Corpus Refs:Huebner/1876:100
Discovery:first mentioned, 1856 Westwood, J.O.
History:The site was visited by the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 1864 (Anon/1864, 352).

Rhys/1873, 6: `Aug. 18. -- We went to Penarthur Farm, about three-quarters of a mile from St. David's, to see the wheelcross there'.

Westwood/1879, 127 (largely taken from Westwood/1856, 50): `My attention was first directed to this stone by the Rev. J. Jones (Tegid)...It is now used as a gate-post at the entrance of the farmyard called Pen Arthur, half a mile north of St. David's, lately in the occupation of Mrs. Roberts. It was stated to have been found on a moor not far distant from its present locality[2].

[2] More recent information states that this and the two other stones next described were originally placed upright around a holy well two fields distant from the farm-house of Pen Arthur (Arch. Camb., 1864, p. 352)'.

Westwood/1886, 43--44: `This carved and inscribed stone was first made known to archaeologists in the article published by myself in the Archaeologia Cambrensis for 1856 (Third Series, vol. ii, p. 50). The stone was then used as a gatepost leading to a farmhouse called `Pen-Arthur', half a mile to the north of St. David's, in close proximity to two other ornamented stones which I subsequently represented in the Lapidarium Walliae, Pl. 60, neither of which bears any inscription. I have been informed that all these three stones were originally placed around a holy well two fields distant from the Pen-Arthur farmhouse.

Welsh archaeologists will be gratified to learn that these three stones have been rescued from their dangerous situations, where they have been long exposed to injury by passing waggons, etc., and placed for permanent security in the Cathedral of St. David's by the venerable Dean, by whose noble exertions that splendid edifice has been so admirably restored, and where it is hoped, that other outlying stones from the neighbourhood may gradually be brought together, forming, with others already there, a lapidary museum equal in interest to those of Margam Abbey and Llantwit Major.

In removing these stones to St. David's it was discovered that the Gurmarc Stone possessed two features which had not been previously observed. First, that the upper left hand angle of the face of the stone was inscribed with several letters, corresponding with the chirho monogram of Christ on the opposite right angle of the stone; and second, that the reverse side of the stone was also carved with a cruciform design. These peculiarities are represented in the accompanying drawings taken from photographs and rubbings kindly forwarded to me by the Dean'.

Allen/1896, 295: `Formerly used as a gate-post at Pen Arthur Farm, and now placed within Bishop Vaughan's Chapel in St. David's Cathedral'.

Anon/1900, 79--81, records the removal of the stone and provides an excellent drawing of the stones in situ before they were moved.

RCAHMW/1925, 348: `The two stones...were used in the fields walls of the neighbouring farm of Pen Arthur prior to their removal to the Cathedral in the year 1885'.

Macalister/1949, 174: `From the farm of Pen Arthur, where it was used as a at the west end of the south aisle of St. David's Cathedral'.

Geology:Macalister/1949, 174: `grit'.
Dimensions:1.14 x 0.66 x 0.36 (converted from Macalister/1949)
Macalister/1949, 174: `now at the west end of the south aisle of St. David's Cathedral'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `Inside Cathedral at W. end of N. aisle of nave'.

Rhys/1873, 6: `This stone is merely a fragment of a larger one'.

Westwood/1879, 127 (largely taken from Westwood/1856): `It is marked with a wheel-cross of not inelegant design, and bears an inscription'.

Macalister/1949, 174: `A slab'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `Rough pillar-stone...46" h. x 26 1/2" w. x 16" t. The stone bears neatly incised decoration back and front, and is also inscribed...Like Nos. 374--5 the stone is a characteristic Irish type, represented at Clonmacnois and elsewhere.[3] The presence of the monograms brings it also into relationship with the plain `Monogram' cross-slabs (see No. 380).

[3] Cf. ICI, [Petrie/1878] pls. xlii, 107; xliii, 109; lxviii, 161'.

Condition:complete , good
Macalister/1949, 175: `The upper sinister angle of the stone is broken, but it was so when the inscription was cut upon it, as shewn by the way in which the letters XPS are disposed'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `with gate-hanger holes in the face'.

