Table of Contents
NOTE: There are several different methods for writing notes, bibliographies, etc. The following is one version, which has been suggested by the department, to provide a convenient standard for students. For a complete and an authoritative guide, consult a standard text such as the Chicago Manual of Style.
- Unless specified otherwise, essays must be submitted into the grey essay box (located just outside the Departmental Office) before or by the due date no later than 5pm.
- The Department will not accept electronic versions of your essays.
- Please write your name, course number (and/or title), name of the lecturer on the cover page.
- Use a legible font (Times New Roman, Courier, and Helvetica are preferable), set in 12pt.
- Make sure your insert page numbers on each page.
- Copies of images discussed should be included (b/w photocopies will do).
- All essays should have notes and a bibliography.
What are notes for?
Notes serve 3 primary functions:
- to provide credit for conclusions made by another writer that supports your thesis or against which you wish to argue
- to indicate the source of a particular literary citation (e.g., note 1 in example)
- to provide supplementary information, i.e. something that expands your argument, but may not be immediately tied to the thesis advanced in your paper. Try to use this sparingly. Students are advised not to use notes to carry on digressive discussions. See notes 10 and 11 in examples below.
Where is the note placed?
- The number goes after the final punctuation mark as in the following examples:
|At the closing of the Eclogues Virgil warns: 'Let us rise: the shade often brings peril to singers'.1|
|According to Shearman, the qualities of difficultà and sprezzatura, were amongst the basic tenets of Mannerist style.2|
- Use Arabic numerals (1,2,3,4) and avoid Roman numerals (i,ii,iii,iv) and typographical symbols (*) for notes.
- Footnotes are preferable because they are easier to consult than Endnotes.
- Avoid archaic forms such as op. cit., loc. cit., ibid unless you are absolutely sure what they mean.
- Use p. for page referencing and pp. if you are citing more than one page.
What does not need to be noted?
General knowledge (obvious or general historical facts) does not need to be noted as in the following examples:
|In Parmigianino's painting the Madonna del Collo Lungo the neck of the Madonna and the body of the Christ child are abnormally elongated .|
|The Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi was originally owned by the Loredan family.|
|The Black Death killed one third of the population in Europe.|
|The Pompeii was not excavated until the eighteenth century|
What needs to be noted?
Quotes within a sentence should be punctuated as in the example:
|At the closing of the Eclogues Virgil warns: 'Let us rise: the shade often brings peril to singers'.1|
If you cite more than four lines, the passage should be indented as a single-spaced block. This is known as a "block-quote" and should be properly introduced in your text:
Alberti comments on the rhetorical function of naturalism in sacred painting:
We should also consider it a very great gift to men that painting has represented the gods they worship, for painting has contributed considerably to the piety which binds us to the gods, filling our minds with sound beliefs.3
Do not change the font size or appearance of the block quote; i.e., you should not suddenly switch to a smaller font or a different font and you should not use italics.
*** Do not pad your essay with endless block quotes that could be paraphrased in your own words! This is lazy and sloppy scholarship.
Remember: the point of a quotation or paraphrased passage
is to illustrate a point made by another author that you are using to
push your own argument along (as evidence, as a point of contention, as
a means of refining your own ideas, etc.).
Paraphrasing means that you have taken an author's ideas or opinions and explained them in your own words; it does not mean that you have merely changed some of the words. In all cases, the sources for paraphrases and summaries must be noted.
How to write proper paraphrases - examples:
Plagiarism (no credit given, passage more or less copied directly from the Cropper and Dempsey book):
Bad paraphrase (credit given, but passage more or less copied verbatim):
Proper paraphrase (main points articulated in your own words and credit given in note):
If you are quoting a source (e.g., something that the
Renaissance author Torquato Tasso is supposed to have said) that is
itself quoted in another source (e.g., John Shearman's book Mannerism), be sure to write this in your note:
9 Tasso quoted in Shearman, p. 139
As a general rule, the footnote should include the author's last name and page number. Primary and secondary sources follow different rules, but when in doubt, use the above rule. Although it is better to 'over-note', you should not go overboard: a 2500-word research paper, on average, might have between 10 - 25 notes.
For Secondary Sources:
Shearman, p. 21
If you cite more than one text by the same author, the different texts should be distinquished by their publication dates; if, however, they are both published in the same year, then they should be distinguished by a / b / c / etc.:
Panofsky 1955a, pp. 298 - 300
Panofsky 1955b, p. 23
If you cite more than one text by the same author,
you may opt for the 'short title' citational style. In this case,
rather than citing the year of publication, you should use an
abbreviated form of the title:
Panofsky, 'Et in Arcadia Ego', pp. 298 - 300
Panofsky, 'Life and Art of Albrecht Durer', p. 23
Either is acceptable, but be consistent.
For Primary Sources:
Primary sources follow different rules. This can get confusing.
If you are uncertain which form to use, stick with the standard 'Author, p.' form.
On the whole, in addition to the author's name, ancient texts (e.g., classical Greek and Roman authors) should also include the title of the work as well as the book, line, and/or section numbers:
Virgil, Eclogues, 10.75
[10.75 = book 10, line 75]
Other Primary Sources:
If you only use one text by an author, (e.g., Alberti, On Painting), your note can simply read:
However, if you use more than one text by the same author - in this case, if you make a reference to Alberti's On the Art of Building in Ten Books as well as Alberti's On Painting - you should also include an abbreviated title:
Alberti, On Painting, 2.25. (= book 2, section 25)
Alberti, Art of Building, 9.8. (= book 9, section 8)
Primary Sources with Modern Pagination:
If you are using a modern edition with its own pagination, such as Milanesi's 9-volume edition of Vasari's Lives, you should note your citation according to volume and page number:
Vasari, vol. 2, p. 136. (= volume 2, page 136)
NOTE: Texts in prefaces and introductions are often differentiated by the use of Roman numerals; in this case, cite the page number according to the page number used by the editor or commentator:
Grayson in Alberti, On Painting, p. vi.
