The transmission of silver and silver extraction technology across the Mediterranean in Late Prehistory: An archaeological science approach to investigating the westward expansion of the Phoenicians.
The transmission of silver and silver extraction technology across the Mediterranean in Late Prehistory: An archaeological science approach to investigating the westward expansion of the Phoenicians
The Phoenicians established themselves around the Mediterranean and parts of the Atlantic in what has been neatly described as 'maritime urbanisation'. Settlements were established especially in regions abundant in mineral resources which could supply the market for precious metals in their Eastern Mediterranean homeland by tapping into existing trading routes. Silver, as the basis of commercial transactions in the ancient East, was one of the main objectives, and new silver-smelting technology allowed massive acceleration of activity at the mines of the Huelva and Guadalquivir regions on the Iberian Peninsula. The disparity between the few silver objects found in these regions and the huge amounts of slag in the archaeological record, corresponding to roughly 6 million tonnes of silver-ore mined, evokes a simple hypothesis: Phoenician expansionism across the Mediterranean resulted in the movement of technological ideas from East to West and the movement of materials from West to East.
The aim of the current study is to explore legacy data and conduct new analyses and experiments to better understand the westward expansion of the Phoenicians predominantly through the movement of silver and silver extraction technology. Compositional and isotopic data is examined together with ancient mining and geological evidence from the Near East to Iberia. The overall goal is to produce an archaeological science-driven narrative of the westward expansion of the Phoenicians which can complement or question existing narratives.
- BSc Materials Science and Engineering, University of Surrey, 1988.
- PhD Materials Science and Engineering, University of Surrey, 1992.
- MSc Applied Linguistics, University of Oxford, 2007
- MSc Technology and Analysis of Archaeological Materials, University College London, 2015.
Wood, J.R., Charlton, M.J., Murillo-Barroso, M. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2017) Iridium to provenance ancient silver, Journal of Archaeological Science, 81, 1-12.
Wood, J.R., Charlton, M.J., Murillo-Barroso, M. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2017) Gold parting, iridium and provenance ancient silver: A reply to Pernicka, Journal of Archaeological Science, 86, 127-130.
Wood, J.R., Montero-Ruiz, I. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2018) From Iberia to the southern Levant: The movement of silver across the Mediterranean in the Early Iron Age, submitted to Journal of World Prehistory.
Wood, J.R., Montero-Ruiz, I., Charlton, M.F. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2018) What constitutes archaeometallurgical evidence? - Arguments for the exploitation of silver on ancient Cyprus, submitted to Journal of the Historical Metallurgy Society.
Wood, J.R., Hsu, Y. and Martinón-Torres, M. (2018) An archaeometallurgical explanation for the disappearance of Egyptian and Near Eastern cobalt blue glass at the end of the Late Bronze Age, submitted to Internet Archaeology.
Composite Science and Engineering
P. A. Smith & J. R. Wood (1990) Poisson's ratio as a damage parameter in the static tensile loading of simple crossply laminates Composites Science and Technology 38, 85-93.
H. D. Wagner, J. R. Wood & G. Marom (1993) Clarifying the Application of Weibull Statistics for Determining the Stress State of a Fiber from Fragmentation Tests Advanced Composites Letters, 2, 172-176.
J. R. Wood & M. G. Bader (1994) Modelling the behaviour of gas bubbles in an epoxy resin: evaluating the input parameters for a diffusion model using a solubility parameter approach Journal of Materials Science 29, 844-850.
J. R. Wood & M. G. Bader (1994) Void control for polymer matrix composites (1): Theoretical and experimental methods for determining the growth and collapse of gas bubbles Composite Manufacturing 5, 139-147.
J. R. Wood & M. G. Bader (1994) Void control for polymer matrix composites (2): Experimental evaluation of a diffusion model for the growth and collapse of gas bubbles Composite Manufacturing 5, 149-158.
J. R. Wood, H. D. Wagner & G. Marom (1994) A Model for Compressive Fragmentation, Advanced Composites Letters, 3, 133-138.
J. R. Wood & M. G. Bader (1995) Modelling the behaviour of gas bubbles in an epoxy resin: evaluating the input parameters for a diffusion model using a free volume approach Journal of Materials Science 29, 916-922.
J. R. Wood, H. D. Wagner & G. Marom (1995) Transcrystallinity in polycarbonate-carbon fibre microcomposites: The key to the mechanical role of the interphase Journal of Materials Science Letters 14, 1613-1615.
J. R. Wood, Y. Huang, R. J. Young & G. Marom (1995) Measurement of thermal strains during compressive fragmentation in single-fibre composites by Raman spectroscopy Composite Science and Technology 55, 223-229.
J. R. Wood, H. D. Wagner & G. Marom (1996) The compressive fragmentation phenomenon: Using microcomposites to evaluate thermal stresses, single fibre compressive strengths, Weibull parameters, and interfacial shear strengths Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 452, 235-252.
J. R. Wood & G. Marom (1997) Determining the interfacial shear strength in the presence of transcrystallinity in composites by the ‘Single-Fibre Microcomposite Compressive Fragmentation Test’, Applied Composite Materials 4, 197–207.
Y. Saado, J. R. Wood & G. Marom (1998) Thermal Shrinkage Induced Compressive Fragmentation in Composite Materials Composite Interfaces 5, 117–124
J. R. Wood, M. D. Frogley, E. R. Meurs, A. D. Prins, T. Peijs, D. J. Dunstan & H. D. Wagner (1999) Mechanical Response of Carbon Nanotubes under Molecular and Macroscopic Pressures Journal of Physical Chemistry B 103, 10388-10392.
J. R. Wood, M. D. Frogley, E. R. Meurs, A. D. Prins, T. Peijs, D. J. Dunstan & H. D. Wagner (1999) Carbon nanotubes: From molecular to macrosopic sensors Physical Review B 62, 7571-7575.
J. R. Wood, M. D. Frogley, A. D. Prins, D. J. Dunstan & H. D. Wagner (2000) Identity of molecular and macroscopic pressure on carbon nanotubes High Pressure Research 18, 153-157.
J. R. Wood & H. D. Wagner (2000) Single-wall carbon nanotubes as molecular pressure sensors Applied Physics Letters 76, 2883-2885.
Q. Zhao, J. R. Wood & H. D. Wagner (2001) Stress fields around defects and fibers in a polymer using carbon nanotubes as sensors Applied Physics Letters 78, 1748-1750.
Q. Zhao, J. R. Wood & H. D. Wagner (2001) Using nanotubes to detect polymer transitions Journal of Polymer Science B: Polymer Physics, 39, 1492–1495.
J. R. Wood, Q. Zhao & H. D. Wagner (2001) Orientation of carbon nanotubes in polymers and its detection by Raman spectroscopy Composites A 32, 391–399.
M. J. Brookes, J.R. Wood, C.M. Stevenson, J.M. Zumer, T.P. White, P.F. Liddle and P.G. Morris (2010) Changes in brain network activity during working memory tasks: a Magnetoencephalography study Neuroimage, 55, 4, 1804-1815.