Thilo Rehren

Research Interests

Materials made or processed through pyrotechnology are an integral part of the last ten thousand years or so of human culture, and often form the majority of the material remains recovered from archaeological excavations. My interest lies in reconstructing and understanding of the processes used in the production of metals, glass and glazes, world-wide. Metal and glass artefacts are made typically through a combination of inexorable physico-chemical requirements (fixed laws of Nature), and organisational or behavioural aspects which are culture-specific and can therefore vary widely. Stripping out the fixed parameters in the technology gives access to the variable ones - revealing culture. I approach the interpretation of these materials and technological processes through data obtained by microscopic (optical and electron microscopy) and chemical analyses (by electron microprobe, X-ray fluorescence and other methods) of 'technical' finds, such as raw materials, intermediate and semi-finished artefacts, and waste products, where possible in conjunction with archaeological and historical textual sources. By identifying and defining the physico-chemical constraints I hope to isolate the culturally determined variables which can then be interpreted within a historically and theoretically informed research agenda. Current projects include work on glass and metal production in the Egyptian Late Bronze Age, the Iron Age to Classical Antiquity in SE Europe and the Mediterranean, and the Medieval Period in Europe and Central Asia. 

Research Directory Records

Current Projects

The materials I am studying are drawn from a range of sources, including museum collections, surveys, rescue and research excavations. Currently, my primary involvement in archaeological fieldwork is the excavation of a Late Bronze Age (Ramesside) industrial and military complex in Qantir/Pi-Ramesse in the eastern Nile delta, directed by Dr. Edgar Pusch of the Pelizaeus-Museum Hildesheim. Since 1997, this has led to major new discoveries concerning the production of glass in New Kingdom Egypt, as reported in numerous papers and conference presentations, and a two-volume monograph following an AHRC-funded sabbatical in early 2007. The glass and faience-related research is still ongoing, and current work centres on the remains of the largest known pre-modern bronze casting installations, and the identification of lime kilns in Pharaonic Egypt.

Until recently, I co-directed several excavation seasons in Eastern Uzbekistan, focussing on the investigation of the early Islamic steel-making industry, and glass and glazed pottery production in and around Akhsiket, a major site in the Ferghana Valley. This project was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. Abdulhamid Anarbaev from the Institute of Archaeology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, and funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation.

Collections-based current research includes the study of urban metallurgy in SE Europe, in co-operation with the Institute of Archaeology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, in Sofia, the 13th Ephorate for Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities in Volos, Greece, and the Department of Archaeology, University of Belgrade. Of particular interest at the moment is the study of the earliest metal smelting documented so far, from c 5000 BC in Belovode, Serbia, and the development of arsenical copper as a major alloy into the Early Bronze Age, from Serbia through Turkey into Iran.

More recently, I have gone back to South American metallurgy in Peru and Chile, building on earlier work in Ecuador and Bolivia. In Peru, I have joined a team from UCLA to study pre-Colonial silver production in and around Puno, and in Chile I am working with Dr Blanca Maldonado, currently an Alexander von Humboldt-Fellow based in Mannheim, to study early copper smelting in northern Chile.

My involvement in Chinese archaeology began with a collaboration some years ago with Professor MEI Jianjun from the Institute for Historical Metals and Materials at the University of Science and Technology Beijing; at present, I am Visiting Professor there, co-supervising the doctoral research of CHEN Kunlong on early bronzes and LIN Yi-Xian on early glass in China. Yi-Xian is now a Newton International Fellow at the Institute, extending her resaerch into early glass and pigment use for ebads in NW China. A formal co-operation agreement of the UCL Institute of Archaeology with the Museum of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Emperor Qin Shihuang has led to an ongoing doctoral study of the composition of the metal implements of the army by one of their staff, Janice LI (supervised by Marcos Martinón-Torres). Due to this involvement in Chinese archaeology, I have been asked to be the Executive Director of the ICCHA.

Educational Background

  • 1984 Diplom-Mineraloge, TU Clausthal (Mineralogy, Economic Geology, Non-ferrous Metallurgy)
  • 1988 Dr. rer.nat., University Freiburg (Petrology and Volcanology of Nisyros, an island in the Eastern Aegean)
  • 1989 Six month postdoc at the Department of Materials, Oxford University (Dr. JP Northover, Chris Salter)
  • 1990 to 1999 Research Scientist at the Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, Institut fuer Archaeometallurgie, Curator of the museum's Geological Collections
  • 1998 Dr.-Ing. habil., TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Crucible metallurgy in Antiquity)
  • 1999 Professor for Archaeological Materials and Technologies at the Institute of Archaeology UCL.


Below is a list of most of my publications; bold are peer-reviewed papers. I aim to provide links to pdf copies where possible; for copies of other papers please contact me directly at th.rehren@ucl.ac.uk. Please note that ALL COPIES ARE for PERSONAL SCHOLARLY use only, and not for further distribution.


  • Gill, M. and Rehren, Th. (2011): Material characterisation of ceramic tile mosaic from two 17th century Islamic monuments in northern India. Archaeometry 53, 22-36.
  • Maldonado, B. and Rehren, Th. (2011): Die Entwicklung der Kupfergewinnung in den südlichen Zentralanden von den frühesten präkolumbischen Anfängen bis in die Neuzeit. In: R. Slotta and I. Schnepel (eds), Schätze der Anden - Chiles Kupfer für die Welt, Bochum, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, 235-244.
  • Park, Jang-Sik, Rehren, Th. (2011): Large-scale 2nd to 3rd century AD bloomery iron smelting in Korea. Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 1180-1190.
  • Rehren, Th. (2011): Zur frühen Gewinnung von Silber in Südamerika. In: R. Slotta and I. Schnepel (eds), Schätze der Anden - Chiles Kupfer für die Welt, Bochum, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, 257-264.
  • Smirniou, M. and Rehren, Th. (2011): Direct evidence of primary glass production in Late Bronze Age Amarna, Egypt. Archaeometry 53, 58-80
  • Yin, M., Rehren, Th. and Zheng, JM. (2011): The earliest high-fired glazed ceramics in China: the composition of the proto-porcelain from Zhejiang during the Shang and Zhou periods (c. 1700 – 221 BC). Journal of Archaeological Science, accepted manuscript online