Folklore:Westwood/1856, 50--51 and Westwood/1876, 127: `the tradition current among the country people is that the stone commemorates a battle fought in the neighbourhood about some lands to which the Cathedral of St. David's laid claim'.
Crosses:1: equal-armed; outline; straight; plain; round holl; none; outer curv; none; decorated
Decorations:geometric key pattern

Westwood/1879, 127--128 (largely taken from Westwood/1856): `a wheel-cross of not inelegant design...the ornamental figure represents and is intended as a symbol of the Crucifixion, although all the four branches of the cross are of equal length...The drawing has been taken by the camera lucida, from rubbings kindly communicated by John Fenton, Esq., and Mr. Mason of Tenby, and it will be seen that the cross is not quite correct in its drawing, whilst the ribbon-like ornament within the outer circle is quite peculiar, and seems intended to represent a rope or twisted cable...The diameter of the cruciform design is 25 inches'.

Macalister/1949, 175; `On the face there is a cross in a circle, surrounded by a Wall of Troy pattern'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `Front. Large ornamental outline wheel-cross of Irish type, with long narrow straight arms, small rounded arm-pits, panelled interspaces, and plain wheel, within a circular border of straight fret (R.A. 887). In the field above and below the cross is an inscription...Back. Plain outline wheel-cross, with narrow straight arms with open ends'.



SDAV2/1/1     Pictures


Westwood, J.O. (1856):{XPS} | GURMARC
Christ Gurmarc (PN).
Westwood/1876 127--128 reading only
Allen, R. (1896):{A7WIHS XPS} | GURMARC
Allen/1896 304 reading only
Macalister, R.A.S. (1949):{A~W~IHS XPS} | GURMARC
Macalister/1949 175 reading only
Nash-Williams, V.E. (1950):{A7WIHS XPS} | GURMARC
(The Cross of) Alpha and Omega, Jesus Christ. Gurmarc (PN) (? set it up).
Nash-Williams/1950 207 and Fig. 235 reading only


Position:ind ; broad ; mixed ; undivided
Westwood/1879, 127--128 (largely taken from Westwood/1856): `we find on the upper right-hand angle the letters X P S...The name inscribed [is] beneath the cross'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `an inscription in two lines reading horizontally'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `neatly picked'.
Date:800 - 999 (Nash-Williams/1950)

700 - 1099 (Westwood/1876)
Westwood/1876, 128 (taken from Westwood/1856): `Of its date it is difficult to speak with anything like precision. I apprehend, however, that it may range between the eighth and eleventh centuries'.
Language:celtic and latin (mixed)
Ling. Notes:Westwood/1879, 127 (largely taken from Westwood/1856): `we find on the upper right-hand angle the letters X P S, which are the ordinary Greek mode of contraction of the name of Christ, and which was adopted and kept up throughout the middle ages by the Latin Church'.
Palaeography:Westwood/1879, 127 (largely taken from Westwood/1856): `Anglo-Saxon or Hiberno-Saxon minuscule letters...the inscription beneath the cruciform ornament is cut in letters of the peculiar character which was common throughout the Anglo-Saxon period in England, Wales, and Ireland...the average height of the letters is 2 inches'.

Westwood/1886, 44--45: `The newly found portion of the inscription is difficult to decipher, owing to the peculiar forms of the letters and the partial abrasion of the stone. It commences with a large capital A with a long straight bar across the top of the letter, and the middle cross-bar angulated like a small V. This is an early, well known form of the first letter of the alphabet, and it is followed by an angulated stroke with a slight, recurved stroke at its bottom; which, however, may possibly be the bottom of the second stroke of the initial A. Then follow three upright strokes looped together at the bottom, like a small m turned upside down (w). This is followed by a single straight stroke, I; and then there is a broken space caused by the partial scaling oil of the surface of the stone, but in which may be very faintly traced the form of an h; and then there is clearly a large S, agreeing with the terminal S of the right upper angle of the stone'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 207: `Round half-uncials, neatly picked in good style. Some of the letters have clubbed serifs. The {Alpha} in l. has a long top-bar (or straight serif) and angular cross-bar (cf. Nos. 380, 382, 392). For the compendium used for et see No. 382'.

Macalister/1949, 174--175: `The inscription is in fair condition'.
Carving errors:0