|Discovery:||first mentioned, 1846 Westwood, J.O.|
|History:||Westwood/1865, 65--66: `It is now (or at least was in 1846) standing in the yard of the house of the resident manager of the colliery on the tramway at Bryn Cefneithan, about three miles to the east of Neath...having been removed from a small holy-well in the vicinity'.|
Rhys/1873, 8: `From Loughor we went to Neath, and there inspected a stone which now stands in Miss Parson's garden'.
Westwood/1879, 26--27: `The carved and inscribed stone represented in this figure was brought before the public notice of archaeologists by myself in the Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1865, p. 65, at which time it was used as a pump-stone in the yard of the house of the manager of the colliery on the tramway at Bryn Keffneithan, about three miles to the east of Neath. It had formerly stood at Resolven, and had been removed from a small holy-well in the vicinity. It has again been removed, and is now in the garden of Miss Parsons at Neath. Surely it ought to be deposited either in a church, or some public museum or other public building'.
Macalister/1949, 164: `Found at a holy well at Resolven; afterwards in the house of the manager of a colliery at Bryn Cyfneithan, where, according to Westwood, it was used as a `pumpstone,' whatever that may be. Then it sojourned for while in the garden of a Miss Parsons at Neath. At last it has found a resting-place in the National Museum of Wales'.
RCAHMW/1976, 55: `First recorded in 1846 as `having been removed from a small holy-well'...it was subsequently moved to Neath, but is now in the National Museum of Wales'.
|Geology:||RCAHMW/1976, 55: `sandstone'.|
|Dimensions:||0.86 x 0.66 x 0.2 (RCAHMW/1976)|
|Location:||National Museum of Wales (Cat: 92.63)|
National Museum of Wales.
Westwood/1865, 66: `The stone is about a yard and twenty inches wide, rounded at the top'.
Westwood/1879, 27: `It is 34 inches high and 20 inches broad, rounded at the top'.
Macalister, quoted in Anon/1933, 375: `The cross belongs to the `Margam' type, with a square inscribed panel beneath a wheel-cross'.
Macalister/1949, 164: `It measures 2' 10" X 2' 0" X 0' 11", and bears a cross upon the face with, below it, an inscribed panel. The execution is poor'.
Nash-Williams/1950, 165: `Upper portion of a roughly shaped round-headed cross-slab tapering to the foot...The head is filled in front with a debased ring-cross of `cart-wheel' type'.
RCAHMW/1976, 55: `about half its surviving height of 86 cm lost by fracture off its base; it is 66cm in maximum width, tapering down to 45cm, and 20cm thick'.
|Condition:||incomplete , some|
Macalister/1949, 164: `the stone is in good condition, though the bottom of the inscribed panel is broken away'.
RCAHMW/1976, 55: `The sandstone slab is incomplete'.
|Crosses:||1: equal-armed; outline; expanded; other; curved; none; outer curv; none; plain|
Westwood/1879, 27: `having a large cross with equal-sized limbs irregularly carved on the upper portion, with the panels between the arms of the cross sunk, leaving only the edges of the limbs in relief. In the centre is a raised dot surrounded by a small circle in relief, with similar circles and dots at the ends of the upper and lower limbs and outer angles of the lower panels. The bottom of the stone, or at least so much of it as still remains, bears the inscription'.
Nash-Williams/1950, 165: `The head is filled in front with a debased ring-cross of `cart-wheel' type carved in low relief, with a central moulded ring-and-boss, moulded edges to the arms, and double-beaded ring. The borders of the upper and lower arm-ends are splayed and decorated with three pairs of incised rings symmetrically disposed. The shaft below is filled with a moulded vertical panel containing a Latin inscription'.
RCAHMW/1976, 55: `The rounded head on the one decorated face 57cm wide is filled with an equal armed-cross ringed cross in which the interarm spaces form panels outlined by the raised edges of the arms and arcs of the ring, all framed by a double edge-moulding. At the intersection is a small moulded ringed pellet, and the moulded edges of the cross incorporate paired pellets in false relief, one pair at the top and two at the lower edge.
The shaft forms a single panel framed by a continuation of the outer angle-mouldings of the head doubled by an inner moulding and is filled with an inscription'.
|Westwood, J.O. (1864):||PROP | ARAVI | TGAIC | [--]|
PROPARAVIT GAIC [--]
Gaic (PN) prepared or made this cross.
Westwood/1865 66 reading only
Westwood/1876 27 reading only
|Rhys, J. (1873):||PROP | ARAUI | TGAIC | [R--]|
PROPARAVIT GAI C[RUCEM --]
Rhys/1873 8 reading only
|Macalister, R.A.S. (1933):||PROP | ARAUI | TGABA | [LA--|
Gabala (PN)...prepared [for the soul of NN].
Anon/1933 375 reading only
Macalister/1949 164 reading only
|Nash-Williams, V.E. (1950):||PROP | ARAUI | TGAIC | [I--]|
PROPARAUIT GAI C[I--]
Gai (PN) prepared (? this cross).
Nash-Williams/1950 165 reading only
|RCAHMW (1976):||PROP | ARAUI | TGAIC | [--]|
PROPARAUIT GAI C[--]
Gai[--] (PN) prepared...
RCAHMW/1976 55 reading only
|Position:||inc ; broad ; below cross ; panel|
Nash-Williams/1950, 165, notes the inscription as in a `moulded vertical panel' below the cross.
Nash-Williams/1950, 165: `coarsely but lightly picked'.
|Date:||950 - 1099 (Nash-Williams/1950)|
900 - 999 (RCAHMW/1976)
700 - 899 (Westwood/1865)
|Ling. Notes:||Westwood/1865, 66: `a formula met with on several other stones in Glamorganshire, but not, I believe, elsewhere in the Kingdom'.|
Westwood/1879, 27: `The word `properavit' naturally suggests the addition of the words `hanc crucem', and Mr. Rhys has ingeniously suggested that the proper name is not Gaic but Gai, and the apparently terminal letter c the initial of the word `crucem'; whilst the apparent fragment of a letter at the commencement of the fourth line is considered by him to indicate an r (making with the preceding c crucem) or a h, whence he would read the inscription as Proparauit Gai, c. h., that is, Prepauravit Gai crucem hanc. `At all events', he says, `I do not believe in a name Gaic, whereas we have in the Annales Cambriae, Gaii Campi, which in a later MS. is given as Gai'.
Macalister, quoted in Anon/1933, 375: `The inscriptions upon these slabs are in the peculiar formula, not found elsewhere, `X prepared this cross for the soul of Y'. Outside this group of monuments [`Margam' type wheel-crosses] it is very unusual to find the name of the erector of the stone specified'.
|Palaeography:||Westwood/1879, 27: `The letters are of the minuscule form and of the Anglo-Saxon or Hiberno-Saxon type of the eighth or ninth century, the r and g being especially characteristic'. (See also Westwood/1865, 66.)|
Macalister/1949, 164: `Westwood's reading, Proparavit Gaic, is wrong'.
Nash-Williams/1950, 165: `Round half-uncials'.
RCAHMW/1976, 55: `rounded half-uncials'.
CISP: The surviving text is legible, but incomplete as the bottom half of the shaft has broken away.