  • Charlton, M., Crew, P., Rehren, Th., Shennan, S. (2010): Explaining the evolution of ironmaking recipes - an example from northwest Wales. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29, 352-367.
  • CUI Jianfeng, Rehren, Th., LEI Yong, CHENG Xiaolin, JIANG Jie, WU Xiaohong (2010): Technical traditions of pottery making in Tang Dynasty China: chemical evidence from the Liquanfang kiln site, Xi'an City. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 1502-1509.
  • Pryce, O., Pigott, V.C., Martinon-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2010): Prehistoric copper production and technological reproduction in the Khao Wong Prachan Valley of Central Thailand. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 2, 237-264.
  • Radivojevic, M., Rehren, Th., Pernicka, E., Sljivar, D., Brauns, M. and Boric, D. (2010): On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 2775-2787.
  • Rehren, Th. and Cholakova, A. (2010): The early Byzantine HIMT glass from Dichin, Northern Bulgaria. Interdisciplinary Studies 22/23, 81-96.
  • Rehren, Th. and Radivojevic, M. (2010): A preliminary report on the slag samples from Camlibel Tarlasi. Archäologischer Anzeiger 2010, 207-216
  • Rehren, Th., Osorio, A. and Anarbaev, A. (2010): Some notes on early Islamic glass in eastern Uzbekistan. In: B. Zorn and A. Hilgner
    (eds), Glass along the Silk Road from 200 BC to AD 1000. RGZM, Mainz, 93-103
  • Rehren, Th., Marii, F., Schibille, N., Swann, C. and Stanford, L., (2010): Glass supply and circulation in early Byzantine southern Jordan. In: J. Drauschke and D. Keller, eds., Glass in Byzantium – production, usage, analyses. RGZM, Mainz, 65-81
  • Thornton, C.P., Golden, J., Killick, D., Pigott, V.C., Rehren, Th. and Roberts, B.W. (2010): A Chalcolithic Error: Rebuttal to Amzallag 2009. American Journal of Archaeology 114, 305-315.


  • Anguilano, L., Rehren, Th., Müller, W. and Rothenberg, B. (2009): Roman Jarosite exploitation at Riotinto (Spain), in: Archaeometallurgy in Europe II, 21-29.

  • CHEN Kunlong, Rehren, Th., MEI Jianjun and ZHAO Congcang (2009): Special alloys from remote frontiers of the Shang Kingdom: scientific study of the Hanzhong Bronzes from southwest Shannxi, China. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2108-2118.
  • Cohen, C.R., Rehren, Th. and Van Buren, M. (2009): An archaeo-metallurgical study of the use of European furnaces in colonial Bolivia, in: Archaeometallurgy in Europe II, 529-540.
  • Guerra, M. and Rehren, Th., eds (2009): Aurum. Edited volume of ArcheoSciences 33, 430 pages.
  • Guerra, M. and Rehren, Th. (2009): In-situ examination and analysis of the gold jewelry from the Phoenician tomb of Kition (Cyprus). ArcheoSciences 33, 151-158.
  • Humphris, J., Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, Th. and Reid, A. (2009): Variability in single smelting episodes - a pilot study using iron slag from Uganda. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 359-369. Get pdf here (850 KB)
  • Hudgins, C.C., Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. 2009: From the mines to the colonies: archaeological evidence for the exchange and metallurgical usage of English copper in early seventeenth-century Ireland and Virginia. In: A. Horning and N Brannon (eds), Ireland and Britain in the Atlantic World, 157-180. Wordwell, Dublin.

  • Karatzani, A. and Rehren, Th. (2009): Analytical investigation of metal threads from textiles dated between the 13th and the 19th centuries, in: Archaeometallurgy in Europe II, 410-420.
  • Maldonado, B. and Rehren, Th. (2009): Early copper smelting at Itziparátzico, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 1998-2006.
  • Marii, F. and Rehren, Th. (2009): Archaeological coloured glass cakes and tesserae from the Petra Church. In: Annales du 17e Congres de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, Antwerp, 295-300
  • Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2009): Post-medieval crucible production and distribution: a study of materials and materialities. Archaeometry 51, 49-74. Get pdf here (500 KB)
  • Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, Th., Mongiatti, A. and Thomas, N. (2009): Identifying materials, recipes and choices: some suggestions for the study of archaeological cupels, in: Archaeometallurgy in Europe II, 435-445.
  • Mei, Jianjun and Rehren, Th (eds) (2009): Metallurgy and Civilisation: Eurasia and Beyond. London, Archetype.
  • Mongiatti, A., Rehren, Th., Martinón-Torres, M. and Cech, B. (2009): Smelting of gold and silver ores in Renaissance Austria, in: Archaeometallurgy in Europe II, 60-67.
  • Rehren, Th. (2009): From mine to microbe – the Neolithic copper melting crucibles from Switzerland. In: A. Shortland, I. Freestone and Th. Rehren (eds) 2009, From Mine to Microscope, 155-162. Oxbow Books, Oxford. Get pdf here (1.4 MB)
  • Schultze, C., Stanish, C., Scott, D., Rehren, Th., Kuehner, S. and Feathers, J. (2009): Direct evidence of 1,900 years of indigenous silver production in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Southern Peru. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 17280-17283
  • Shortland, A., Freestone, I. & Rehren, Th. (eds) (2009): From Mine to Microscope – Advances in the Study of Ancient Technology. Oxford, Oxbow.
  • Thornton, Chr. and Rehren, Th. (2009): A truly refractory crucible from fourth millennium Tepe Hissar, northeast Iran. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2700-2712
  • Thornton, Ch., Rehren, Th. and Pigott, V.C. (2009): The production of speiss (iron arsenide) during the Early Bronze Age in Iran. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 308-316. Get pdf here (800 KB)
  • XIE Pengfei and Rehren, Th. (2009): Scientific analysis of lead-silver smelting slag from two sites in China. In: Mei, J. and Rehren, Th., Metallurgy and Civilisation: Eurasia and beyond, 177-183.