1 Virgil, Eclogues, 10.75.
2 Shearman, p. 21.
3 Alberti, On Painting, 2.25.
4 Cropper and Dempsey, p. 259.
5 Cropper and Dempsey, p. 259.
6 Vasari, vol. 2, p. 136.
7 Panofsky 1955a, p. 213.
8 Grayson in the introduction to Alberti, On Painting, p. vi.
9 Tasso cited in Shearman, p. 139.
10 Panofsky 1955a, p. 297 interprets the inscription in terms of primitivism and pastoral melancholy. For a different reading of Poussin's imagery see McTighe who focuses on the political implications of Poussin's ominous landscapes.
11 On the subject of artistic personalities and self-representation see Weil-Garris, p. 229 and Panofsky 1955b, p. 23.
NOTE: There is a difference between notes 3 and 8 in the examples given above.
In note 8 the reference is to introductory remarks made by Grayson, the editor and translator of Alberti's text; as such, the page number rather than the book/section number is given.
Also, observe how there is additional
information in notes 10 and 11. On occasion, you might put additional information which may be
to the reader and is related to your subject, but is not
immediately relevant to your thesis.
It is also common to refer to authors who either agree or disagree with the author you are citing (as in note 10).
NOTE: footnotes are included in your word-count.
Include the following in the bibliographic entry:
- The name of the author (last name, first initial or last name, first name)
- The title of the 'article' and the journal in which it appears or the title of the book
- The city where the book was published and the date of publication (the name of the publisher is optional, but if included, should be included in all of the entries and placed after the city)
- additional information might include, name of editor, translator, and / or page numbers if the work appears in a journal or a collection of arcticles
Include in the bibliography itself:
- Only those articles and / or books that you have citedDo not inflate your bibliography with titles that you haven't actually referenced! As with the overuse of block quotes, this looks lazy, sloppy, and unprofessional.
- Websites such as Wikipedia, while useful references, are not acceptable as research sources. If you do use a legitimate website as a source, make sure to include the name of the author (if there is one), the title of the page, the complete URL (this is the web address and begins with http:// or https://), and the date that you accessed it.
While many journals exist in both print and electronic form (accessible through sites such as JSTOR, Muse, etc.), there are also some journals which exist solely online such as Senses of Cinema without a print version. They will usually be identified by a Volume, Number, and Year like traditional print journals. These are acceptable online or 'electronic' sources. When in doubt, ask your lecturer for advice!
The most important rule is to be consistent!
J.S. ‘The Regions of Italian
Renaissance Architecture,’ in The Renaissance
from Brunelleschi to Michelangelo. The Representation of
eds. H.A. Millon and V. Magnago Lampugnani, pp. 319-347.
(exh. cat., Palazzo Grassi). Milan, 1994.
Alberti, L.B. On the
Art of Building in Ten Books, trans. J. Rykwert, N. Leach, and R. Tavernor. Cambridge,
Alberti, L.B. On Painting
and On Sculpture,
ed. and trans. C. Grayson. London, 1972.
Cropper, E. and Dempsey, C. Nicolas
Poussin. Friendship and the Love of Painting. Princeton, 1996.
de Vigenère, B. Les
images ou tableaux de platte peinture des deux Philostrates
Paris, 1614 (rpt. New York, 1976).
Loh, M. Writing Guide, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/art-history/students/current_students/writing_guide (accessed: 16 November 2008).
= website (include the full URL as well as the date that you accessed the page)
McTighe, S. ‘Nicolas Poussin's Representations
of Storms and Libertinage in the Mid-Seventeenth-Century’ in
Word and Image 5 (1989): pp. 333-361.
Panofsky, E. ‘Et in Arcadia Ego: Poussin
and the Elegiac Tradition,’ in Meaning in the
Visual Arts, ed. E. Panofsky, pp. 295-320. Garden City, 1955a.
Panofsky, E. The Life
and Art of Albrecht Dürer. Princeton, 1955b.
Rosenberg, P. France
in the Golden Age: Seventeenth-Century French Paintings
in American Collections (exh. cat., The
Metropolitan Museum of Art). New York, 1982.
Shearman, J. Mannerism. Harmondsworth,
Vasari, G. Le
vite de' più eccellenti
pittori, scultori ed architetti moderni, ed. G. Milanesi,
9 vols. Florence, 1906.
Virgil. Eclogues, Georgics,
trans. H.R. Faircloug. Cambridge, 1986.
Weil-Garris, K. ‘Bandinelli
and Michelangelo: A Problem of Artistic Identity,’ in Art
the Ape of Nature: Studies in Honor of H.W. Janson,
eds. M. Barasch and L. Freedman Sandler, pp. 223-251. New
Include the following when using illustrations:
- artist (if known)
- title of work
- date (if none is given, indicate at least the century in which it was produced)
- location (church, museum, private collection, etc.)
- source (from where you've taken the image; NOTE: these texts should also be listed in your general bibliography)
Most texts follow this format more or less. Try to be as inclusive and consistent as possible.
If the painting is known by more than
one name, put the other title in parentheses.
Painting (in situ)
Sculpture (in situ)
Print after Original
Bibliography to this section:
Boucher, B. Italian Baroque
Sculpture. London, 1998.
Before submitting an essay, make sure you:
- Proofread for any other mistakes. Most common errors: it's/its; there/their; from/form; were/we're/where; etc.
- Put your name on the cover page
- Put the name of the course and lecturer on the cover page
Page last modified on 02 nov 12 12:45