Okasha/Forsyth/2001:Toureen Peacaun 40
|Discovery:||first mentioned, 1949 Macalister, R.A.S.|
|History:||Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 290: `Until Duignan's 1944 excavation the cross-shaft tood in its original position in the middle of a sub-rectangular dry-stone platform, about 260 cm by 180 cm ... Petrie's figure shows it, and one of the cross-pillars, in this position [Petrie/1878, 34] ... He described it as a `pillar-stone about seven feet long', but mentioned no text ... Crawford described the two stones thus: `At the south-east corner is the square platform, with two cross-inscribed pillar stones', as illustrated by Petrie; however he said the larger stone was `about 5 feet high' ... The first to mention the text was Macalister who first thought the letters were runic; later, following a suggestion by Leask, he came to see them as decorative capitals but `sadly defaced'.|
In 1944 Duignan opened trenches at the base of the cross-shaft and to the west of the platform. This enabled the construction of the composite cross to be determined ... Five fragments of the broken west face of the shaft were discovered at the foot of the cross where they had fallen and the separate upper limb was found lying near by ... The shaft was removed from its setting by Duignan and the pieces fitted back together. The shaft was then re-erected in its original position, the upper limb was set in the ground beside it and the fragments were deposited in the NMI. In November 1987 a further small excavation took place around the base of the re-erected cross so that a cattle grid could be installed'.
|Geology:||Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 291: `grey-green micaceous sandstone which is very rich in mica'.|
|Dimensions:||4.06 x 0.735 x 0.23 (Okasha/Forsyth/2001)|
Macalister/1949, 101: `Lying...on a masonry table (not an altar) against the West end of the Oratory, beside the entrance-door'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 290: `The cross-shaft stands about 7 m to the south-east of the ruined church at the centre of a collection of worked stones which are protected by a cattle grid. The upper limb of the cross is set into the ground immediately behind it. Five large flakes from the top of the west face of the shaft are preseved in the NMI. The inscription is on the west facer of the shaft'.
Macalister/1949, 101: `a slab, part of a sculptured cross, bearing a sadly defaced inscription in six lines of lettering'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 291: `The cross was a composite monument consisting of a monolithic shaft with narrow transom and a separate upper limb. When fitted together by the mortice-and-tenon joint, the two stones had a total length of 406 cm. ... The long edges of the shaft were cut back to give deep rebates. These curve inwards above and below the transom, creating the impression of hollowed armpits. The effect of these rebatements is to leave a `narrow tongue' of stone c. 16 cm thick, standing proud on either side of the shaft'.
|Condition:||incomplete , some|
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 290--293, make clear the extensive damage to both the monument and the text.
|Crosses:||1: equal-armed; inc; inc; inc; inc; none; none; none; inc|
2: equal-armed; inc; inc; inc; inc; none; none; none; inc
3: equal-armed; inc; inc; inc; inc; none; none; none; inc
4: inc; outline; inc; inc; square hol; none; none; none; inc
5: inc; outline; inc; inc; square hol; none; none; none; inc
6: equal-armed; outline; straight; expanded; square; none; none; none; decorated
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 291--292: `The cross is plain except for the text and three-equal armed crosses incised on the lower member. There is an outline cross with hollowed armpits at the centre of the crossing on the west face and a similar one in the middle of the shaft on the east face. ... On the west face, near the bottom of the shaft, is incised a third cross which has square expansions at the terminals and crossing. The expansions form five boxes which are internally decorated with one of three simple cruciform patterns'.
|Macalister, R.A.S. (1949):||[--] | [--] | [--] | [--] | [--] | [--]|
Macalister/1949 101 minor reference
|Moloney, M. (1964):||[--] | [--] | [--] | [--] | BIORANAINLAIS | DERNADINLIE|
[--] BIORANAIN LAIS DERNAD IN LIE
Moloney/1964 101 reading only
|Okasha and Forsyth (1996):||O[..][--]OR[.] | A[.][--] | [.]O[.][--][R]O[..] | C/T[.]R[--] | [.]/TTO[--][NU~RN~INI~] | DERN[A]D[..][G]IB|
O[..][--]OR[.]A[.][--][.]O[.][--]RO[..]CT[.]R[--][.]TTO[--]NU~RN~INI~ DERNAD [..]GIB
Okasha/Forsyth/2001 293 reading only
|Position:||W ; broad ; above cross ; undivided|
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 290: `The inscription is on the west face of the shaft'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 292: `The text is incised immediately above this cross in six horizontal lines'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 292: `The letters consist of fine lines shallowly incised'.
|Date:||700 - 750 (Okasha/Forsyth/2001)|
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 295, prefer a date in the first half of the eighth century.
|Ling. Notes:||Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 293: `The only legible portion of the text is in Irish, and it may well be that originally the whole text was, although too little survives for this to be certain. .. The only complete word which can be read is, as Duignan saw, the .dern[a]d at the beginning of the final line ... This is the pretonic perfect passive (singluar) of do-gní `make, do', a verbal form which indicates that the previous line should end with a particle'.|
|Palaeography:||Macalister/1949, 101: `the letters are in the decorative form of Roman capitals'.|
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 292: `The text is written in a form of insular decorative capitals, the distinctive script used for display purposes in de luxe insular manuscripts such as the Lindisfarne gospels and the Book of Kells, and also on metalwork and some stone sculpture'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 295: `the best possibility for dating the cross is the form of the script used. The fashion for insular decorative capitals lasted from the beginning of the eighth century until the early ninth. One of the first fully developed examples is the Lindisfarne gospels, dated between 698 and 721 ... Although too little survives on the East Cross for a thorough comparison, some features appear to link it to examples of insular decorative capitals from the earlier rather than the later part of the eighth century. The lozenge-shaped O with head- and foot-lines is found, for example, in the display script of the Lindisfarne Gospels and on the Ardagh Chalice ... It also occurs on the Tarbat stone [TARBT/1] and on a lost eighth-century slab from Hartlepool'.
Okasha/Forsyth/2001, 292: `The lettering is highly deteriorated .. The small socket at the top of the shaft appears to be channelling rain-water down the middle of the west face, leading to lichen growth and a deterioration of the surface. As a result the middle portion of the first four lines has almost entirely deteriorated. In addition there are numerous small pockets of delamination where the friable surface of the stone has spalled. The lettering is best preserved at the ends of each line with the lowest two lines being the best preserved of all'.