  • Asderaki, E. and Rehren, Th. (2008): Complex beauty: the manufacture of Hellenistic wreaths. In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry (Y. Facorellis, N. Zacharias and K. Polikreti, eds), BAR IS 1746, Oxford, 507-514. Get pdf here (850 KB)
  • Lankton, J., Dussubieux, L. and Rehren, Th. (2008): A study of mid-first millennium CE southeast Aian specialized glass beadmaking traditions. In: E. Bacus, I. Glover and P. Sharrock (eds), Interpreting Southeast Asia’s Past, 335-356.

  • Martinón-Torres, M., Cooper, J., Valcarcel Rojas, R. and Rehren, Th. (2008): Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba. Archaeology International 10, 37-40. Get LARGE pdf here (4.2 MB)
  • Martinón-Torres, M., Freestone, I., Hunt, A. and Rehren, Th. (2008): Mass-produced mullite crucibles in medieval Europe: manufacture and material properties. Journal American Ceramic Society 91, 2071-2074.
  • Martinón-Torres, M., Thomas, N., Rehren, Th. and Mongiatti, A. (2008): Some problems and potentials of the study of cupellation remains: the case of post-medieval Montbéliard, France. ArcheoSciences, revue d’archéométrie 32, 59-70
  • Papachristou, O. and Rehren, Th. (2008): A tentative comparison of steel-making crucibles from Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium of the Hellenic Society for Archaeometry (Y. Facorellis, N. Zacharias and K. Polikreti, eds), BAR IS 1746, Oxford, 519-528.
  • Rehren, Th. (2008): A review of factors affecting the composition of early Egyptian glasses and faience: alkali and alkali earth oxides. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1345-1354. Get pdf here (220 Kb)
  • Rehren, Th. (2008): Metals: Chemical Analysis. In: D. Pearsall (ed), Encyclopedia of Archaeology, vol. 2. Academic Press, New York, 1614-1616.
  • Rehren, Th. (2008): Metals: Primary production of. In: D. Pearsall (ed), Encyclopedia of Archaeology, vol. 2. Academic Press, New York, 1616-1620.
  • Rehren, Th. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2008): Naturam ars imitata – European brassmaking between craft and science. In: M. Martinón-Torres and Th. Rehren (eds.), Archaeology, History and Science – Integrating Approaches to Ancient Materials, Walnut Creek, Left Coast Press, 167-188.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pernicka, E. (2008): Coins, artifacts and isotopes: archaeometallurgy and Archaeometry. Archaeometry 50, 232-248. Get pdf here (150 Kb)
  • Schibille, N., Marii, F. and Rehren, Th. (2008): Characterization and provenance of Late Antique window glass from the Petra Church in Jordan. Archaeometry 50, 627-642. Get pdf here (500 Kb)
  • Tanimoto, S. and Rehren, Th. (2008): Interactions between silicate and salt melts in LBA glassmaking. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 2566-2573. Get pdf here (900kb)


  • Bayley, J. and Rehren, Th. (2007): Towards a functional and typological classification of crucibles. In: S. LaNiece, D. Hook and P. Craddock (eds), Metals and Mines – Studies in Archaeometallurgy. Archetype, London, 46-55.Broodbank, C., Rehren, Th. and Zianni, A. (2007): Scientific analysis of metal objects and metallurgical remains from Kastri, Kythera. Annuals of the British School in Athens 102, 221-240.
  • Henshaw, C., Rehren, Th., Papachristou, O. and Anarbaev, A. (2007): Lead-glazed slipware of 10th – 11th century Akhsiket, Uzbekistan. In: S. Waksman (ed.), Archaeometric and Archaeological Approaches to Ceramics. BAR IS 1691, 145-148.
  • Martinón-Torres, M., Rojas, R., Cooper, J. and Rehren, Th. (2007): Metals, microanalysis and meaning: a study of metal objects excavated from the indigenous cemetery of El Chorro de Maita, Cuba. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 194-204.
  • Merkel, S. and Rehren, Th. (2007): Parting layers, ash trays and Ramesside glassmaking: an experimental study. In: E. Pusch & Th. Rehren, Rubinglas für den Pharao, 201-221.
  • Pusch, E. and Rehren, Th. (2007): Rubinglas für den Pharao. Forschungen in der Ramses-Stadt Band 6. Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim. Vol 1 Text, Vol 2 Katalog.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pusch, E. (2007): Glas für den Pharao – Glasherstellung in der Spätbronzezeit des Nahen Ostens. In: G. Wagner (ed.), Einführung in die Archäometrie, Springer-Verlag, 215-235.
  • Rehren, Th., Charlton, M., Chrikure, Sh., Hamphris, J., Ige, A. and Veldhuijzen, A.H. (2007): Decisions set in slag—the human factor in African iron smelting. In: S. LaNiece, D. Hook and P. Craddock (eds), Metals and Mines – Studies in Archaeometallurgy. Archetype, London, 211-218.
  • Schoer, B. and Rehren, Th. (2007): An Investigation of Glass and Technical Ceramics from Qantir/Piramesses. In: E. Pusch & Th. Rehren, Rubinglas für den Pharao, 171-198.
  • Veldhuijzen, A.H. and Rehren, Th. (2007): Slags and the city: early iron production at Tell Hammeh, Jordan, and Tel Beth-Shemesh, Israel. In: S. LaNiece, D. Hook and P. Craddock (eds), Metals and Mines – Studies in Archaeometallurgy. Archetype, London, 189-201.


