Institute of Archaeology
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Nicky Garland

The Transforming Landscape: How did settlement develop across South East Britain from BC 300 to 100 AD?

Much research has been instigated by the changes that occurred towards the end of the Iron Age and the onset of Roman annexation of Britain. This period of change altered and transformed the landscape, demonstrated through the development of settlement patterns. In the South East, dispersed Middle Iron Age communities developed into Late Iron Age centres of power known as ‘Territorial Oppida’ which became Romano-British towns. This research will focus on identifying and interpreting these changing settlement patterns for the South East, focusing specifically on landscapes inhabited by Late Iron Age ‘Territorial Oppida’. Much is still unknown about so called Late Iron Age ‘Oppida’ and while attempts have been made to categorise and compare the examples that we have, classification is still difficult at best.

Two relevant landscapes have been chosen as case studies in the South-East of England. These include the area surrounding modern day Chichester and Colchester representing the ‘Southern’ and ‘Eastern kingdoms respectively. This research will examine ‘Territorial Oppida’ in a new light. While previously viewed in purely socio-economic terms, it will look at the details of different site categories present across the landscapes and throughout their development from the Mid Iron Age to Early Roman period. It will combine traditional spatial data collection with the study of inhabited space, and as such the individual in these settlements, through the use of Phenomenology. The primary data will comprise of a combination of grey literature from commercial archaeology and results from the Portable Antiquities Scheme, collated within ArcGIS. The case studies identify and examine areas that have been neglected in recent research, especially through the assessment of developer funded archaeological investigation over the last twenty years.

Supervisors

 Educational background

  • MA, Practical Archaeology, University of Birmingham, 2005
  • BA, History and Archaeological Studies, University of Kent, 2004

Garland, N. forthcoming. Investigations at Bognor Regis Community College 2008 In: Coastal Plains Monograph. Spoilheap Publications.

Garland, N & Kiely, J. In prep. A Ringfort at Clynoe, Co. Tipperary. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/.

Garland, N & Tierney, J. In prep. A Burnt Mount at Park, Co. Tipperary. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/.

Lyttleton, J & Garland, N. 2011. Archaeological Excavation Report E2431 – Kislhanny 2, Co. Cork: Pits. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2431-kilshanny2-co-cork/

Lyttleton, J & Garland, N. 2011. Archaeological Excavation Report E2432 – Kislhanny 3, Co. Cork: Burnt Mound. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2432-kilshanny3-co-cork/

Lyttleton, J & Garland, N. 2011. Archaeological Excavation Report E2430 – Kislhanny 1, Co. Cork: Bronze Age Habitation. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2430-kilshanny1-co-cork/

Garland, N, Kiely, J & Tierney, J. 2011. Archaeological Excavation Report E2414 – Ballinglanna North 1, Co. Cork: Burnt Mound, Metalworking Area and Post-Medieval Structure. Eachtra Journal ISSN 2009-2237. World Wide Web: http://eachtra.ie/index.php/journal/e2414-ballinglanna-north1-co-cork/

Conference Presentations

Settlement boundaries: the examination of social change in the Late Iron Age-Roman Transition. Paper presented at the Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, Newcastle 2011.

Co-supervisor for session entitled ‘Theorising city landscapes: boundaries and place in urban space’ for Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference, Bristol 2010.

Commercial and Academic collaboration: A Theoretical and Realistic example of Good Archaeology’. Paper presented for the IFA session entitled ‘Good and Bad Archaeology at Theoretical Archaeology Group Conference, Durham 2009.

  • Late Iron Age Coin, found in Sussex
  • Geographical Information Systems Database for Southern Kingdom

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