research back together.

Simons, M. & Elen, J. (2007). The ‘research–teaching nexus’ and ‘education through research’: an exploration of ambivalences. Studies in Higher Education, 32 (5), 617-631.

This paper identifies two approaches and highlights the tensions between them. The 'Functional Approach' which regards research as a tool to develop competencies that are functional in the knowledge society and the 'Idealistic Approach' which regards research as a process of edification and conceives of higher education as participation in research. The paper includes a comprehensive literature review on research-teaching with a useful list of references. It concludes with the authors' manifesto for educational reflection and research that takes into account the specific educational potential of academic inquiry.


The Scottish QAA Enhancement Themes Project undertook a project on enhancing graduate attributes through research-teaching linkages in 2006-2008. This generated a number of resources including 9 disciplinary specific projects, all of which are available on the website. In addition to valuable resources about developing effective links between discipline-based research and the curriculum there is a substantial index of online resources from the HEA, CETL's and internationally.


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Relationships between Teaching and Research by Dr Holly Smith is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License.
Based on a work at www.ucl.ac.uk.

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