  • Asderaki, E. and Rehren, Th. (2006): The lead metal from two Hellenistic towns in east central Greece. In: J. Perez-Arantegui (Ed), 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 131-136.
  • Asderaki, E. and Rehren, Th. (2006), "Hellenistic lead workshop in Pherai-Afirst archaeometric approach", YPEREIA 4, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference"Pherai-Velestino-Rigas", October 2003, Athens, 79-87 (in Greek).
  • Chirikure, Sh. and Rehren, Th. (2006): Iron smelting in pre-colonial Zimbabwe: Evidence for diachronic change from Swart Village and Baranda, northern Zimbabwe. Journal of African Archaeology 4, 37-54
  • Henshaw, C., Rehren, Th., Papachristou, O. and Anarbaev, A. (2006): The Early Islamic Glazed Ceramics of Akhsiket, Uzbekistan. In: J. Perez-Arantegui (Ed), 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 489-493.
  • Karatzani, A. and Rehren, Th. (2006): The use of metal threads and decorations in Byzantine-Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical textiles. JOM May 2006, 34-37.
  • Lankton, J., Ige, A. and Rehren, Th. (2006): Early primary glass production in southern Nigeria. Journal of African Archaeology 4, 111-138.
  • Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2006): The “mystery” of the post-medieval triangular crucibles reconsidered – a global perspective. In: In: J. Perez-Arantegui (Ed), 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 515-524.
  • Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, Th. and Freestone, I. (2006): Mullite and the mystery of Hessian wares. Nature 444, 437-438.
  • Müller, R., Rovira Llorens, S. and Rehren, Th. (2006): The Question of Early Copper Production at Almizaraque, SE Spain. In: J. Perez-Arantegui (Ed), 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 209-215.
  • Rehren, Th. (2006): The minting of platinum roubles Part IV: Platinum roubles as an archive for the history of platinum production. Platinum Metals Review 50, 120-129.
  • Thomas, N., Martinón-Torres, M., Goy, C. and Rehren, Th. (2006): La fouille archéologique du quartier Velotte à Montbéliard: nouvelles données sur des opérations de chimie oubliées, Bulletin de la Société d’émulation de Montbéliard 129, 441-465.
  • Veldhuijzen, X. and Rehren, Th. (2006): Iron smelting slag formation at Tell Hammeh (az Zarqa), Jordan. In: J. Perez-Arantegui (Ed), 34th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Zaragoza, 245-250.


  • Maldonado, B., Rehren, Th. and Howell, P. (2005): Archaeological copper smelting at Itziparatzico, Michoacan, Mexico. In: P. Vandiver, J. Mass & ... , eds, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VII (=Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 852), ...-... .
  • Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2005): Alchemy, chemistry and metallurgy in Renaissance Europe: a wider context for fire-assay remains. Historical Metallurgy 39, 14-28
  • Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2005): Ceramic materials in fire assay practices: a case study of 16th-century laboratory equipment. In: I. Prudencio, I. Dias & J Waerenborgh, eds, Understanding people through their pottery (=Trabalhos de Arqueologia 42, Lisbon), 139-148.
  • Mei, Jianjun and Rehren, Th. (2005): Copper smelting from Xinjian, NW China. Part I: Kangcun village, Kuche county, c 18th century AD. Historical Metallurgy 39, 96-105.
  • Rehren, Th. (2005): The Trewhiddle tungsten bloom. Itia Newsletter June 2005, 2-5.
  • Rehren, Th. (2005): The silver mines of ancient Athens. Current world archaeology 11, 24-31.
  • Rehren, Th. (2005): Der Handel mit Glas in der Spätbronzezeit. In: Ü. Yalcin, C. Pulak & R. Slotta, eds, Das Schiff von Uluburun. Weldhandel vor 3000 Jahren (= Katalog der Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum), 533-539.
  • Rehren, Th. (2005): Blech und Nägel – Das Material der Pepi-Statuen. In: Chr. Eckmann & S Shafik (eds), Leben dem Horus Pepi. (= Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Monographien 59, Mainz), 71-75, colour plates 47-53.
  • Rehren, Th. and Perini, E. (2005): The glass furnace debris. In: F. Seeley & J. Drummond-Murray (eds), Roman Pottery Production in the Walbrook Valley, MoLAS Monograph 25, 184-186.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pusch, E. (2005): Late Bronze Age Egyptian glass production at Qantir-Piramesses. Science 308, 1756-1759.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pusch, E. (2005): Late Bronze Age glass making at Qantir-Piramesses, Egypt. Bead Society of Great Britain Newsletter 81, 9-10.
  • Rehren, Th., Spencer, L. and Triantafyllidis, P. (2005): The primary production of glass at Hellenistic Rhodes. In: H. Cool, ed, Annales du 16e Congres de l’Association Internationale pour l’Histoire du Verre, Nottingham, 39-43.


  • Arab, R. and Rehren, Th. (2004): The Wertime Pyrotechnological Expedition of 1968. iams 24, 29-34.
  • Arab, R. and Rehren, Th. (2004): The pyrotechnological expedition of 1968. In: Th. Stöllner, R. Slotta & A. Vatandoust, eds, Persiens Antike Pracht, Bergbau – Handwerk – Archäologie, Deutsches Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, 550-555.
  • Chirikure, S. and Rehren, Th. (2004): Ores, furnaces, slags, and prehistoric societies: aspects of iron working in the Nyanga Agricultural Complex, AD 1300-1900. African Archaeological Review 21, 135-152.
  • Meyerdirks, U., Rehren, Th. and Harvey, A. (2004): Reconstructing the Early Medieval copper smelting at Ross Island. In: W. O’Brien (ed), Ross Island. Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, National University of Ireland, Galway, 651-664.
  • Müller, R., Rehren, Th. and Rovira, S. (2004): Almizaraque and the early copper metallurgy of southeast Spain: new data. Madrider Mitteilungen 45, 33-56.
  • Rehren, Th. (2004): Die Kupfersulfid-Krusten der Pfyner Schmelztiegel (Schweiz). In: G. Weisgerber & G. Goldenberg, eds, Alpenkupfer – Rame delle Alpi. (=Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 17, Bochum), 273-280. ISBN 3-937203-05-2
  • Weerd, J.v.d., Rehren, Th., Firth, S. and Clark, R. (2004): Identification of iron oxide impurities in earliest industrial-scale processed platinum. Materials Characterization 53, 63-70.


  • Hauptmann, A., Rehren, Th. and Schmitt-Strecker, S. (2003): Early Bronze Age copper metallurgy at Shahr-i Sokhta (Iran), reconsidered. In: Th. Stoellner, G. Körlin, G. Steffens & J. Cierny (eds), Man and Mining, (=Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 16, Bochum), 197-213.
  • Heck, M., Rehren, Th. and Hoffmann, P. (2003): The production of lead-tin yellow at Merovingian Schleitheim (Switzerland). Archaeometry 45, 33-44. get pdf here
  • Ige, A. and Rehren, Th. (2003): Black sand and iron stone: iron smelting in Modakeke, Ife, south western Nigeria. iams 23, 15-20.
  • Rehren, Th. (2003): Comments on J.L. Mass, M.T. Wypyski and R.E. Stone, Malkata and Lisht glassmaking technologies: towards a specific link between second millennium BC metallurgists and glassmakers', Archaeometry 44 (1) (2002), 67-82. Archaeometry 45, 173-178.
  • Rehren, Th. (2003): Crucibles as reaction vessels in ancient metallurgy. In: P. Craddock & J. Lang (eds), Mining and Metal Production through the Ages, 207-215 and 147-149.
  • Rehren, Th. and Papachristou, O. (2003): Similar like white and black: a comparison of steel-making crucibles from Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In: Th. Stoellner, G. Körlin, G. Steffens & J. Cierny (eds), Man and Mining, (=Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 16, Bochum), 393-404.


  • Asderaki, E. and Rehren, Th. (2002): A study of Hellenistic gilding practice and manufacture of funerary wreaths. iams 22, 19-21.
  • Crew, P. and Rehren, Th. (2002): High-temperature workshop residues from Tara: iron, bronze, glass. Discovery Programme Reports 6, 83-103.
  • Heck, M., Rehren, Th. and Hoffmann, P. (2002): Archäometrische Untersuchung eines merowinger­zeitlichen Tiegelfragmentes mit anhaftendem gelbem Glas. In: A. Burzler, M. Höneisen, J. Leicht & B. Ruckstuhl (eds.), Das frühmittelalterliche Schleitheim – Siedlung, Gräberfeld und Kirche. (=Schaffhauser Archäologie 5), 36-41.
  • Martinón-Torres, M. and Rehren, Th. (2002) Agricola and Zwickau: theory and practice of Renaissance brass production in SE Germany. Historical Metallurgy 36, 95-111. get pdf here (1.4 MB)
  • Papakhristu, O. and Rehren, Th. (2002): Techniques and technology of ceramic vessel manufacture – crucibles for wootz smelting in Central Asia. In: V. Kilikoglou, A. Hein & Y. Maniatis (eds.), Modern Trends in Scientific Studies on Ancient Ceramics (=BAR IS 1011), 69-74.
  • Rehren, Th. (2002) Die Gußtiegel aus Köln-Porz. In: H.E. Joachim (Ed.), Porz-Lind. Ein mittel- bis spät-latenezeitlicher Siedlungsplatz im 'Linder Bruch' (Stadt Köln). (=Rheinische Ausgrabungen 47, Zabern-Verlag Mainz), 251-258.
  • Rehren, Th. (2002): Die Tiegel und Schmelzschalen aus der Freiburger Innenstadt. In: L. Galioto, F. Löbbecke & M. Untermann (eds), Das Haus "Zum roten Basler Stab" (Salzstrasse 20) in Freiburg im Breisgau (=Forschungen und Berichte der Archäologie des Mittelalters in Baden-Württemberg, Band 25, Konrad Theiss Verlag Stuttgart), 531-538.
  • Rehren, Th. and Eckstein, K. (2002): The development of analytical cupellation in the Middle Ages. In: E. Jerem & K. Biro (eds.), Archaeometry 98 (=BAR IS 1043), 445-448.
  • Rehren, Th., Vanhove, D. and Mussche, H. (2002): Ores from the ore washeries in the Lavriotiki. Metalla (Bochum) 9, 27-46. Get pdf here
  • Rehren, Th., (2002): The analysis of archaeological materials, in Theme 21.6: Archaeology, in The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK [http://www.eolss.net]
  • Shugar, A. and Rehren, Th. (2002): Formation and composition of glass as a function of firing temperature. Glass Technology 43C, 145-150.


  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Aspects of the production of cobalt-blue glass in Egypt. Archaeometry 43, 483-489.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Evidence for gold working at Tissamaharama. In: H. Weisshaar, H. Roth & W. Wijeyapala (eds.) Ancient Ruhuna – Sri Lankan-German Archaeological Project in the Southern Province, Volume 1, 253-260.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Roads to riches: making good the silver ore at Lavrion in Greece. Archaeology International 2000/2001, 31-34.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Meroe, iron and Africa. Mitteilungen der Sudanarchäologischen Gesellschaft 12, 102-109.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Ores, crucibles and cupels – Past and present possibilities of scientific analysis. Cahier d'archeologie du CELAT 10, 65-71.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Die Schmelzgefässe aus Cham-Oberwil. In: U. Gnepf Horisberger & S. Hämmerle (eds.) Cham-Oberwil, Hof (Kanton Zug). Befunde und Funde aus der Glockenbecherkultur und der Bronzezeit, 118-131.
  • Rehren, Th. (2001): Kontinuität und Innovation – Der Übergang vom römischen zum mittelalterlichen Glas in Mitteleuropa. In: W. Kroker (ed.) Glas – Kunst, Technik, Wirtschaft, 41-50.
  • Rehren, Th., Pusch, E. and Herold, A. (2001): Qantir-Piramesses and the organisation of the Egyptian glass industry. In: A. Shortland (ed.) The Social Context of Technological Change, 223-238.


  • Rehren, Th. (2000): New aspects of ancient Egyptian glassmaking. Journal of Glass Studies 42, 13-24.
  • Rehren, Th. (2000): Rationales in Old World glass making. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 1225-1234.
  • Rehren, Th. (2000): Zur Klassifizierung und Interpretation antiker Kupferlegierungen. Metalla (Bochum) 7, 33-36.
  • Rehren, Th. and Papakhristu, O. (2000): Cutting edge technology – The Ferghana Process of medieval crucible steel smelting. Metalla (Bochum) 7, 55-69.


  • Hauptmann, A., Pernicka, E., Rehren, Th. and Yalcin, U. (Eds.) (1999): The Beginnings of Metallurgy. Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 9, Bochum, 350 p.
  • Krabath, S., Lammers, D., Rehren, Th. and Schneider, J. (1999): Die Herstellung und Verarbeitung von Buntmetall im karolingerzeitlichen Westfalen. In: 799 - Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit, Beitraege zum Katalog der Ausstellung, 430-437.
  • Rehren, Th. (1999): Small size, large scale – Roman brass production in Germania Inferior. Journal of Archaeological Science 26, 1083-1087.
  • Rehren, Th. (1999): The same … … but different: A juxtaposition of Roman and Medieval brass making in Central Europe. In: Metals in Antiquity (S. Young et al. Eds), BAR-S 792, 252-257.
  • Rehren, Th. (1999): Antike Fayenceproduktion im Kontext früher Pyrotechnologien. In: Türkis und Azur. Quarzkeramik im Orient und Okzident, 122-125.
  • Rehren, Th. (1999): Naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchungsmethoden an antiken Weissmetall­objekten. Arbeitsblätter fuer Restauratoren Gruppe 19, 183-191.
  • Rehren, Th. (1999): 7. Archäometallurgische Untersuchung des Zinktäfelchens, 160-169, und 8. Quellen und Funde zum frühen Zink in Europa, 169-172, in: R. Fellmann, Das Zink-Täfelchen vom Thormebodewald auf der Engehalbinsel bei Bern und seine keltische Inschrift, Archaeologie im Kanton Bern, 133-175.
  • Rehren, Th. and Kraus, K. (1999): Cupel and crucible: the refining of debased silver in the Colonia Ulpia Traiana, Xanten. Journal of Roman Archaeology 12, 263-272.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pusch, E. (1999): Glass and glassmaking at Qantir-Piramesses and beyond. Egypt and Levant 9, 171-180.
  • Rehren, Th., Schneider, J. and Bartels, Chr. (1999): Medieval lead-silver smelting in the Siegerland, West Germany. Historical Metallurgy 33, 73-84.
  • Rehren, Th., Vanhove, D., Mussche, H. and Oikonomakou, M. (1999): Litharge from Laurion – A medical and metallurgical commodity from South Attika. L'Antiquité Classique 68, 299-308.


  • Auer, E., Rehren, Th., von Bohlen, A., Kirchner, D. and Klockenkämper, R. (1998): Über die Herstellung und Zusammensetzung der ersten Platinmünzen in Russland. Metalla 5, 71-90.
  • Bartelheim, M., Niederschlag, E. and Rehren, Th. (1998): Research into prehistoric metallurgy in the Bohemian/Saxon Erzgebirge, in: B. Hänsel (Ed.), Mensch und Umwelt in der Bronzezeit Europas, Kiel, 225-229.
  • Gassmann, G. and Rehren, Th. (1998): Die mittelalterlichen Bleischlacken von der "Wilden Wiese" bei Müsen. In: Dahm, U. Lobbedey & G. Weisgerber (Eds.), Der Altenberg. Bergwerk und Siedlung aus dem 13. Jahrhundert im Siegerland, Band 2 - Die Funde, 216-228.
  • Pernicka, E., Rehren, Th. and Schmitt-Strecker, S. (1998): Late Uruk silver production by cupellation at Habuba Kabira, Syria. In: Th. Rehren, A. Hauptmann & J. Muhly (Eds.), Metallurgica Antiqua, In Honour of Hans-Gert Bach­mann and Robert Maddin, 123-134.
  • Rehren, Th. (1998): Kontext und Analyse der Aschkupellen von Oberstockstall.- In: S.v.Osten, Das Alchemistenlaboratorium Oberstockstall - Ein Fundkomplex des 16. Jahrhunderts aus Niederösterreich, 333-348.
  • Rehren, Th. and Prange, M. (1998) Lead metal and patina: a comparison.- In: Th. Rehren, A. Hauptmann & J. Muhly (Eds.), Metallurgica Antiqua, In Honour of Hans-Gert Bach­mann and Robert Maddin, 183-196.
  • Rehren, Th., Hauptmann, A. and Muhly, J. (Eds.) (1998), Metallurgica Antiqua, In Honour of Hans-Gert Bach­mann and Robert Maddin. Der Anschnitt, Beiheft 8, Bochum, 304 p.
  • Rehren, Th., Pusch, E. and Herold, A. (1998): Glass coloring works within a copper-centered industrial complex in Late Bronze Age Egypt. In: D. Kingery & P. McCray (Eds.), The Prehistory and History of Glassmaking Technology, (= Ceramics and Civilization VIII), 227-250.


  • Rehren, Th. (1997): Tiegelmetallurgie - Tiegelprozesse und ihre Stellung in der Archäo­metallurgie. Habilitation Thesis TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 115 p.
  • Rehren, Th. (1997): Ramesside glass colouring crucibles.- Archaeometry 39, 355-368.
  • Rehren, Th. (1997): Die Rolle des Kohlenstoffs in der prähistorischen Metallurgie, Stahl und Eisen 117/9, 87-92.
  • Rehren, Th. (1997): Metal analysis in the Middle Ages.- In: G. de Boe & F. Verhaeghe (Eds.), Material Culture in Medieval Europe, Zellink, 9-15.
  • Rehren, Th. and Eckstein, K. (1997): Kupellen und Tiegel aus Oberstockstall/Niederösterreich, Archäometrie und Denkmalpflege, Kurzberichte 1997, 115-118.
  • Rehren, Th. and Pusch, E. (1997): New Kingdom glass melting crucibles from Qantir-Pira­messes, Journ. of Egyptian Archaeology 83, 127-142.
  • Rehren, Th. and Slotta, R. (1997): Die Zementation von Kupfer. In: R. Slotta & J. Labuda (Eds.), Bei diesem Schein kehrt Segen ein. Gold, Silber und Kupfer aus dem Slowakischen Erzgebirge, Bochum, 97-98.
  • Rehren, Th., Hess, K. and Phillip, G. (1997): Fourth millennium BC copper metallurgy in northern Jordan: The evidence from Tell esh-Shuna. In: H. Gebel, Z. Kafafi & G. Rollefson (Eds.), The Prehistory of Jordan II. Perspectives from 1997, Berlin, 625-640.


  • Conrad, S. and Rehren, Th. (1996): The silver mummy mask from Hildesheim: restoration or conser­vation? In: F. Esmael (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ancient Egyptian Mining & Metallurgy and Conservation of Metallic Artifacts, 235-250.
  • Heinrichs, J. and Rehren, Th. (1996): Keltische Münzschrötlingsformen aus Bonn - Naturwissen­schaftlich-numismatischer Vorbericht und historische Interpretation, Metalla (Bochum) 3, 83-100.
  • Philip, G. and Rehren, Th. (1996): Fourth millennium BC silver from Tell esh-Shuna, Jordan: archaeometallurgical investigation and some thoughts on ceramic skeuomorphs.- Oxford Journal of Archaeology 15, 129-150.
  • Rehren, Th. (1996): Alchemy and fire assay: an analytical approach, Historical Metallurgy 30, 136-142.
  • Rehren, Th. (1996): A Roman zink tablet from Bern, Switzerland - Reconstruction of the manufacture.- In: S. Demirci, A. Özer & G. Summers (Eds.), Archaeometry '94, Ankara, 35-45.
  • Rehren, Th. (1996): High temperature industries in the Late Bronze Age capital Piramesse-Qantir - bronze and glass production and processing.- In: F. Esmael (Ed.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Ancient Egyptian Mining & Metallurgy and Conservation of Metallic Artifacts, 101-119.
  • Rehren Th. (1996): Meroitische Eisenobjekte aus Musawwarat es Sufra, Mittlg. der Sudan-Arch. Ges. 5, 19-27.
  • Rehren, Th., Hess, K. and Philip, G. (1996): Auriferous silver in western Asia: ore or alloy?- Historical Metallurgy 30, 1-10.


  • Hauptmann, A., Rehren, Th. and Pernicka, E. (1995): The composition of gold from the ancient mining district of Verespatak/Rosia Montana, Romania.- In: G. Morteani & P. Northover (Eds.), Prehistoric Gold in Europe, 369-381.
  • Kraus, K. and Rehren, Th. (1995): Vom Gröbsten und vom Feinsten: zum Metallhandwerk in der Insula 39 der Colonia Ulpia Traiana.- In: Ein Land macht Geschichte (= Schriften zur Bodendenkmalpflege in Nordrhein-Westfalen 3), 237-240.
  • Rehren, Th. (1995): Kupfer vom Tor zur Welt.- In: Kissipenny und Manilla, Geld und Handel im alten Afrika, 59-64.
  • Rehren, Th. (1995): Bericht über die Untersuchung zweier römischer Gußtiegel aus Vetera Castra.- In: Vetera 1, Die Funde aus den römischen Lagern auf dem Fürstenberg bei Xanten (= Rheinische Ausgrabungen 35), 326-334.
  • Rehren, Th. (1995): Meroe, Eisen und Afrika.- Mittlg. der Sudan-Arch. Ges. 3, 20-25.
  • Rehren, Th. and Ganzelewski, M. (1995): Early blast furnace and finery slags from the Jubach, Germany.- In: G. Magnusson (Ed.), The Importance of Ironmaking, 172-179.
  • Rehren, Th. and Hauptmann, A. (1995): Silberraffinations-Schlacken der Insula 39, Colonia Ulpia Traiana, Xanten: Ihre mineralogische Untersuchung und archäometallurgische Inter­pretation.- Xantener Berichte 6, 119-137.
  • Rehren, Th. and Klappauf, L. (1995): ... ut oleum aquis. Vom Schwimmen des Silbers auf Bleiglätte.- Metalla 2, 19-28.
  • Rehren, Th., Hauptmann, A., Weisgerber, G. and Wenig, St. (1995): Meroitische Eisenobjekte von Musawwarat, Nord-Sudan.- In: P. Benoit & Ph. Fluzin (Eds.), Paleometallurgie du Fer & Cultures, 293-297.


  • Eckstein, K., Rehren, Th. and Hauptmann, A. (1994): Hochmittelalterliches Montanwesen im sächsischen Erzgebirge und seinem Vorland - Die Gewinnung von Blei und Silber.- Der Anschnitt 46, 122-132.
  • Ganzelewski, M. and Rehren, Th. (1994): Das Frischen von Roheisen am Beispiel des spät­mittelalterlichen Fundplatzes von Kierspe, Märkischer Kreis.- Metalla 1, 5-13.
  • Rehren, Th. and Hauptmann, A. (1994): Römische Eisenblöcke von der Saalburg: Unter­suchungen zur Fertigungstechnik.- Saalburg-Jahrbuch 47, 79-85.
  • Rehren, Th. and Temme, M. (1994): Pre-Columbian gold processing at Putushio, South Ecuador: The Archaeometallurgical Evidence.- In: D. Scott & P. Meyers (Eds.), Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts, 267-284.


  • Rehren, Th., Lietz, E., Hauptmann, A. and Deutmann, K.H. (1993): Schlacken und Tiegel aus dem Adlerturm in Dortmund: Zeugen einer mittelalterlichen Messingproduktion.- In: H. Steuer & U. Zimmermann (Eds.), Montanarchäologie in Europa (= Archäologie und Geschichte - Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, 4), 303-314.


  • Ganzelewski, M., Hauptmann, A. Rehren, Th. and Yalcin, Ü. (1992): Zur frühen Verhüttung phosphorreicher Eisenerze.- Jahrestagung der AK Archäometrie der GDCh und der DMG München (ext. abstract).
  • Northover, J.P. and Rehren, Th. (1992): The oxidation of bronze.- 28th Intern. Symposium on Archaeometry (abstract 75).
  • Rehren, Th. (1992): Metallographic and EDX Analysis of nine copper samples from Almyras.- In: Excavations at Ayia Varvara-Almyras. Fourth Preliminary Report, Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, 73-74, XIX.

1991 and earlier

  • Helmig, D., Hauptmann, A., Jackwerth, E. and Rehren, Th. (1991): Chemische und minera­lo­gische Untersuchungen zur frühbronzezeitlichen Kupferverhüttung in Shahr-i Sokhta.- Jahrbuch RGZM 35/2, 522-525
  • Rehren, Th. (1991): Selenium and tellurium in Mediterranean copper ingots.- In: N. Gale (Ed.), Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean (= Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology XC), 240-248.
  • Rehren, Th. and Northover, J.P. (1991): Selenium and tellurium in ancient copper ingots.- In: E. Pernicka & G. Wagner (Eds.), Archaeometry '90, 221-228.
  • Hauptmann, A. and Rehren, Th. (1990): IV. Schliffbeschreibung der Erzprobe A 2-1, Hinteres Angertal.- In: Ein spätmittelalterlicher Doppelschmelzofen im Hinteren Angertal, Bad Hofgastein; Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Salzburger Landeskunde 130, 788-790.
  • Rehren, Th., Helmig, D. and Hoffmann, Ch. (1988): Verteilung der Elemente As, Fe und Sb auf verschiedene Phasen in Kupferlegierungen aus Shahr-i Sokhta, Ost-Iran.- Jahrestagung der AK Archäometrie der GDCh und der DMG Bonn (abstract).

Current Students

Past Students

  • Archaeological and archaeometric analysis of Neo-Assyrian palace ware (Alice Hunt, PhD 2012)
  • A geography of iron smelting in highland Tanzania (Edwinus Lyaya, PhD 2013)
  • Metal workers and smelting precincts: an archaeometallurgical investigation of copper production in the Northern Lowveld, South Africa, c.AD 700 - 1900 (Thomas Thondhlana, PhD 2013)
  • The earliest high-fired glazed ceramics in China: Scientific studies of the proto-porcelains from Zhejiang during the Shang and Zhou periods (c.1700-221 BC) (Min Yin, joint supervision with Ian Freestone)
  • The origins of metallurgy in Europe: Metal production in the Vinča culture (Miljana Radivojevic, PhD 2012)
  • Defining and Interpreting Specialization and Standardization: the Bronze Weapons of the Terra-cotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty,China (Janice (Xiuzhen) Li, PhD 2012)
  • The technology and organisation of zinc production in Chongqing, China during the Ming and Qing dynasties (Wenli Zhou, PhD, 2012)
  • Investigation of Late Bronze Age primary glass production in Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean (Melina Smirniou, 2011)
  • Roman Silver Production at Rio Tinto. The case study of Corta Lago (Lorna Anguilano, PhD 2012)
  • 12th century copper production in the Harz Mountains, Northern Germany (Bastian Asmus, PhD, 2011)
  • Early Islamic Ceramics and Glazes in Akhsiket, Uzbekistan (Christy Henshaw, 2010)
  • Assaying and Smelting Noble Metals in Sixteenth-Century Austria a Comparative Analytical Study (Aude Mongiatti, PhD, 2009).
  • The Winds of Change: an Archaeometallurgical Study of Silver Production in the Porco-Potosi Region, Southern Bolivia AD 1500-2000 (Claire Cohen , PhD, 2008).
  • Glass, Glass Cakes and Tesserae from the Petra Church, Jordan (Fatma Marii, PhD, 2008).
  • Experimental study of Late Bronze Age glass making practice (Satoko Tanimoto, PhD 2007).
  • The evolution of a craft: The use of metal threads in the decoration of late and post Byzantine ecclesiastical textiles (Anna Karatzani, PhD 2007).
  • Ironworking in Northwest Wales: An Evolutionary Analysis (Michael Charlton, PhD 2006, joint supervision with Stephen Shennan).
  • Technology and Organisation of Early Cycladic Metallurgy: Copper on Seriphos and Keros, Greece (Myrto Georgakopoulou, PhD 2005, joint supervision with Cyprian Broodbank).
  • Chymistry and Crucibles in the Renaissance Laboratory: An Archaeometric and Historical Study (Marcos Martinon-Torres, PhD 2005).
  • Early Iron Production in the Levant: Smelting and Smithing at Early 1 st Millennium B.C. Tell Hammeh, Jordan and Tel Beth-Shemesh, Israel (Xander Veldhuijzen, PhD 2005).
  • Iron Production in Iron Age Zimbabwe: Stagnation or Innovation? (Shadreck Chirikure, PhD 2005, joint supervision with Andrew Reid).
  • The organisation, transportation and logistics of hard-stone quarrying in the Egyptian Old Kingdom: A Comparative Study (Elizabeth Bloxam, PhD 2003).
  • The First Farming Communities of the Adriatic: Pottery Production and Circulation in the Early and Middle Neolithic (Michela Spataro, PhD 2002, joint supervision with Ruth Whitehouse).
  • Crucible steel in Central Asia: Production, Use, and Origins (Ann Feuerbach, PhD 2002, joint supervision with Peter Ucko).

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